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Final Report

Pilot and Demonstration Activity (TA 6325)

Development of a Water Quality


Management System for the West Tarum
Canal of Citarum River Basin
in West Java Province, Indonesia

March 2008

Korea Water Resources Corporation, Korea

Perum Jasa Tirta II, Indonesia

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or
policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent.
ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any
consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Preface
The Citarum River Basin (CRB) is located in West Java Province and is a major
source of water supply to Jakarta metropolitan city, the capital of Indonesia.
Rapid urbanization and industrialization of the metropolitan area including a
considerable increase in pollution loads over the years have led to a deterioration
of water quality in the CRB, frequently showing signs of below water quality
standards. The Government of Indonesia recognizes that integrated water quality
monitoring and planning is essential for sustainable water resources development
and management of the basin.
A cooperative project for the sustainable management of the CRB under NARBO
was conducted to pilot the establishment of a water quality monitoring and
management system of the West Tarum Canal (WTC) as part of the overall plan
of addressing the sustainable management of the CRB. The Pilot and
Demonstration Activity was carried out by financial support of the Asian
Development Bank (ADB) to Korea Water Resources Corporation, (K-water)
Korea, in association with Perum Jasa Tirta II, Indonesia. This report presents the
final results of various activities including constructive comments during report
discussions and meetings taking into account the comments and requests from
stakeholders and project advisor.
On behalf of the K-water project team, I would like to express my sincere thanks
to Dr. Basuki, former NARBO Chairperson, Mr. Wouter T. Lincklaen Arriens of
ADB, Indonesian government including Bappenas and Ministry of Public works
and many stakeholders for their constructive comments. My special thanks go to
Mr. Chris Morris, the advisor of this project for his comprehensive guidance and
understanding to initiate and complete the project. Finally, I would like to praise
the dedicated efforts of the project team to successfully finish the PDA.
March 27, 2008

Dr. Park, Gwang-Dueg


President of KIWE, K-water

Executive Summary
The Citarum River Basin (CRB) is the most strategic river basin in
Indonesia. Realizing the importance of the West Tarum Canal (WTC), which
carries about 80 percent of raw water supply from the Jatiluhur reservoir to
the water treatment plants in Jakarta, a pilot and demonstration activity
(PDA) for Indonesia, titled Development of a Water Quality Management
System for the WTC of the CRB in West Java Province, was officially
Launched by ADB in December 2006.
The project is an implementation plan that was discussed during the 2nd
general meeting of NARBO in Jatiluhur, Indonesia in February 2006. On that
occasion the action plan was confirmed to foster the integrated water
resources management and capacity building in the region. As such, this oneyear PDA project piloted the establishment of a water quality monitoring and
management system of the WTC as part of the overall plan of addressing the
sustainable management of the CRB and the first collaborative practice to be
developed for the country. Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) was
designated as the Executing Agency of the PDA in collaboration with Perum
Jasa Tirta II (PJT II) for monitoring activities.
The PDA comprises the following main activities:

Design monitoring network and formulate monitoring plan and


investment
Conduct monitoring to build up a water quality database
Develop a water quality modeling system (WQMS) for the WTC
Analysis of various management scenarios for water quality
improvement in WTC
Provide capacity building for PJT II Staff
Increase stakeholders participation and public awareness

The Water Quality (WQ) data acquired from the monitoring were
essential for the calibration and validation of the WQ model. The monitoring

ii

network was designed by reviewing existing monitoring points done by PJT


II and important factors expected to affect WQ monitoring. Based on the
monitoring network and plan, regular monitoring activities were carried out
to build a WQ database. In parallel to the WQ monitoring activities, the WQ
model for the WTC was set up using QUALE2-PLUS model. Then,
simulations were conducted to analyze WQ management options in the WTC
area.
Various programs were provided to enhance the capacity of PJT II staff
and management groups. PJT II staffs were actively participated in the WQ
monitoring network design and WQ model development and successfully
conducted WQ monitoring during the project period. The institutional
capacity building was also achieved by introducing K-waters advanced
water resources management practices to the top management group of water
resources in the CRB and Indonesian government.
Meetings with the main stakeholders were organized to demonstrate the
impacts of knowledge and information using the proposed technologies, to
disseminate information about PJT IIs program and activities related to water
quality monitoring system in WTC in order to synchronize the overall
program from stakeholders, and to raise awareness and participation from
the stakeholders.
The major outcome of the PDA, including systems, procedures, and the
stakeholders awareness and participation will be directly applicable to the
water resources planning and management in the WTC area of the CRB.
Importantly, this pilot study proved the suitability of an approach that would
address the issues of adequate database development through monitoring
and the development of an efficient and easy-to-use (user friendly) system to
support better WQ management in the context of integrated water resources
management (IWRM) of the CRB. It is strongly recommended that
Development of Water Quality Management System for the whole CRB
be a continuing project of the ADBs PDA for the sustainable management of
the basin.

iii

Participants
K-water, Korea

Dr. Ick Hwan Ko, Korea Institute of Water and Environment


(KIWE), Project Manager

Dr. Jeongkon Kim, Principal Researcher of KIWE

Dr. Joonwoo Noh, Senior Researcher of KIWE

Dr. Sangyoung Park, Senior Researcher of KIWE

Mr. Sang Uk Lee, Researcher of KIWE

PJT II, Indonesia

Mr. Herman Idrus, Head of Planning Bureau

Mrs. Erni Murniati, Staff of Planning Bureau

Mr. Udien Yulianto, Staff of Lab. and Engineering Consultancy


Services Unit

Mr. Resky Heraveno, Staff of Division I

ADB

Mr. Chris Morris, Senior Water Resources Specialist, Project


Advisor

iv

Abbreviations
BAPPENAS
BMPs
BOD
BPLHD
CFC
COD
CRB
d/s
DINAS PSDA

DKI Jakarta
DMI
DSS
EA
ETC
GoI
GR
GUI
HCP
ICWRMP
IWRM
KIWE
K-water
MoE
MPW
NARBO
NGOs
PDA

Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (National


Development Planning Agency)
Best Management Practices
Biolochemical Oxygen Demand
Agency for environmental impact management
Cibeet Feeder Canal
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Citarum River Basin
Downstream
Provincial Water Resources Development Service, a primary
WRM institution in the province and responsible to the
Governor
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta (Special Area Capital City
Jakarta)
Domestic, Municipal, and Industrial
Decision Support System
Executing Agency
East Tarum Canal
Government of Indonesia
Government Regulation
Graphic User Interface
Hydrological Crash Program, a Dutch funded project on
hydrological data management in CRB

Integrated Citarum Water Resource Management Project


Integrated Water Resources Management
Korea Institute of Water and Environment
Korea Water Resources Corporation
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Public Works
Network of Asian River Basin Organizations
Non-Government Organizations
Pilot and Demonstration Activity

PAM Jaya

QA/QC
WTC
WTP
WQ

DKI Jakarta Enterprise which is authorized to supply


drinking water in DKI Jakarta area
Perum Jasa Tirta II
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Air
(Research Institute of Water Resrouces Development of the
Ministry of Public Works)
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
West Tarum Canal
Water Treatment Plants
Water Quality

WQMS

Water Quality Management System

PJT II
Puslitbang
SDA

vi

Contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION.1
1.1 Background.1
1.2 Objectives3
1.3 Project Scope...4
1.4 Project Team4
CHAPTER 2. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES...5
2.1 Inception Meeting ..5
2.2 Project Site Description: West Tarum Canal (WTC) .5
2.3 Present status of WTC Local Resources10
2.4 Water Quality Monitoring12
2.4.1 Existing monitoring points12
2.4.2 Water quality data......14
2.4.3 Monitoring network design..18
2.4.4 Monitoring results 20
2.5 Development of Water Quality Simulation Model using QUAL2E-PLUS27
2.5.1 Previous modeling attempts in WTC ....27
2.5.2 QUAL2E-PLUS model...........27
2.5.3 Water quality model construction...33
2.5.4 Model calibration39
2.6 Analysis of Water Quality Management Scenarios...44
2.6.1 ALT-1 Siphon construction at the Cikarang and the Bekasi Rivers.45
2.6.2 ALT-2 Water quality improvement in the major tributaries .46
2.6.3 ALT-3 Non-point pollutant source reduction ..47
2.6.4 Turbidity management...48
2.6.5 Summary of scenario applications ..50
CHAPTER 3. CAPACITY BUIDING AND STAKEHOLDERS MEETING52
3.1 Capacity Building.52
3.1.1 Staff capacity building...52
3.1.2 Institutional capacity building..54
3.2 Stakeholders Participation55

vii

CHAPTER 4. SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMEN62


4.1 Summary..62
4.1.1 Outputs..................................................................................................62
4.1.2 Outcomes....64
4.1.3 Effects and impacts...64
4.2. Suggestions for future development...64
APPENDIX A. Minutes of the First Stakeholders Meeting 2007....66
APPENDIX B. List of attendees at the First Stakeholders Meeting at PJT II....68
APPENDIX C. Minutes of the Second Stakeholders Meeting at Bappenas 69
APPENDIX D. List of attendees at the Second Stakeholders Meeting at
Bappenas.74
APPENDIX E. Minutes of the Third Stakeholders Meeting at Ministry of
Public Works in Indonesia.......75
APPENDIX F. List of attendees at the Third Stakeholders Meeting at Ministry
of Public Works in Indonesia.78
APPENDIX G. Letter of Agreement between K-water and PJT II.79
APPENDIX H. List of attendees at the Inception Meeting.....81
APPENDIX I. Progress schedule to develop water quality Management
system..82
APPENDIX J. Analysis results of water quality data along the WTC during
PDA project.83
APPENDIX K. Water quality simulation results using Qual2E-PLUS..98

viii

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Map of the Citarum River Basin ......................................................................... 1
Figure 2.1 The Inception meeting at PJT II, Jan. 31, 2007 .................................................. 5
Figure 2.2 Schematic diagram of WTC water supply systems ............................................ 7
Figure 2.3 Aerial view of the Curug weir, WTC: West Tarum Canal,
ETC:East Tarum Carnal ...................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.4 Panoramic view of Cibeet Junction ..................................................................... 8
Figure 2.5 Panoramic view of the siphon in Cibeet River .................................................. 8
Figure 2.6 Panoramic view of Cikarang Weir ..................................................................... 8
Figure 2.7 Panoramic view of Bekasi Weir ......................................................................... 9
Figure 2.8 WTC in urban area of Bekasi City ...................................................................... 9
Figure 2.9 Illegal unaccounted water use in the WTC .......................................................10
Figure 2.10 Discharge rates of WTC, Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi over
period of 2002-2007. .........................................................................................11
Figure 2.11 Monthly BOD variation profile .......................................................................15
Figure 2.12 Monthly COD variation profile .......................................................................15
Figure 2.13 Monthly DO variation profile..........................................................................16
Figure 2.14 Monthly Turbidity variation profile ................................................................16
Figure 2.15 Field-instrument demonstrations at monitoring points ...................................18
Figure 2.16 Schematic of the monitoring network with 11 WQ sampling sites. ...............19
Figure 2.17 Revised monitoring network with 14 WQ sampling sites ..............................19
Figure 2.18 variations at the main stream and major tributaries of WTC..........................21
Figure 2.19 Water quality variations along the WTC in 2007 ...........................................24
Figure 2.20 Water quality variations at Curug weir and three tributaries
(Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi)..........................................................................26

ix

Figure 2.21 QUAL2E-PLUS: Model configuration ...........................................................29


Figure 2.22 QUAL2E-PLUS: Screenshot of BOD simulation results ...............................29
Figure 2.23 Spatial aggregation to represent reaches and elements in
QUAL2E-PLUS.................................................................................................31
Figure 2.24 Sub-reach segmentation of the WTC ..............................................................33
Figure 2.25 Cross-sectional and vertical profile with water level in Reach A ..................34
Figure 2.26 Cross-sectional and vertical profile with water level in Reach B...................35
Figure 2.27 Cross-sectional and vertical profile with water level in Reach C...................35
Figure 2.28 Cross-sectional and vertical profile with water level in Reach D ..................36
Figure 2.29 Model Diagram for WTC in QUAL2E-PLUS................................................37
Figure 2.30 Schematic of the model calibration process (Chapra, 2003) ..........................39
Figure 2.31 Flowrates (cms) and BOD (mg/L) measured in March 21, 2007 ...................41
Figure 2.32 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality on
March 21, 2007 ..................................................................................................42
Figure 2.33 . Flowrates and turbidity (in parenthesis) measured in June 12,
2007....................................................................................................................43
Figure 2.34 Comparison of measured and simulated turbidities ........................................43
Figure 2.35 Alternative scenarios for water quality management .....................................44
Figure 2.36 Simulation results with siphon construction at the Cikarang and
Bekasi rivers ......................................................................................................46
Figure 2.37 Simulation results of water quality improvement in the Bekasi
river. ...................................................................................................................47
Figure 2.38 Simulation results with and without non-point source
consideration ......................................................................................................48
Figure 2.39 Result of Turbidity simulations for WTC. ......................................................50
Figure 3.1 Project meeting and discussion between K-water and PJT II staff ..................52
Figure 3.2 Water quality management training session in PJT II, Jatiluhur ......................53

Figure 3.3 PJT II staff visit to K-water to discuss the progress of PDA project ..............54
Figure 3.4 Indonesian delegations visiting K-water ...........................................................55
Figure 3.5 The 1st stakeholders meeting in PJT II, Jatiluhur on March 23,
2007....................................................................................................................60
Figure 3.6 The 2nd stakeholders meeting in Bappenas, Jakarta on June 20,
2007....................................................................................................................60
Figure 3.7 The 3rd stakeholders meeting in Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta
on February 19, 2008 .........................................................................................61

xi

List of Tables
Table 2.1 Chronological water quality data acquisition .....................................................12
Table 2.2 Existing water quality monitoring stations .........................................................13
Table 2.3 Dimensions of the desilting basins. ....................................................................17
Table 2.4 4 Sediment volumes dredged are summarized as...............................................17
Table 2.5 Locations of the selected WQ monitoring points ...............................................20
Table 2.6 Analyzed water quality along the WTC in March 21, 2007 ..............................23
Table 2.7 Summary of reactions considered in QUAL2E-PLUS ......................................31
Table 2.8 Major input parameters for the modeling process in QUAL2E-PLUS .............32
Table 2.9 Summary of water use along WTC ....................................................................38
Table 2.10 Calibrated water quality parameters .................................................................40
Table 2.11 Summarized WQ improvement results of three different scenarios ................51
Table 3.1 Expected participants at stakeholder meetings ...................................................58

xii

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The Citarum River Basin (CRB) is the most strategic river basin in
Indonesia, with a population of 28 million people in 2004 (more than 72% of
the provincial total). The CRB, the project area for the Integrated Citarum
Water Resource Management Project (ICWRMP), is located in the province of
West Java covering a total of about 13,000 km2 as shown in Figure 1.1. The
basin consists of: (i) the 6,600 km2 of the CRB that lies in the central part of the
study area and flows from south to north into the Java Sea; (ii) the 4,400 km2
cluster of small basins whose drainage areas are connected to the CRB system
through the East Tarum Canal (ETC); and (iii) the Cikarang and Bekasi rivers
with a combined drainage area of about 2,000 km2, which are also connected
with the Citarum river through the West Tarum Canal (WTC). There are three
hydroelectric dams located at the upper section of the basin that generate
1,400 megawatts of installed capacity. The total area of irrigated agricultural
land is over 240,000 ha in the Jatiluhur system (lower basin). The Citarum
River system also supplies 80% of Jakartas raw water.

Figure 1.1 Map of the Citarum River Basin

Water resources of rivers and groundwater systems in the CRB are critical
to social and economic development of the country. They are essential for
urban and industrial development (particularly in Jakarta and Bandung
metropolitan areas) including export industry, agricultural production
through major irrigation systems, rural water supplies, hydropower
generation, and fisheries. While the water resources of the CRB are relatively
abundant (on average), competition for these resources has increased
significantly over the past two decades leading to the situation of acute water
stress and depletion of aquifers in some places. Rapid urbanization has
significantly increased the exposure to flood risk and water pollution.
Environmental degradation has reached the level that compromises public
health and livelihoods, particularly for the urban and rural poor, and incurs
additional economic and financial costs related to the source of bulK-water
supply and its treatment.
For these reasons, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has determined to take
positive actions towards improving water and land management in the
Citarum river basin and has requested ADB to fund a multi-sector investment
program as part of a broader roadmap for achieving a shared vision of the
government and communities working together for clean, healthy and productive
catchments and rivers, bringing sustainable benefits to all people of the Citarum
River Basin. The ICWRMP is a 15-year program designed to address the
multiple and inter-related concerns on the sustainable water supply and
water quality degradation within the CRB. With assistance from ADB,
Directorate General for Water Resources development of GoI has prepared a
strategic plan for the integrated development and management of the basin.
The West Tarum Canal (WTC) carries about 80 percent of raw water
supply from the Jatiluhur Reservoir to the water treatment plants in Jakarta.
Originally designed as irrigation canal for rice production, the canal currently
serves for industrial and municipal users, whose demands are expected to
increase, in the process, generating pollution in the canal and adversely
affecting the raw water supply of drinking water to Jakarta.
Realizing the importance of the WTC, a pilot and demonstration activity
(PDA) for Indonesia, development of a water quality management system for

the WTC of the CRB in West Java Province was officially contracted between
ADB and K-water in December 2006. The objectives of the PDA program are
(a) to support new approaches to processing and implementing ADB
technical assistance and loan-financed investment projects, and new
approaches to water sector policy development and sector reform; and (b) to
improve and promote innovative water sector initiatives implemented by
non-government organizations (NGOs), development partners and local
communities.
The project is an implementation plan that was initiated during the 2nd
general meeting of NARBO in Jatiluhur, Indonesia in February 2006. On that
occasion the action plan was confirmed to foster the integrated water
resources management and capacity building in the region. As such, this PDA
project piloted the establishment of a water quality monitoring and
management system of the WTC as part of the overall plan of addressing the
sustainable management of the CRB and the first collaborative practice to be
developed for the country.

1.2 Objectives
The objective of this project is to pilot an approach that will address the
issues of adequate database development through systematic monitoring of
water quality and support the development of better water quality
management in the context of integrated water resources management
(IWRM) of the CRB. The project is focused on the WTC area where the effects
of the inflows from the tributaries on raw water quality are likely to be most
significant.

1.3 Project Scope


The scope of this project included the following activities:

Design a monitoring network and formulate monitoring plan and


investment
Conduct monitoring to build up a water quality database
Develop a water quality modeling system (WQMS) for WTC
Analyze various management scenarios for water quality
improvement
Provide capacity building for PJT II Staff
Increase stakeholders participation and public awareness

1.4 Project Team


A project team consisting of 5 representatives from K-water and 4
representatives from PJT II was formed to carry out this project. Project
development and planning were jointly conducted by K-water in
collaboration with PJT II. A Memorandum of Agreement to conduct this
Project together was signed between K-water and PJT II, as shown in
Appendix G. K-water was designated as the Executing Agency of the PDA
(the Executing Agency or EA).
K-water is a practical body on the basin wide IWRM in Korea. The staterun-agency specializing water series in the Republic of Korea has
accumulated 40 years of technology and experiences in water resources
planning, development and management. Currently, K-water operates and
manages 26 multi-purpose dams and 27 large scale regional water supply
systems in the republic. PJT II is the river basin organization for the CRB
responsible for operating and maintaining water resources infrastructures in
the CRB including Ir. H. Djuanda hydro-electric power plant. PJT II played a
key role in compiling hydrologic and hydraulic data, and conducting water
quality monitoring. PJT II also provided expertise, using its established links
to work with local and national level stakeholders assisting K-water for the
overall development of the water quality management system.

CHAPTER 2. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES


2.1 Inception Meeting
After the PDA project was signed by ADB, K-water and PJT II reviewed
related documents provided by ADB. Based on the review, the research team
projected a detailed work schedule, approaches and methodologies to
develop monitoring and modeling systems to ensure successful
accomplishment of the project. Then, inception meeting was held on January
31st, 2007 in Jatiluhur, Indonesia as shown in Figure 2.1. The project team
presented a detailed work plan for project implementation, and active
discussions were held among the participants from the ADB, NARBO, PJT II,
and K-water. Appendix H shows the list of participants and major comments
discussed during the meeting, respectively.

Figure 2.1 Inception meeting at PJT II, Jan. 31, 2007

2.2 Project Site Description: West Tarum Canal (WTC)


West Tarum Canal (WTC) is located in the Citarum river basin (CRB),
West Java Province in Indonesia. As a major source, the canal supplies water
resources to Jakarta Metropolitan City, the capital of Indonesia. Three large
hydroelectric dams and reservoirs, namely Saguling, Cirata and Jatiluhur
have been built in the Citarum basin to regulate the flow of the Citarum River.

Raw water supply for drinking in Jakarta is sourced from the Jatiluhur
reservoir and is transported mainly through the WTC. While the WTC was
originally designed as irrigation canal for rice production, it currently serves
for industrial and municipal users simultaneously. Many factors adversely
affect the water quality in the canal. In order to examine the issues related to
water quality management of the study area, the project team consisting of
members from K-water and PJT II made the first joint field surveys along the
WTC during the inception meeting.
The WTC begins from the Curug weir in the Citarum River and ends at
the junction with Ciliwung river in Jakarta. It has been operated since 1968 to
convey raw water from the Citarum river. At the Curug weir, the raw water is
pumped by 17 hydraulic pumps. Each of the pumps is designed to lift head of
1.5m and pump 5.5 m3/s of water. The WTC is one of the key suppliers for
raw water to the water treatment plants (WTP) of PAM-Jaya in Jakarta. There
are three major water treatment plants that receive raw water from the WTC
such as Pejompongan I & II (6.2m3/s), Pulogadung (4.4m3/s) and Buaran I & II
(5.5m3/s). Figure 2.2 represents the schematic of the WTC starting from the
Curug weir and passing through the Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi Rivers.
The WTC is approximately 70 km long, flowing from the east of West Java
Island to the west. There are 3 representative tributaries: Cibeet, Cikarang,
and Bekasi as shown in Figure 2.2. In the upstream of Curug weir, Cikao river
is located and contributes the sediment load to the water released from the
Jatiluhur Reservoir, and at the Curug weir, it is regulated and distributed to
the irrigation area through three main canals including West Tarum, East
Tarum, and North Tarum Canals.

Figure 2.2 Schematic diagram of WTC with water supply systems

g
WTC

Citarum River

ETC

Figure 2.3 Aerial view of the Curug weir, WTC: West Tarum Canal,
ETC: East Tarum Carnal

The WTC is firstly fed by the Cibeet river, of which drainage area is 534
km . The Cibeet river is intercepted by the WTC via Cibeet feeder canal as
shown in Figure 2.4 which originates from the Cibeet weir, and bypasses the
WTC using a siphon system to overcome the elevation difference between the
WTC and the Cibeet River as in Figure 2.5.
2

Figure 2.4 Panoramic view of the Cibeet Junction

Figure 2.5 Panoramic view of the siphon in the Cibeet River

Figure 2.6 Panoramic view of the Cikarang weir

The configuration of WTC-Cikarang is different from the first section. At


the Cikarang weir, the WTC acts as a tributary of the Cikarang River of which
estimated drainage area is 293 km2. After the confluence of the WTC into the
Cikarang River, about 100-meters downstream the River is dammed by the
Cikarang weir and the water is delivered again to the WTC as shown in
Figure 2.6.
Next, the WTC joins the Bekasi River, the third tributary whose catchment
area is 383 km2. At the Bekasi weir as shown in Figure 2.7, the system
configuration is the same as the WTC-Cikarang.

Figure 2.7 Panoramic view of the Bekasi weir

The last section of the WTC starts from the Bekasi River and ends at the
Cawang pumping station, as shown in Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.8 WTC in the urban area of Bekasi City

The WTC supplies water for various uses including irrigation and
drinking water. Major abstractions for the purpose of irrigation among others
are located at the Curug-Cibeet section to provide irrigation water for the area
of 673 ha, at the Cibeet-Cikarang section of 16,861 ha and 3,073 ha irrigation
area respectively, and in the Cikarang-Bekasi section for the irrigation area of
7,345 ha and 1,611 ha. In addition, there are many illegal unaccounted water
uses as shown in Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9 Illegal unaccounted water uses along the WTC

WTC intercepts raw water from Bekasi, Cikarang, and Cibeet rivers to
meet the water demands of the western region, especially for irrigation,
domestic, municipal, and industrial (DMI) purposes along the WTC till
Jakarta. Thus water quality problem is mainly related to conditions of flow
rates and water quality of these three tributaries.

2.3 Present status of WTC local resources


A substantial amount of runoff from Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi rivers
are intercepted by weirs and diverted into the WTC. These local resources
add water to the WTC, especially during the rainy season. During the dry
season, local sources are limited and almost all runoff is diverted into the
WTC. The wet season usually starts from October to November and the
lowest runoff occurs between July and September. During the dry season
(lower run-off), water is supplied from Curug weir. Therefore, at the initial
point of the WTC in the Curug weir, the cycle has the opposite order. The
amount of water delivered to the WTC is lowest at the beginning of the year
until April and it reaches the peak between July and September.
The amount of water supplied by Citarum River at Curug weir as initial
point of WTC is almost the same every year. The lowest discharge was 22.66
cms and highest was 60.33 cms during the period of 2002-2007. The mean
discharge of initial WTC is 41.52 cms. In the beginning of 2007, an exceptional

10

rainfall occurred. The total rainfall observed at Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi
weirs in February 2007 was 605, 769, and 569 mm, respectively. High rainfall
occurs in November until May. There was very limited rainfall occurred
during August and September. During exceptional rainfall in February, the
discharge of 223.84 cms was recorded at Cibeet weir when the mean
discharge was 32.12 cms. This pattern also appeared in Cikarang and Bekasi
Rivers. But annual pattern is similar to previous years.
120

120

Cikarang River

100

100

80

80

Flow(m3 /s)

Flow(m3 /s)

WTC from Curug Weir

60

60

40

40

20

20

0
02/01

02/07

03/01

03/07

04/01

04/07

05/01

05/07

06/01

0
02/01

06/07

02/07

03/01

03/07

Date(YY/MM)

04/01

04/07

05/01

05/07

120

Bekasi River

100

100

80

80

Flow(m3 /s)

Flow(m3 /s)

06/07

120

Cibeet River

60

60

40

40

20

20

0
02/01

06/01

Date(YY/MM)

02/07

03/01

03/07

04/01

04/07

05/01

05/07

06/01

0
02/01

06/07

02/07

03/01

Date(YY/MM)

03/07

04/01

04/07

05/01

05/07

06/01

06/07

Date(YY/MM)

Figure 2.10 Discharge rates of WTC, Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi over
period of 2002-2007.

11

2.4 Water Quality Monitoring


2.4.1 Existing monitoring system
Water quality management was added to the tasks of PJT II in 1987.
Current activities of PJT II are based upon the water quality monitoring
program for rivers, canals, and reservoir. It consists of monitoring sites in the
Jatiluhur reservoir, Citarum River, the rivers that are intercepted by the WTC
and ETC, the WTC, ETC and secondary canals that provide raw water for
DMI, as well as major tributaries from which local water supply is derived.
Table 2.1 Chronological water quality data acquisition

Location
Year
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Citarum

49
49
49
49
49
49
25
25
25
25
25
25
34
34
34

Bekasi &

Other

Cikarang

Rivers

26
26
26
26
26
26
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
13

25
25
25
25
25
25
13
13
13
13
13
12
12
12
9

WQ
WTC

NTC

Parameters

15
15
15
15
15
15
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

32
32
32
32
29
24
18
16
15
15
15
15
16
16
16

TOTAL
115
115
115
115
115
115
61
66
66
66
66
66
75
75
75

Started under Hydrological Crash Program, a Dutch funded project, a


detailed water quality monitoring program has been in place, including
setting up a water quality database (REFLEX 2.0). Under this program,
monthly routine water quality sampling has been carried out by PJT II at 115
monitoring locations. The stations are located in: Bekasi River (24 stations),

12

Cikarang River (2 stations), Citarum River and tributaries (49 stations),


catchment areas of rivers in East District (25 stations), and WTC including
some crossing rivers and the Western Banjir Canal in Jakarta (15 stations).
Presently, due to budget constraints, the monitoring station is reduced to
75 stations for the whole Citarum Basin, i.e. Citarum River and tributaries (34
stations), Bekasi River (12 stations), Cikarang River (1 station), WTC
including crossing rivers (14 stations), other rivers (9 stations), and ETC (5
stations). The chronological water quality data acquisition in Citarum is
presented in Table 2.1 In the beginning, from 1993 till 1996, 30 parameters on
average were analyzed, and it is now reduced to 16 parameters. For WTC
water quality monitoring, the existing stations are located in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Existing water quality monitoring stations

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Description
WTC, U/S hydraulic pumps
WTC, at B.Tb10
WTC, at B.Tb23
WTC, at B.Tb35
WTC, at B.Tb45
WTC, at B.Tb49
WTC, at B.Tb51
WTC, at B.Tb53
WTC, at intake Buaran at end pipe
WTC, intake Pulogadung at end pipe
WTC, intake Pejompongan at end pipe
Cibeet Feeder Canal
Cikarang, 2 km U/S confluence WTC
Bekasi, just U/S Bekasi weir

km*
0
14.0
26.5
42.0
54.0
63.3
62.0
63.3
68.3
Canal
River
River

* Distance in km relative to the Curug weir


The water samples are analyzed at the Curug Laboratory and the data are
collected at the Bureau of Operation and Conservation Guidance of PJT II
(Biro Bina Operasi dan Konservasi, PJT II). Compare to other institutions, PJT
II has the most extensive monitoring network. The data set is then reported to

13

the central government institutions (Assistant Deputy for Manufacturingsourced pollution control affair of Ministry of Environment, Director of Water
Resources Management - Directorate General Water Resources - Ministry of
Public Works, and Chief of Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Citarum) and local
government (BPLHD West Java Province, Dinas PSDA West Java Province,
and Purwakarta Regional Coordination Board ).
The present state of water quality management in the basin done by PJT II
is limited to monitoring and reporting water quality at some locations.
However, this activity so far has not been incorporated into the overall
management. Also, since many institutions (government, community, and
industry) are involved, the monitoring work needs to be harmonized and
strengthened in the context of IWRM.

2.4.2 Water quality data


The Curug water quality laboratory has conducted water quality monitoring
at key locations since the early 1990s. To identify water quality variation
trends of the target area, recent water quality data and flow measurements
were reviewed and compiled. Monthly water quality variation for BOD, COD,
and DO measured at the headwater, along with outlets of major tributaries of
the Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi Rivers since the year 2000, is presented in
Figures 2.11 through 2.13. It reveals that the averaged BOD concentration of
the headwater is about 4.9 mg/L, and BOD variations of 3 major tributaries
range from 5.0 to 15.0 mg/L during year 2000 ~ 2004 and 2.0 to 10.0 mg/L from
year 2005 to present.

Comparing the data collected before and after 2005, it is possible to conclude
that the fluctuation of water quality measured after 2005 is greater than the
previously collected data sets. In addition, while average BOD measured
since year 2005 remains about 5mg/L, the BOD measured before 2005
increases to 15 mg/L. Overall, it is not easy to identify the trend of the
seasonal variation since it shows wide fluctuation. For COD it shows quite
similar variation pattern with BOD ranging from 5.0 to 25.0 mg/L at the
headwater and 5.0 to 30.0 mg/L at the outlets of main tributaries. DO monthly

14

variation profile shows that DO remains relatively constant comparing with


other water quality parameters.
20

20

B.tb.1

CFC
15
BOD (mg/L)

BOD (mg/L)

15

10

10

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

00

01

02

03

04

05

20

20

Bekasi

Cikarang
15
BOD (mg/L)

15
BOD (mg/L)

06

Time (Year)

Time (Year)

10

10

0
00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

00

01

02

03

Time (Year)

04

05

06

Time (Year)

Figure 2.11 Monthly BOD variation profile


40

40

CFC

B.tb.1
30
COD (mg/L)

COD (mg/L)

30

20

10

20

10

0
00

01

02

03

04

05

00

06

01

02

03

04

05

40

40

Cikarang

Bekasi

30

30
COD (mg/L)

COD (mg/L)

06

Time (Year)

Time (Year)

20

10

20

10

0
00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

00

Time (Year)

01

02

03

04

Time (Year)

Figure 2.12 Monthly COD variation profile

15

05

06

10

10

CFC

DO (mg/L)

DO (mg/L)

B.tb.1

00

01

02

03

04

05

00

06

01

02

03

04

05

06

Time (Year)

Time (Year)
10

10

Bekasi

DO (mg/L)

DO (mg/L)

Cikarang

0
00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

00

01

02

03

Time (Year)

04

05

06

Time (Year)

Figure 2.13 Monthly DO variation profile


10,000

10,000

Cibeet River

WTC from Curug Weir


8,000
Turbidity (NTU)

6,000

4,000

2,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

Year

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

Year

10,000

10,000

Cikarang River

Bekasi River

8,000

8,000
T u rb id ity (N T U )

T u rb id ity (N T U )

T urb idity (N T U )

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

Year

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

Year

Figure 2.14 Monthly Turbidity variation profile

16

03

04

05

06

07

Along the WTC, at every intake after WTC confluence with tributaries
(Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi rivers) desilting basins are located to reduce
turbidity in WTC. The dimensions of desilting basin along the WTC are
summarized in Table 2.3.
Table 2.3 Dimensions of the desilting basins.

Location
Cibeet silt trap
Cikarang silt trap
Bekasi silt trap

Depth
2.00
1.50
2.00 m

Width
40.0
30.0
40.0 m

Length
195
370
400 m

Volume
15,600
16,650
32,000

The desilting basins are dredged by PJT2 regularly as shown in Table


2.4. However, the volume is not implied the total amount that needs to be
excavated. The volume that should be dredged is much larger. It indicates
the capacity of desilting basin cannot cope with the desiltation process in
the canal, or it needs more frequent dredging which will cause higher
maintenance cost.
Table 2.4 Sediment volumes dredged in the desilting basins

Canal Section
Total
1) Cibeet silt trap
2) Cikarang silt trap
3) Bekasi silt trap*)

Unit

m3

Sediment Volume
1991-2005
2005-2009
Total
2,162,000
480,000
1,682,000
41,000
9,000
32,000
14,000
3,000
11,000
91,500
12,000***
79,500**

Source: ICWRMP, 2006. The current and estimated deposits. * excavated by PJT II.
**during 2004-2005.*** in 2007 only.

The analysis of previous water quality data shows that the water quality
fluctuations in the WTC and the three tributaries are closely related to the
variations of flow. Water quality of headwater is much better than those in
the tributaries. Although water quality, in general, gets better, the large
monthly water quality variation observed after year 2005 implies the
necessity of better quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) during
water quality monitoring. Thus, the water monitoring network must be
designed such that current monitoring activities are conducted with stricter

17

QA/QC processes and additional monitoring sites should be decided


considering current locations. Overall, a water quality management system
needs to be developed to help develop better water quality management
schemes in the WTC system.

2.4.3 Monitoring network design


The quantity and quality of field observation data is one of the crucial
factors for successful implementation of best management practices (BMPs) in
water management. K-water and PJT II staff took a comprehensive field trip
along the WTC on January 29th, 2007 as shown in Figure 2.15 to examine
potential locations to conduct water quality (WQ) monitoring. The experience
and knowledge of local experts was also gathered during the field trip. The
second field trip was carried out on March 21, 2007 to finalize the monitoring
points. Technical skills for conducting water sampling and in-situ
measurement using Troll-9500TM (In-Situ Inc.) were demonstrated to PJT II
staff as shown in Figure 2.15. Some of the point sources from local residency
were also identified.

Figure 2.15 Field-instrument demonstrations at monitoring points

Finally, the 11 WQ monitoring points as shown in Figure 2.16 were


selected by taking into account accessibility for sampling, confluence points
and flow measurement and is increased up to 14 points since July, 2007 after
the mid-term report as shown in Figure 2.17. Table 2.5 summarizes locations
and numbers of the monitoring network.

18

CITARUM River
BEKASI Riv.

CILIWUNG Riv.

CIBEET Riv.

CIKARANG Riv.

Walahar

6.2 CMS
WTP
Pejompongan WTP
4.4 CMS

Cawang
11

JAKARTA

West Tarum Canal

Bekasi

10

Cikarang

Buaran WTP
5.5 CMS

B.Tb.45

B.Tb.35

B.Tb.1

B.Tb.22

B.Tb.23

Curug

B.Tb.34b

West Tarum

2
6

Cibeet
CIKAO
Riv.

Cat. Area:
218km2
Mean Rainfall
2,739 mm

Cat. Area:
393km2
Mean Rainfall
3,395 mm

Djuanda
Cat. Area:
534km2
Mean Rainfall
2,943 mm

Dam

Weir

Monitoring point

Pump

Cirata
Saguling

WTP

Figure 2.16 Schematic of the monitoring network with 11 WQ sampling sites


CITARUM River
BEKASI Riv.

CILIWUNG Riv.

CIBEET Riv.

CIKARANG Riv.

Pejompongan
WTP 6.2 CMS

Walahar

Pulongadung WTP
4.4 CMS

Cawang

Bekasi

13

14

JAKARTA

West Tarum Canal


Cikarang

B.Tb.43b

Buaran WTP
5.5 CMS

10

11
B.Tb.44

B.Tb.23

B.Tb.35

B.Tb.34b Delta Mas

12

Curug

B.Tb.10

3
8

B.Tb.1

B.Tb.21

West Tarum

Cibeet
CIKAO
Riv.

Cat. Area:
393km2
Mean Rainfall
3,395 mm

Cat. Area:
218km2
Mean Rainfall
2,739 mm

Djuanda
Cat. Area:
534km2
Mean Rainfall
2,943 mm

Dam

Weir

Monitoring point

Pump

Cirata
Saguling

WTP

Figure 2.17 Revised monitoring network with 14 WQ sampling sites


Table 2.5 Locations of the selected WQ monitoring points

19

Monitoring point
No.

Distance from the Curug


weir

Locations
(from the west)

1.0 km

Curug weir: B.Tb.1

14.0 km

B.Tb.10

24.5 km

Cibeet Feeder Canal

24.0 km

B.Tb.21

26.5 km

B.Tb.23

29.4 km

Delta Mas

39.0 km

B.Tb.34b

40.0 km

Cikarang River

42.0 km

B.Tb.35

10

51.7 km

B.Tb.43b

11

53.5 km

B.Tb.44

12

54.5 km

Bekasi River

13

62.0 km

Intake to Buaran

14

68.0 km

Intake to Pejompongan

2.4.4 Monitoring results


a) Flowrates
During this PDA project water quality data as well as flowrate data are
collected regularly. The flowrate variation profile is given in Figure 2.18 with
respect to the inflows released from the Curug weir as well as the 3 major
tributaries. At the Curug weir, during the rainy season from March to end of
April, the flowrate remains less than 30 cms and gradually increases to 60 cms
by August.

20

80

80

WTC from Curug Weir

Cibeet River

Date(DD-MM)

17-Oct

Date(DD-MM)

(a) WTC from Curug weir

(b) Cibeet River

80

80

Cikarang River

Bekasi River

60

Date(DD-MM)

17-Oct

17-Sep

18-Aug

19-Jul

21-Mar

17-Oct

17-Sep

18-Aug

19-Jul

19-Jun

0
20-May

0
20-Apr

20

21-Mar

20

19-Jun

40

20-May

40

20-Apr

Flow(/s)

60

Flow(/s)

17-Sep

18-Aug

19-Jul

21-Mar

17-Oct

17-Sep

18-Aug

19-Jul

0
19-Jun

0
20-May

20

20-Apr

20

19-Jun

40

20-May

40

20-Apr

Flow(/s)

60

21-Mar

Flow(/s)

60

Date(DD-MM)

(c) Cikarang River

(d) Bekasi River

Figure 2.18 variations at the main stream and major tributaries of WTC

The seasonal flow variation of major tributaries shows opposite patterns


to that of the Curug weir. Compared to the historical data, it reveals no
significant discrepancy between previous and present data. The range of
temporal flow variation at Curug weir and tributaries was from 20 cms to 60
cms. Similarly, as shown from the past hydrologic data, the flowrate of the
Cibeet River during the rainy season exceeds 20 cms and less than 1 cms
during the dry season showing a wide variation range. Such seasonal
variations are also observed at Cikarang and Bekasi River.

b) Water quality
For water quality data compilation, water samples at each monitoring
point were taken approximately every two weeks. All samples were collected
on the same day. DO, pH, and temperature were measured in-situ and other
parameters, such as BOD and nutrients, were analyzed in the Curug
Laboratory. Table 2.6 summarizes the results of water quality and flowrate

21

monitoring results for each sampling point. Figure 2.19 shows


concentrations of DO, BOD, TN, TP, and Turbidity along the WTC, while
Figure 2.20 does temporal variations at Curug and the major tributaries.
Figure 2.19(a) shows DO concentration that gives seasonal variation range
of 3 mg/L to 8 mg/L which increases along the WTC in the downstream
direction. The overall BOD concentration given in Figure 2.19(b) ranges
between 2 mg/L and 9 mg/L along the WTC. The maximum BOD is over 9
mg/L, which was measured on September 29th. The sampling data collected
during March and May reveals that BOD concentration increases after the
Cibeet feeder canal (CFC). Comparing the sampling data collected from July
to October, it is not easy to find significant seasonal variation. The variation of
TN ranges from 1 mg/L to 6 mg/L along the WTC. Figure 2.19 (d) represents
the TP distribution along the WTC. Although it remains less than 1.5 mg/L
overall, the data measured during May increases up to 3.8 mg/L. It shows
significant TP increase in the reach between the Cibeet and Cikarang River
following the sampling data measured during April and May, the tendency
does not show consistency comparing with other data. Also at the end of the
WTC, it shows that the TP concentration always remains below 1 mg/L.
Figure 2.19(e) represents for the general trend of turbidity along the
WTC which shows high turbidity in the upstream.

22

23

9:12

10:10

12:17

12:22

14:50

15:08

15:20

16:14

17:01

17:35

18:12

10

11

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

23.7

10.9

16.8

20.4

cms

27.8

28.3

28.4

28.9

29.9

31.7

33.2

32.5

30.3

32.1

n/a

6.2

6.2

6.2

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.2

6.4

6.7

6.7

n/a

Flow Temp. pH

3.9

4.7

4.8

5.3

4.7

4.5

4.4

5.2

n/a

mg/L

DO

3.6

5.0

3.8

4.8

5.9

2.3

1.9

2.7

2.8

2.1

2.3

mg/L

BOD5

10.2

15.2

10.2

13.2

15.2

5.1

<5.0

7.1

7.1

5.1

6.1

mg/L

COD

0.55

0.80

0.65

0.70

0.65

0.39

0.77

0.53

0.17

0.59

0.19

mg/L

NO3N

0.091

0.078

0.062

0.068

0.077

0.083

0.055

0.070

0.098

0.017

0.028

mg/L

NO2N

0.06

0.11

0.28

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.11

1.12

0.11

1.68

mg/L

NH3N

Table 2.6 Analyzed water quality along the WTC in March 21, 2007

0.56

0.28

0.28

0.62

0.67

0.90

0.45

0.39

0.67

0.95

0.95

mg/L

Org.
N

0.25

0.06

0.45

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.05

0.65

0.10

0.45

0.60

mg/L

Diss.
P

0.10

0.35

0.20

0.25

0.40

0.15

0.15

0.40

0.10

0.15

0.45

mg/L

Org.
P

12

12
30-Mar
29-Sep

26-May
22-Oct

26-Jul
Inflow Stream

DO

30-Mar
29-Sep

Conc.(mg/L)

Conc.(mg/L)

26-Jul
Inflow Stream

3
Cibeet River

Cikarang River

Cibeet River

Bekasi River

Cikarang River

Bekasi River

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from Curug Weir (Km)

Distance from Curug Weir (Km)

(a) DO

(b) BOD

12

4.0
30-Mar
22-Oct

26-May
Inflow Stream

30-Mar
29-Sep

TN

26-Jul

26-May
22-Oct

26-Jul
Inflow Stream

TP

3.0
Conc.(mg/L)

2.0

1.0
Cibeet River

Cikarang River

Bekasi River

Cibeet River

Cikarang River

Bekasi River

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from Curug Weir (Km)

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Curug Weir (Km)

(c) TN

(d) TP

100
26-Jul
22-Oct

29-Sep
Inflow Stream

Turbidity

80

60
(NTU)

BOD

Conc.(mg/L)

26-May
22-Oct

40

20
Cibeet River

0
0

10

20

30

Cikarang River Bekasi River

40

50

60

70

Distance from Curug Weir (Km)

(e) Turbidity
Figure 2.19 Water quality variations along the WTC in 2007

24

60

70

From Figure 2.20 (a), DO variation shows the tendency to increase as it


approaches dry season. The average DO concentration of headwater remains
around 4 mg/L and it remains between 5 mg/L or 6 mg/L until the end of June,
and then increases during July and August at 3 major tributaries including
Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi river. As shown in Figure 2.20(b), while BOD
does not show the solid relation with seasonal variation, BOD increases
during June and July. Compared to BOD of headwater, Cibeet, and Cikarang
River, it shows similar concentrations until the end of May, and then quite
different concentrations from June to August. Figure 2.20 (c) shows that TN
concentration of the Cikarang River is relatively higher than other tributaries
during March to August. TP concentration in Figure 2.20 (d) shows wide
variation in April and May, but the variation from June to October is not
significant. The turbidity values observed during this period are low and
within the designed target limit of 200-300 NTU set by the Buaran Water
Treatment Plant shown in Figure 2.20 (e).
The WTC intercepts raw water from Bekasi, Cikarang, and Cibeet rivers
to meet the water demands in the western region, especially for domestic,
municipal and industry (DMI) purposes in Jakarta. It is believed that water
quality problem is mainly related to conditions in hydrology of these three
rivers that determines the incoming flowrate and the water quality.

25

10

DO
8
Conc. (mg/L)

8
Conc. (mg/L)

10

B.Tb.1
cibeet
cikarang
bekasi

B.Tb.1
cibeet
cikarang
bekasi

0
20-Mar 19-Apr 19-May 18-Jun

0
20-Mar 19-Apr 19-May 18-Jun

18-Jul 17-Aug 16-Sep 16-Oct


Date

(a) DO

15

18-Jul 17-Aug 16-Sep 16-Oct


Date

(b) BOD
4

B.Tb.1
cibeet
cikarang
bekasi

TN
3
Conc. (mg/L)

20

Conc. (mg/L)

BOD

10

B.Tb.1
cibeet
cikarang
bekasi

TP

0
20-Mar 19-Apr 19-May 18-Jun

0
20-Mar 19-Apr 19-May 18-Jun

18-Jul 17-Aug 16-Sep 16-Oct


Date

(c) TN

18-Jul 17-Aug 16-Sep 16-Oct


Date

(d) TP

150

Turbidity (NTU)

120

B.Tb.1
cibeet
cikarang
bekasi

Turbidity

90

60

30

0
20-Mar 19-Apr 19-May 18-Jun 18-Jul 17-Aug 16-Sep 16-Oct
Date

(e) Turbidity
Figure 2.20 Water quality variations at Curug weir and three tributaries
(Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi)

26

2.5 Development of Water Quality Simulation Model


using QUAL2E-PLUS
2.5.1 Previous modeling attempts in WTC
The steady-state water quantity and water quality model MODQUAL is
the first model that has been applied in WTC during Cisadane-Cimanuk
Integrated Water Resources Development (BTA-155) in 1987. Its
schematization covered the river and canal system from Jatiluhur Dam to the
Ciliwung River in Jakarta. The latter attempt in 1998 was conducted during
Jatiluhur Water Resources Management Project Preparation Study (JWRMP)
using a more basic approach by means of Streeter-Phelps equations. The
model was developed for the WTC from Curug to Bekasi to predict the BODDO concentrations in a river or canal with a variable flow under the influence
of multiple points and diffuse pollution loadings.
Using MODQUAL, the BTA-155 concluded that the Bekasi River makes a
large contribution to pollution in the final reaches of the WTC. The pollution
level in the WTC increases from Bekasi to Ciliwung due to a substantial
release of domestic effluents.
The Streeter-Phelps equations developed for WTC during JWRMP was
used to assess the effect of the siphon construction in Bekasi River. The result
of simulations concluded that the BOD5 at km 65, the approximate location of
the raw water intake for the drinking water treatment plants for East Jakarta
(Buaran and Pulogadung) improves from 4.3 to 1.9 mg/L with the DO
improving from 5.5 to 6.7 mg/L.

2.5.2 QUAL2E-PLUS Model


Water quality modeling is essential for establishing long-term water
resources management. Although results from field observation represent
current pollution problems, they are limited to analyzing previous or current
situations. However, modeling studies could provide valuable insights for
various water quality management options to be considered.

27

QUAL2E-PLUS is a 1-D steady-state model to simulate water quality in


rivers with non-uniform flow. The model was developed based on USEPA
Qual2E model to provide GUI for data preprocess and post-process with high
quality visualization to construct main GUI. The model has been developed
by K-water and was used for evaluating reservoir operation and projecting
monthly reservoir discharge considering downstream water quality in the
Geum River Basin, Korea. For preprocess it involves hydraulic coefficients,
reaction rates, and definition of each computational element. Other input data
necessary for model simulations include point load and headwater discharge
including water quality data such as BOD, DO, TN, and TP. After simulation,
the result can be displayed in graphs as well as tabulated format. All of input
and output data are processed in windows environment in excel format that
allows user-friendly data manipulation. It also has a unique feature that
shows comparison with measured data.
Basically QUAL2E-PLUS model simulates 15 water quality constituents
such as BOD, DO, TN, and TP. The mathematical representations of those
reactions are summarized in Table 2.7. Figure 2.21 shows an example of
model set-up using QUAL2E-PLUS, and Figure 2.22 illustrates an example of
model operation to examine BOD simulation results, which is one of the
useful features of QUAL2E-PLUS, the function to identify actual computed
values by points in a specific reach location of the model using mouse.

28

Figure 2.21 QUAL2E-PLUS: model configuration

Figure 2.22 QUAL2E-PLUS: screenshot of BOD simulation results

Mechanisms in pollutant transport consist of two components: advection


and dispersion. The former specifies the movement of the constituents with
water as it flows downstream, while the latter relates to the spreading of the
constituents that occurs primarily due to shear. Equation 1 is used to describe
a mass balance of the water quality constituents including transport and

29

reactions. Table 2.7 shows the reactions considered for water quality
constituents in QUAL2E-PLUS.

Ac E
( A Uc ) dx + V dc + s
c
x
V
=
dx c
t
x
x
dt

(1)

where, V = volume (m3)


c = constituent concentration (mg/L)
Ac = element cross-sectional area (m2)
E = longitudinal dispersion coefficient (m2/d)
x = element length (m)
U = average velocity (m/day)
s = external sources (positive) or sinks (negative) of the
constituents
QUAL2E-PLUS model treats a river as a collection of reaches, each having
homogeneous hydro-geometric properties. Each reach is divided into a series
of equal-length computational elements or control volumes as shown in
Figure 2.23. In QUAL2E-PLUS model the type of each element must be
designated as one of the following 7 element types:
Headwater (H)
Standard element (S)
Element just upstream from junction (U)
Junction element (J)

Last element in system (E)


Input element (P)
Withdrawal element (W)

Every tributary as well as the main river system must always begin with a
headwater element in a headwater reach. Junction element is used to
designate an element on the mainstem that is just upstream of a junction.
Element types P and W represent elements which have inputs and water
withdrawals, respectively. Table 2.8 summarizes the main processes, required
data, and detailed items for water quality modeling of the WTC.

30

14

13

12

Reach 3

18

17

16

15

Tributary 1

Junction 1

Mainstream

Reach 4

Reach 6

Reach 8

Reach 2

Reach 5

Reach 1

Tributary 2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
19
20

Reach 7

Junction 2

Figure 2.23 Spatial aggregation to represent reaches and elements in QUAL2E-PLUS


Table 2.7 Summary of reactions considered in QUAL2E-PLUS
- Algae(A)

dA
dt

Accumulation
- Organic Nitrogen(N4)

dN 4
dt

A
Growth

1A

3 N 4

Accumulation
- Nitrite Nitrogen(N2)

dN 2
dt

3 N 4

Accumulation
- Nitrate Nitrogen(N3)

dN3
dt
Accumulation

1 N1

4 N4
Settling

Nitrification

2 N2

Nitrification

2 N2

1 N1

Denitrification

(1 F1 )1A

Nitrification

Growth

31

Settling

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis

Respiration

Accumulation
Respiration
- Ammonia Nitrogen(N1)

dN1
dt

3
H
Sediment

F11A
Growth

Table 2.7 Summary of reactions considered in QUAL2E-PLUS (Cont.)


- Organic Phosphorus(P1)

dP1
dt

2 A

4 P1

Accumulation
Respiration
- Inorganic Phosphorus(P2)

dP2
dt

4 P1

Accumulation
- Carbonaceous BOD(L)

dL
dt
Accumulation
- Dissolved Oxygen(O)

dO
dt

Accumulation

Decay

2 A

H
Sediment

K1L

Growth

K3L

Decay

Settling

K 2 (Os O ) 2

Reaction
+

Settling

Decay

5 P1

K1L

Decomposition

( 3 4 ) A 2

Growth - Respiration

5 1 N1

K4
H
SOD

62 N2

Nitrification

Table 2.8 Major input parameters for the modeling process in QUAL2E-PLUS

Processes

Model
Construction

Required
data

Detailed items

Geometry
data for WTC

-Width, height, side slope, and channel length


-Location of channel junctions of major
tributaries

Hydrologic
data

-Hydrologic data for main tributaries


(seasonal or monthly discharge data)

Model
Calibration

Flow and
Water quality
data

-Flowrates and abstractions for irrigation and


water supply
-Water quality data for major tributaries,
main channel for model input and
calibration
(BOD, DO, TN, TP, Temperature)

Model
Application

Water quality
management
scenarios

-Different water quality management options


to test

32

2.5.3 Water quality model construction


The first step in building the QUAL2E-PLUS model for the WTC is to
conceptualize the spatial segmentation scheme by dividing the target river
into a number of reaches which have similar channel shapes/sizes and
longitudinal slopes. Then, each reach in similar hydraulic features is
subdivided into individual computational elements in constant length.
As shown in Figure 2.24, the model domain was subdivided into 4
reaches (Reach A ~ Reach D) considering the three tributaries. Reach A covers
the WTC from the Curug weir to siphon (Btb 23a), Reach B from the siphon to
the Cikarang weir (Btb 34), Reach C from the Cikarang weir to the Bekasi weir
(Btb 45b), and Reach D from the Bekasi weir to the end of WTC (Btb 53). The
lengths of Reach A, B, C, and D are 24.8 km, 14.5 km, 14.3 km, and 13.4 km,
respectively. The minimum channel elevation varied from 25.4 m at upstream
and 21.5 m at downstream, showing the average channel slope of 0.00016. The
channel bed slopes for Reaches B, C, and D are 0.00015, 0.00016, and 0.00023,
respectively. Prior to water quality model development it is necessary to
conduct hydraulic analysis to estimate representative velocity and flow depth
for each reach. For hydraulic analysis by using the HEC-RAS model, cross
section data surveyed by 500-m interval were collected and compiled. The
WTC was subdivided into 4 reaches with respect to 3 major tributaries.
Reach D

Reach C

Reach B

Reach A

Pulogadung
WTP
Pejompongan
WTP

Buaran
WTP

Figure 2.24 Sub-reach segmentation of the WTC

Figures 2.25 to 2.28 shows the results of hydraulic analysis to explain


longitudinal water surface elevation profiles with respect to typical
representative cross sections for each corresponding reach. Although the
shapes of cross sections of WTC were very similar, their size and shape

33

changes along the canal depending on the carrying capacities of various


sections. In addition, the flowrate in the canal changes over distance due to
tributaries and water uses. Therefore, the developed water quality model for
the WTC consisted of a number of reaches considering the three main
tributaries, hydraulic features, and main sources and sinks for both flow and
incoming pollutants.
WTC1

Plan: Plan 01 3/27/2007


STA. 11+500

.026

29

.026

.026
Legend
EG PF 8

Elevation (m)

28

WS PF 8
Ground

27

Bank Sta

26
25
24
23
0

20

40

60

80

100

Station (m)
WTC1

Plan: Plan 01

3/27/2007

WTC 1

27

Legend
EG PF 8

Elevation (m)

26

WS PF 8
Crit PF 8

25

Ground

24
23
22
21
0

10

15

20

25

Main Channel Distance (km)

Figure 2.25 Cross-sectional and vertical profiles with water level in Reach A

34

WTC2

Plan: Plan 01 3/25/2007


STA. 29+500
.026

26

.026
Legend

Elevation (m)

EG PF 10

25

WS PF 10

24

Bank Sta

Ground

23
22
21
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Station (m)
WTC2

Plan: Plan 01

3/25/2007

WTC WTC2

26

Legend
EG PF 10
WS PF 10

24
Elevation (m)

Crit PF 10
Ground

22
20
18
16
0

10

12

14

16

Main Channel Distance (km)

Figure 2.26 Cross-sectional and vertical profiles with water level in Reach B
WTC2
.026

26

Plan: Plan 01 3/25/2007


STA. 25+000

.026

.026
Legend
EG PF 10

Elevation (m)

25

WS PF 10
Ground

24

Bank Sta

23
22
21
20
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Station (m)
WTC3

Plan: Plan 01

3/25/2007

WTC WTC3

23

Legend
EG PF 10

Elevation (m)

22

WS PF 10
Crit PF 10

21

Ground

20
19
18
17
16
0

10

12

14

16

Main Channel Distance (km)

Figure 2.27 Cross-sectional and vertical profiles with water level in Reach C

35

WTC4

Plan: Plan 01 3/25/2007


STA. 56+000

.026

20

.026

.026
Legend

Elevation (m)

EG PF 8

19

WS PF 8

18

Bank Sta

Ground

17
16
15
0

10

20

30

40

50

Station (m)
WTC4

Plan: Plan 01

3/25/2007

WTC WTC4

18

Legend
EG PF 8
WS PF 8

Elevation(m)

17

Crit PF 8
Ground

16
15
14
13
0

10

12

14

Main Channel Distance (km)

Figure 2.28 Cross-sectional and vertical profiles with water level in Reach D

Based on the hydraulic analysis, the QUAL2E-PLUS model has been


established for the WTC area. During model construction, 3 major tributaries
of the Cibeet, Cikarang and Bekasi Rivers are treated as point sources
including withdrawals from regulation weirs, abstractions for irrigation water,
and DMI water. The QUAL2E-PLUS model for the WTC area consists of a
total of 15 point sources, 1 headwater, 20 reaches, and 137 elements. Each
computational element length is 500m and detailed diagram for the WTC
water quality model is shown in Figure 2.29. Major off-takes for irrigation
along the WTC, abstraction for the WTP in Jakarta, and the weir operation
schemes to regulate inflow of each tributary are accounted in model
development.
Water consumption data along the WTC are also important in identifying
the amount of water that is used for the purpose of irrigation and DMI water
use. Such data sets are collected and compiled by PJT II. Table 2.9 lists these
data sets utilized in water quality model to define withdrawal points. The 1st
and 2nd column in Table 2.9 shows the reach and column numbers of
QUAL2E-PLUS model where the withdrawal points are located.

36

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

10

11

12

B.Tb. 5 (1)

13

14

15

B.Tb. 18 (2)
16

17

B.Tb. 20 (3)

Cibeet Riv (4)


18

Kedunggede (5)
19

20

Rawa Sentul (6)

1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

B.tb.34 (7)
Cikarang Riv (8)
Cikarang Weir (9)

Bulak Mangga (10)

Tambun(PAM1) (11)

Rawabaru (12)

Bekasi Riv (13)


Bekasi Weir (14)
Bekasi Utara (15)

PAM1 (16)
PAM2 (17)

PAM3 (18)

Figure 2.29 Model diagram for WTC in QUAL2E-PLUS (each color zone
represents unique hydraulic parameters such as flow velocity)

37

38

B.Tb.

63.5 03

62.5 04

4.5

5.5

10

12

37.5 26

30.5

62

96

105

15

24.0 36

20.5 39

16.0 43

47.5

52.0

26.0 35

42.0

85

44.0

29.0 34b

39.0

89

35.0 29

33.0

79

67

39.0 25

29.0

59

41.5 23

26.5

54

40.0 24

25.0

51

28.0

43.0 22

23.5

57

45.5 20

44.5 21

22.5

46.5 19

21.5

44

48

49.0 18

19.0

39

46

49.5 17

18.5

51.0 15

17.0

35

38

51.5 14

16.5

34

50.5 16

52.0 13

16.0

33

17.5

53.0 12

15.0

31

36

61.0 05

7.0

15

66.0 02

67.0 01

2.0

1.0

14

13

12

Reach Element Distance Defined


#
#
(km)
Km

Gabus Dukuk, Rawa Baru, etc

Waruk Asem & Tambun

Bitung Barat & B.Tb.36.ka

Bulak Mangga

B.Tb.34a & B.Tb.34b

Rawa Sentul & Suplesi B. Lemahabang (B.Tb.30a)

Bugel Salam (B.Tb.26) & B.Tb.26.ka1

B.Tb.25.ki & B.Tb.25

B.Tb.24.ka1 & B.Tb.24.ka2

B.Tb.23.ka1 & B.Tb.23.ka2 & Kedung Gede (B.Tb.23)

B.Tb.22.ka

B.Tb.21.ka

B.Tb.20.ka

B.Tb.19

B.Tb.18.ka1 & B.Tb.18.ka2 & B.Tb.18.ka3

B.Tb.17.ka

B.Tb.16.ka

B.Tb.15.ka

B.Tb.14.ka

B.Tb.13.ka

B.Tb.12.ka

B.Tb.5.ka & B.Tb.5

B.Tb.4.ka

B.Tb.3.ka & B.Tb.3.ki

B.Tb.2.ka

B.Tb.1.ka

Irrigation Area

Structure No.

52.458

47.935

44.346

42.047

39.071

33.173

30.682

29.469

28.21

26.508

25.091

23.993

22.527

21.7

19.482

18.696

17.771

17.223

16.601

16.192

15.467

7.242

5.818

4.989

2.818

1.075

632

234

45

3217

7489

982

152

116

136

7684

85

40

305

355

160

201

30

10

25

886

168

40

4531

2644

964

88

47

91

184

120

50

350

337

150

10

20

14

29

178

35

22

30

10

1034

190

40

5109

4564

250

141

76

115

10845

75

45

190

213

120

10

10

144

20

10

20

989

179

40

4968

10848

250

152

97

136

9952

125

42

281

281

190

10

20

30

20

11

42

199

35

24

32

12

1162

110

45

5149

4465

250

141

125

8553

70

40

250

308

200

10

20

30

10

14

42

212

20

25

20

15

807

239

45

4457

3776

250

160

116

143

8750

97

50

30

270

235

10

25

30

20

14

42

62

32

27

22

12

5753

1262

45

5756

3490

200

160

102

142

8524

310

60

495

500

120

10

15

12

40

213

40

27

35

12

1164

282

40

7284

6820

2270

172

127

159

11524

97

50

380

270

130

10

25

30

20

14

42

240

32

27

22

12

1186

293

40

4210

870

4158

252

129

152

9118

225

61

432

285

190

30

30

40

20

14

214

41

24

32

12

955

271

35

4728

3490

1816

244

129

152

7139

63

30

240

285

190

30

30

40

30

14

203

40

27

30

15

985

251

40

5284

4251

785

142

72

93

10049

289

38

194

225

190

30

30

40

20

52

205

31

23

30

10

1112

282

40

5436

8079

2462

230

106

153

11693

291

71

481

512

230

40

40

50

30

52

267

28

27

30

15

Distance
Discharge (liter per second)
from
Curug
March
April
May
June
July
August
Weir (km) 2007-03-21 2007-03-30 2007-04-12 2007-04-28 2007-05-10 2007-05-26 2007-06-12 2007-06-27 2007-07-13 2007-07-26 2007-08-10 2007-08-24

Table 2.9 Summary of water use along WTC

2.5.4 Model calibration


Model calibration is a procedure to determine coefficients of the kinetic
parameters to minimize the difference between the measured and simulated
within acceptable levels. An example of the model calibration process is given
in Figure 2.30. Generally in water quality modeling, model calibration
processes are conducted in two phases. The first phase considers BOD and
DO, and after successful calibration for these variables, the second phase
focuses on other variables such as nitrogen and phosphorus species. In this
project, we followed the general process to calibrate the WTC water quality
using the data sets acquired from March to October, 2007 as compiled in the
monitoring section.

Figure 2.30 Schematic of the model calibration process (Chapra, 2003)

Model calibration was conducted using the trial and error method to
minimize the difference between measured and simulated values of the water
quality of interest. Table 2.10 shows acceptable ranges and calibrated values
of some important water quality reaction coefficients shown in Table 2.7.

39

Table 2.10 Calibrated water quality parameters

Rate Coefficient

Description

Units

Range

Used
value

BOD Decay (K1)

Carbonaceous
deoxygenation rate
constant

/day

0.02-3.4

0.2

Reaeration (K2)

Reaeration rate constant

/day

0.0-100

0.0

BOD Settling (K3)

Rate of loss of BOD due


to settling

/day

Variable

0.0

SOD Uptake (K4)

Benthic oxygen uptake

mg O
/ ft2day

Variable

1.0

/day

0.1-1.0

0.1

/day

0.2-2.0

0.5

/day

0.02-0.4

0.15

/day

0.01-0.7

0.2

Ammonia
Decay(1)
Nitrate Decay (2)
Organic N
Decay(3)
Organic P Decay
(4)

Rate constant for the


biological oxidation of
NH3 to NO2
Rate constant for the
biological oxidation of
NO2 to NO3
Rate constant for the
hydrolysis of organic N
to NH3
Rate constant for the
decay of organic P to
dissolved P

Figure 2.31 shows the simulation conditions of flowrates and BOD


concentrations (in parenthesis) at sources and sinks (most important input
parameters for model calibration) measured at sampling stations on March 21,
2007. Figure 2.32 compares the simulated results with the measured values.
The simulated DO concentrations show quite good agreement with the
measured values. The model also predicted the general trend of BOD, TN,
and TP, indicating the water quality deterioration after the confluence
between the Cikarang and the Bekasi river. Water quality monitoring and
modeling process continuously conducted through the entire project period
covering March to October 2007. The simulation results of rest periods are
listed in Appendix K.

40

During calibration process for BOD, difficulties were partly because the
measured data were taken randomly (time and day) even though all the sites
were sampled within one day. Single point method is applied to take samples
in the surface water using a bucket. This may result in fluctuating data due to
irregularity of domestic effluent or local source conditions entering into the
canal during sampling. The samples might not represent the average and
continuous condition.

03/21/2007
4.80

11.69

Bekasi Weir
17.32
[3.62]

9.20

17.32
[4.98]

7.48
10.14
[4.76]

Cikarang Weir

5.45

17.62
[5.88]

21.28
23.67
[3.76]

15.94
[1.90]

16.79
[2.78]
37.22
[2.67]

Curug
20.43
[2.30]

Bekasi River
CFC
10.88
[2.29]

Cikarang River

22.24
[1.71]

Cibeet River

Figure 2.31 Flowrates (cms) and BOD (mg/L) measured on March 21, 2007.
The numbers in the diagram indicate flowrates and BOD
(mg/L) concentrations in parenthesis

41

10

10
Simulated

Measured

8
BOD (mg/L)

DO (mg/L)

03-21-2007

Simulated

03-21-2007

Measured

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)


6

2.0

03-21-2007

Simulated

03-21-2007

Simulated

Measured

Measured

4
TP (mg/L)

TN (mg/L)

1.5

1.0

2
0.5
1
0

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.32 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality


on March 21, 2007

High turbid water is one of main water quality problems in WTC. It will
result in water treatment cost increase. Usually in describing turbidity of
water, a unit of NTU is widely used to represent for the clarity of water
related with light penetration. From the sampling results, most serious turbid
water has been reported on June 16th that reached 150 NTU at the end of the
WTC and the turbidity of Bekasi River is recorded 160 NTU. Figure 2.33
shows the input data sets for water quality modeling focusing on turbidity (in
parenthesis) along with flowrates of each tributary including head water
condition. Figure 2.34 shows calibration results of turbidity simulation using
the data sets shown in Figure 2.33. Simulation result reveals that the turbidity
of downstream increases up to 87 NTU due to high turbid water intrusion
through the Bekasi river. Although severe turbidity problem occurs especially
during flood, serious turbidity case has not been reported during project
period since data sampling has been conducted in normal days.

42

June/27/2007
5.38

1.33

Bekasi Weir
17.20
[152]

5.73

17.20
[291]
10.62

0.00

Cikarang Weir

11.29
[18.5]

21.91
[27.5]
38.69

Curug
[69.9]

12.62
[130]
Bekasi River

16.96
[17.7]

55.65
[20.1]

CFC

49.55
[54.6]

6.10
10.68
[30.7]
Cikarang River

6.10
[23.4]
Cibeet River

Figure 2.33 Flowrates and turbidity (in parenthesis) measured on June 12, 2007

180.0
Simulated
Measured

Turbidity (NTU)

150.0

Jun/12/07

120.0

90.0

60.0

30.0

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.34 Comparison of measured and simulated turbidities

43

2.6 Analysis of water quality management scenarios


The calibrated water quality model was employed for the analysis of
various management options to improve water quality conditions along with
the economic and ecological development in a certain timeframe. The main
scenarios considered include separation of the WTC from the tributaries of
Cikarang and Bekasi using siphons, pollutant sources reduction (point
sources and non-point sources in terms of BOD) along the canal, and water
quality improvement in the tributaries (Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi). In
addition since high turbidity problems are frequently reported at the water
treatment plant, model simulation covers turbidity reduction effect due to
siphon construction at the Bekasi river.
Figure 2.35 shows the schematic diagram of the various alternatives tested
to propose the best management plan for water quality improvement in the
WTC area. Overall, water quality observed this year shows much lower BOD
than previous data. Therefore, one data set which demonstrates the effects of
various water alternatives on water quality improvement was used for the
analysis.
BEKASI Riv.

CIKARANG Riv.

CIBEET Riv.

Point or Non-point
Source pollutants

Alt-1

Alt-3
West Tarum

Alt-2

BEKASI Catchment
Area:393km2

CIKARANG Catchment
Area: 218km2
CIBEET Catchment
Area: 534km2

Alt-1: separation of tributary flow using siphon


Alt-2: water quality improvement in the tributary
Alt-3: reducing pollutant sources along the canal

weir

WTP

catchment

pump

siphon

pollutant

Figure 2.35 Alternative scenarios for water quality management

44

2.6.1 ALT-1 Siphon construction at the Cikarang and the Bekasi Rivers
Investigation of operations of the Cikarang and Bekasi weir reveals that
the WTC takes most of the inflow from its major tributaries during the rainy
season to compensate for the downstream water use. In addition, the
tributary inflow is regulated by the weir operation located in the main stream
to prevent downstream overflow. This scenario is relatively valid when the
flowrate of tributary increases, and weir operation is required to maintain the
proper flowrate.
Simulations were conducted to test the effects of siphon construction to
regulate the inflows of the Cikarang and Bekasi River. This scenario assumes
that the flowrate of the Cikarang and Bekasi Rivers is regulated through
siphons before it confluences with the WTC by subtracting outflows
measured at weir operation from the inflows of these two rivers.
Figure 2.36 compares the result of this scenario with the base case
presented in Figure 2.32. This base case was selected in order to give most
significant water quality improvement among the many data sets we
collected. As shown in Figure 2.36, Alt-1(Cikarang) shows the effect of siphon
constructed at the Cikarang River, and Alt-1(combined) shows the combined
effect of siphons constructed at both the Cikarang and Bekasi River. The case
of Alt-1(Cikarang) shows water quality improvement for the section of the
WTC between the Cikarang and Bekasi rivers by 10% BOD decrease, and the
second case of Alt-1(combined) estimates water quality improvement of the
downstream of the WTC after the Bekasi river by 12% at the location of the
Buaran water treatment plant.

45

4
Base Case
ALT1(Bekasi only)
ALT1(combined)

BOD (mg/L)

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.36 Simulation results with siphon construction at the Cikarang


and Bekasi rivers

2.6.2. ALT-2 Water quality improvement in the major tributaries


A large industrial complex has been expanding in the Bekasi district,
including Bekasi City, located between the area of the Cikarang and Bekasi
river. Thus, untreated raw wastewater is released into these two rivers
confluences with the WTC. Since the WTC takes water from the three major
tributaries of the Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi rivers to meet the downstream
DMI water demand, pollution control of these three tributaries is very
important. The second scenario covers the effect of water quality
improvement of these major tributaries through waste water treatment plants
before waste effluents are released into these two rivers.
Figure 2.37 demonstrates the effect of water quality improvement
especially at the Bekasi river, since the significant water quality deterioration
occurs in this river compared to other tributaries. It was estimated that 20% of
BOD removal released from the Bekasi river decreases BOD of the Buaran
station by 16%. In addition, 40%, 60% of BOD removal may yield BOD
decreases in the WTC by 33, 48% respectively as shown in ALT-2(40%) and
ALT-2(60%) in Figure 2.37.

46

Wastewater treatment facilities that reduce the pollutant loads released


from the Bekasi district along with Bekasi City through such wastewater
treatment facilities are recommended to improve the water quality of the
Cikarang and Bekasi rivers and the WTC consequently.
5
Base Case
ALT2(20%)
ALT2(40%)
ALT2(60%)

BOD (mg/L)

4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.37 Simulation results of water quality improvement in the


Bekasi river

2.6.3 ALT-3 Non-point pollutant source reduction


The effects of non-point source control along the WTC have been tested
using the incremental inflow option, defined as pollutant sources not
represented by point source inflow or headwater. It is also useful when field
data show a decreasing flowrate in downstream, which indicates a surface
flow contribution to the groundwater. During the model calibration, the effect
of non-point source was not taken into account because no data relating to
this matter was available, which presumably caused a large discrepancy
between the measured data and simulated results. Therefore, in this
simulation a new base case was set up by assigning distributed non-point
sources along the reach of the WTC between the Cibeet and Cikarang rivers
and the reach between the Cikarang and Bekasi rivers, which shows high
concentrations compared to the previous sampling points. Then, the effects of

47

non-point source control on water quality improvement were tested by


eliminating those non-point sources.
Non-point source control was found to enhance water quality along the
WTC as Figure 2.38 shows simulation results with or without non-point
sources. However, it must be noted that although the simulation result shows
significant water quality improvement, more accurate data collection is
required by intensive investigation of pollutant sources.
5
W/O NPS
W/ NPS

BOD (mg/L)

4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.38 Simulation results with and without non-point source


consideration

2.6.4 Turbidity Management


Main causes of turbid water occurrence include soil loss from excessive
rainfall and human activities such as improper construction and irrigation site
management. Turbid water occurred in a basin consists of wash load and
suspended load and occurrence of turbid water is very sensitive to rainfall
intensities rather than rainfall amounts. Recently, due to high concentrated
flood resulted from global warming, turbid water management is very
important for reliable water quality management.
A non-siphon option with good operation and management of the
desilting basis could provide an immediate beneficial affect on the turbidity.

48

However, desilting basins alone could not solve the turbid water problem
that during flood season the Buaran plant has encountered. The plant was
designed to handle 200-300 NTU with flood season values of over 10,000 NTU
requiring the plant to be closed quite often. It is clear that the Bekasi Siphon
needs construction, for turbidity reasons alone. Building the siphons should
be helpful to reduce turbid water problems although it cannot resolve the
turbid water problems completely. The best option must be to combine the
siphon option with good operation and management of the desilting basin.
Furthermore, considering the capacity of the desilting basins, building
siphons will significantly reduce the volumes and frequencies of dredging
along the WTC as well as the desilting basins, resulting in significant
operation and management cost reductions. In any case,
The WQ Data of the Bekasi River for turbidity, during the PDA period it
was never recorded the turbidity data higher than 500 NTU. It was simply
that the water was never sampled during or after flood. It usually takes
during normal day (cloudy but no rain) and the same case with the Bekasi
tributaries (Cileungsi, Citeureup, Cikeas) including other monitoring points
along the Bekasi River (file attached).
Although the turbidity values observed during this period are much
lower than 200 NTU, the target limit set by the Buaran Water Treatment Plant,
we analyzed the effect of the Bekasi Siphon on reducing turbidity in WTC
using the data sets. Figure 2.39 compares the results the cases with and
without the Bekasi Siphon construction. About 12% turbidity decrease in
main stream of WTC was obtained for this case.

49

120.0
W/O Siphon
W/ Siphon
Turbidity (NTU)

90.0

60.0

30.0

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Figure 2.39 Result of Turbidity simulations for WTC

2.6.5 Summary of scenario applications


Various water quality simulations show that the water quality of WTC is
more dependent on the water quality of the discharge flow released from the
Jatiluhur Reservoir during the dry season since tributary inflows significantly
decrease. Based on scenario applications, adequate water quality
management plans could be established. Firstly, constructing siphon systems
for the Cikarang and Bekasi River will improve water quality of WTC
downstream to reduce 12% of BOD concentration at the location of Buaran
water treatment plant. From the second scenario, simulation results show that
the non-point source reduction scheme improves water quality by 25%, and
the simulation result of 3rd scenario explains that water quality improvement
in major tributary yields 16.7% of BOD decrease at the same location. For the
aspect of turbid water reduction about 12% turbidity decrease was obtained
due to siphon construction in main stream of WTC.
The simulation results of three different scenarios are summarized in
Table 2.11. The priority of the alternatives, tested in this project to enhance
water quality, is as follows: 1) siphon construction at the junction of WTC and
the Bekasi river, 2) siphon construction at the junctions of the Cikarang and

50

the Bekasi river, and 3) water quality improvement of the Bekasi river.
Because the non-point pollution issue has much uncertainty, we excluded this
in the priority list. Detailed study should be conducted in the next phase of
the project.
Table 2.11 Summarized WQ improvement results of three different
scenarios

Alternatives

Siphon Construction

WQ Improvement in Bekasi River

WQ
Improvement
at Buaran St.
of WTC

Bekasi

Cikarang
+Bekasi

20%

40%

60%

10%

12%

16%

33%

48%

Priority

51

Chapter 3. CAPACITY BUIDING AND STAKEHOLDERS


MEETING
3.1 Capacity Building
3.1.1 Staff capacity building
To increase the capacity of PJT II conducting water quality monitoring in
the WTC, the project included capacity building of the technical staff from PJT
II to provide step-by-step activities together with K-water, which was
facilitated through intensive communication, manuals and software in
addition to technical training. This method of learning by doing proved to be
constructive and effective. Further action should be taken to spread the
results of the activity among PJT II employees and in using this method for
further implementation.
An introductory meeting of PDA for the PJT II staff was held at PJT II,
Jatiluhur on January 30, 2007 and is shown in Figure 3.1. During the meeting,
common and useful knowledge for water quality management issues in the
WTC and the importance of IWRM were introduced and shared with
participants. The joint project and collaboration between K-water and PJT II
promoted the modeling and field observation skills in water quality
management for PJT II staff.

Figure 3.1 Project meeting and discussion between K-water and PJT II staff

52

Figure 3.2 illustrates a training session for water quality management was
held at PJT II, Jatiluhur on March 26, 2007. 36 trainees from various divisions
of PJT II received proactive training. Training materials, including an
installation CD and the manual of QUAL2E-PLUS, were also distributed at
the venue.

Figure 3.2 Water quality management training session in PJT II, Jatiluhur

From July 20 to 26, 2007, 6 project staff members from PJT II visited Kwater for the 2nd capacity building. The Indonesian staff visited the Water
Resources Operation Center of K-water and exchanged their concerns and
experiences about water-related issues in both countries, especially on water
quality management. They also visited major facilities of K-water such as
International Drinking Water Analysis Center, Daechung Multipurpose Dam,
and the advanced facilities of KIWE such as the Water and Wastewater
Research Center, conducting state-of-art water treatment research and the
Geo-centrifuge Center for Dam Safety Research. They also visited the
Cheonggye Stream- urban river restoration site in Seoul.
PJT II and K-water staff discussed progress of the project, especially on
the modeling scheme, data acquisition, and data base construction. The
meeting was very helpful for both sides to understand water quality
modeling skills, to use QUAL2E-PLUS and point sources such as irrigation
water abstractions. During the discussion, the existing WTC diagram had
been updated considering actual distance as well as water usage along the
target study area.

53

Figure 3.3 PJT II staffs visit to K-water to discuss the progress of PDA project

3.1.2 Institutional capacity building


Delegation headed by Director General of Water Resources Development,
Ministry of Public Works and the President director of PJT II visited K-water
for institutional capacity building from May 14 to 18, 2007. Figure 3.4(a)
shows the Indonesian delegates visiting the head office of K-water and
meeting with the President of K-water. They exchanged their concerns and
experiences about water-related issues in both countries. An interim meeting
to discuss the progress of the PDA project was held with the President of
Korea Institute of Water and Environment (KIWE, research institute of Kwater) and participating staff.

(a) Meeting with K-water President

54

(b) Water Resources Operation Center (c) International Drinking Water Analysis Center

(d) Daechung Multipurpose Dam

(e) KIWEs Water and Wastewater Research Center

Figure 3.4 Indonesian delegations visiting K-water

3.2 Stakeholders Participation


A water quality management system basically consists of monitoring
networks, a sound water quality simulation model, regulatory water quality
standards, and management strategies to control the point and non-point
pollutant sources. In the process of developing the water quality management
system, stakeholders, who might affect, be affected, and/or be interested in
the activities for the watershed, should be encouraged to participate since it is
necessary to attract and raise public awareness related with water quality
management in the context of IWRM. Through communications and
discussions among these participants, each stakeholder group will play a

55

significant role in providing meaningful comments and feedback for project


development.
Since the same principle defined in a basin wide water quality action plan,
the WQMS in the WTC should be emphasized on multi-stakeholder
participation, delineation of planning boundaries, and adoption of holistic
approaches to problem solving. In the tasks and responsibilities of PJT II, the
corporation only deals with in-stream water quality management. Thus,
various institutions are required to be involved in the water quality
management of in the WTC.
With various institutions involved, steps are required to develop a firm
quality management system. The initial step is information dissemination in
order to synchronize the program from the various stakeholders, followed by
raising awareness and participation. For this reason, regular meetings with
the main stakeholders were organized in the form of workshops. It is not only
to demonstrate the impact of knowledge and information using the proposed
technologies and providing the opportunity to obtain useful feedback,
collecting and elaborating on previous data and studies for the project
refinement, but also to disseminate information on PJT IIs program and
activities related to water quality monitoring system in the WTC in order to
synchronize the overall program from stakeholders, and to raise awareness
and participation from the stakeholders. Therefore, the regular stakeholders
meetings are conducted to facilitate communications between stakeholders
and to strengthen the institutions that are involved in water quality
management in the area.
Based on the role and functionality the stakeholders in the WTC can be
grouped as: (1) Policy / Planning Bodies, (2) Basin Managers, (3) Regulators,
(4) Water Users, and (5) Other Interest Groups such as Research Agencies and
Universities, and also Non-Government Institutions (NGO) that work to raise
community development in the area. Identification of the key stakeholders in
the area is presented in Table 3.1. Each group has a significant role in
providing meaningful public participation and generating close coordination
among stakeholders.
For example, PAM Jaya, a drinking water supply company (consisting of
two private institutions, namely Thames PAM Jaya and PAM Lyonness Jaya)
is the key stakeholder in the category of water users. They are concerned with

56

the quality, quantity, and continuity of the raw water from WTC since 80% of
the supply that is processed at the drinking water treatment plants for Jakarta
region depends on the WTC system. BPLHD is an important institution to
include in this stakeholder meeting as their concern is environmental
protection and they can share their strength as a regulator in dealing with the
polluters along the canal. The institutions are part of the local government as
local regulators. At the provincial level, the Provincial Water Services Unit
(Dinas PSDA Jawa Barat) is concerned with water resources management,
particularly at the third order of river systems. Meanwhile, the Basin
Organizations, i.e. Citarum and Ciliwung-Cisadane (Balai Besar Wilayah
Sungai) are the national level institutions. Practically, Balai Besar Wilayah
Sungai Citarum (Basin Manager of Citarum River Basin) has the same tasks
and responsibilities as PJT II. The main differences of these organizations are
sources of funds, and generally the main concern is water resources
development. However, the main concerns of PJT II are operational and
involve management of water resources.

57

Table 3.1 Expected participants at stakeholder meetings


Category

Policy /
Planning

Name of Institution
National Planning Board
(BAPPENAS) through Director of
Irrigation and Water Resources
Ministry of Public Works through:
Directorate General of Water
Resources, Director of Water
Resources Management, and
Research Board of MPW
(Puslitbang SDA)
Ministry of Environment
Provincial Water Services Unit
(Balai PSDA Propinsi Jabar)

Basin
Managers

Regulators

Basin Organization of Citarum


(Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai
Citarum)
Basin Organization of CiliwungCisadane
(Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai
Ciliwung-Cisadane)
Provincial Unit of Environmental
Protection Agency for Jakarta and
West Java Provinces
(BPLHD Propinsi Jabar, DKI
Jakarta)
BPLHD Kabupaten/Kota Bekasi,
Kab. Karawang, Kab. Bogor

Water
Users
Other
Interest
Groups

PAM Jaya and its concessions


companies TPJ and Palyja
Industry: PT Jababeka
Environmental Engineering
Department ITB and UI
Non government organizations

58

Functionality
Setting up national planning
and policy, e.g. in water
sector
Plan, development of instream water
resources at national level
Setting up national policy
related to the environment
Secretariat of the water
resources
management at provincial
level
Citarum River Basin manager
Basin manager of CiliwungCisadane River basins
(Cikarang and Bekasi River)

Environmental protection
agency at provincial level
Environmental protection
agency at
municipality level
Drinking water supply
company for
Jakarta region
Research and previous data
and studies
Community development

Three workshops were conducted: after the inception meeting, during the
mid-term review and before final report submission. The first stakeholders
meeting was successfully held in PJT II Jatiluhur on March 23, 2007 (Figure
3.5). Stakeholders from 8 organizations participated in the meeting and
actively exchanged their ideas, knowledge, and experience regarding the
PDA project. Detailed comments are summarized in Appendix A.
Comments from the attendees were varied, from operational and
technical to policy oriented. They also presented the data referring to the
water quality and quantity situation in the canal. For example, Thames PAM
Jaya, as operational company of drinking water supply for part of the Jakarta
region, operates Buaran and Pulogadung drinking water treatment plants.
They are concerned with the water quality condition of the WTC that is
influenced by the water quality condition of the Bekasi and Cikarang rivers.
They suggested that these rivers should be adequately studied. They also
informed about the water quality parameters that are below the standards
that influence the treatment costs and drinking water quality conditions.
From a water quantity point of view, the reliability of the water supply
system from Jatiluhur Reservoir should be also considered if the options of
siphon construction at Cikarang and Bekasi are realized.
Some of the institutions were carrying out several studies on the WTC, for
example Palyja, which studied the hydraulics of the WTC regarding the
reliability of the Jatiluhur resources to supply water to the WTP in Jakarta.
One of the results of the study determined that there is a different
configuration of the supply from Jatiluhur during the rainy season and dry
season due to the local rivers. Therefore, it is important to consider the
condition of WTC during the rainy and dry seasons. Another institution that
carries out the water quality monitoring is BPLH Jakarta.
In terms of policy, it was hoped that the project could overcome the recent
conditions, and could control and reduce the incoming pollutants in more
practical and logical ways. One of the tools to improve the water quality in
the river is a wastewater treatment plant. Point sources of pollutants
generally come from domestic sources. PJT II should cooperate with the local
government to solve this problem. The study needs to look into pollutant
control, not only monitoring, and be incorporated into the action plan.

59

Figure 3.5 The 1st stakeholders meeting in PJT II, Jatiluhur on March 23, 2007

The second stakeholders meeting was held on June 12, 2007 in Bappenas
and is shown in Figure 3.6. The main purpose of holding the meeting in
Bappenas was to have a broader scope of stakeholders. The participants were
the same as those of the first stakeholder meeting with additional participants
from Ministry of Environment (MoE) and Directorate General of Water
Resources of Ministry Public Works. MoE works on setting up national policy
on environmental related issues and DGWR works as the national planner of
water resources development. Bappenas acts as a national planner of policy of
various segments and particularly in water resources reform on the national
level. From the second stakeholder meeting, a comprehensive approach
toward water quality management was achieved, incorporating the technical
and non-technical aspects via stakeholder participation. Detailed comments
and discussions are summarized in Appendix C.

Figure 3.6 The 2nd stakeholders meeting in Bappenas, Jakarta on June 20, 2007

60

The third stakeholder meeting was conducted on February 19, 2008 in the
Ministry of Public Works. The meeting was attended with the institutions that
similarly the same as the previous meetings (see Appendix F for list of
attendees). PAM JAYA, the focal water user expressed again their concerns on
the water quality of WTC particularly turbidity as well as detergent content,
and proposed to install early warning system to warn the plants if the
turbidity level is high.

Figure 3.7 The 3rd stakeholders meeting in Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta on
February 19, 2008

The stakeholders meeting that was conducted in the PDA activities is the
first step to include the stakeholders in the planning, operation, and
management in the context of participatory IWRM. The next step is to
form/establish the committee with regular meeting to have more close
coordination among stakeholders and to discuss more detail and to solve the
problems into action plan. Detailed comments and discussions are
summarized in Appendix E.

61

Chapter 4. SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR


FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
4.1 Summary
The Citarum River Basin (CRB) is the most strategic river basin in
Indonesia serving multiple purposes, namely irrigation, domestic, municipal,
and industry raw water requirements. About 80% of raw water requirement
of the water treatment plants in Jakarta carries through the West Tarum Canal.
Water quality issues is the prominent problem affected the operation both of
the canal and the treatment plants.
Realizing the importance of the West Tarum Canal (WTC), an increasing
effort is required to solve the water quality issues, such as increasing water
pollution discharged into the Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi River, increasing
demands for water, decreasing water quality condition in WTC, limited data
to characterize the baseline water quality, low capacity of the monitoring
objectives, methods of sample collection, reporting and analytical procedures,
and the lack of an integral program to improve the water quality condition of
the project area.
The project was successfully completed in accordance with the projects
scopes and schedule. The outputs, outcomes, and effects and impacts of this
PDA are summarized in this section.

4.1.1 Outputs
A comprehensive water quality monitoring network appropriate for the
WTC area in the basin was developed. The 14 existing monitoring locations
that PJT II conducted are adequately represented the general condition of
water quality in the WTC. For the purpose of modeling additional monitoring
points are in place after reviewing the potentially important factors to
understand water quality in the WTC. Based on the monitoring network and
the monitoring plan, water quality monitoring was conducted twice a month

62

over the period of March through November 2007. This resulted in 28


measured data sets, which represented the WTC and local source conditions
during the dry and wet seasons.
Various programs were provided to enhance the capacity of PJT II, both
for staffs and management level. PJT II staffs actively participated during the
project by doing step-by-step activities together with K-water in the water
quality monitoring network design and water quality model development
and successfully conducted water quality monitoring. The institutional
capacity building was achieved by introducing K-waters advanced water
resources management practices to the top management groups of water
resources in the CRB.
Three regular meetings with the main stakeholders were organized to
demonstrate the impact of knowledge and information using the proposed
technologies and as a forum to disseminate information of PJT IIs program
and activities related to water quality monitoring system in the WTC in order
to synchronize the overall program from stakeholders, and to raise public
awareness and participation from the stakeholders.
In parallel to the water quality monitoring activities, the water quality
model for the WTC was constructed using QUAL2E-PLUS model. The model
for the WTC covers the canal and local resources from initial WTC in Curug
weir to intake of Pejompongan drinking water treatment plants. Calibration
was conducted for all the measured data to optimize the result. The calibrated
water quality model was employed for the analysis of various management
options.
The priority of the simulation results, is as follows: 1) siphon construction
at the junction of WTC and the Bekasi river, 2) siphon construction at the
junctions of the Cikarang and the Bekasi river, and 3) water quality
improvement of the Bekasi river. Constructing siphon systems for the Bekasi
River will improve water quality of WTC downstream to reduce 10% of BOD
concentration at the location of Buaran water treatment plant.

63

In addition and BOD, high turbid water is one of main water quality
problems in the WTC since it is closely related with water treatment cost.
Simulation result reveals that the turbidity of downstream reduced by 12%
due to siphon construction. However serious turbidity case has not been
reported during project period since data sampling was conducted in normal
days avoiding heavy rainfall. Thus it is recommended additional analysis for
turbidity simulation during the next project phase.

4.1.2 Outcomes
The fundamental outcomes of the PDA, such as systems, procedures, and
the stakeholders awareness and participation, can be directly applicable to
the water quality planning and management in the CRB. Importantly, this
pilot project proved the suitability of an approach that would address the
issues of adequate database development through monitoring and the
development of a system to support better water quality management
practice in the CRB.

4.1.3 Effects and impacts


The importance of water quality management is to promote the public
awareness for water quality management and to establish Best Management
Practices (BMP) for the sustainable management of environmental and water
resources in the CRB. A well established BMP through the systematic water
quality monitoring and modeling system can provide an appropriate strategy
in establishing IWRM in the CRB as well as other river basins in Indonesia.
The outputs and lessons learned from this PDA can be applied to other
areas covering the CRB and further calibrated as necessary. Priority needs to
be given to the river downstream of the Djuanda Reservoir as well as on the
upper area of the Saguling Reservoir including the Bandung area.

4.2. Suggestions for future development

64

It is suggested that Development of Water Quality Management System


for the CRB be a continuing project of the ADBs PDA for the sustainable
management of the CRB. The objectives of the project will be to develop an
effective decision support system (DSS) for water quality management for the
CRB and to strengthen the capacity of water resources engineers and
institutions.
The project will also be an implementation of the roadmap for Integrated
Water Resources Management in the Citarum River Basin combining two key
areas, i.e. environmental protection, institutions and planning for IWRM to
enhance the environment management capacity that is charged with this
responsibility, and also by supporting key areas, i.e. community
empowerment as well as data and information.
In the proposed project, we suggest employing several steps, including
field investigation, capacity building and modeling system development.
These integrated approaches will provide the fundamental information
needed to improve IWRM for the Citarum River Basin. Thus, this proposed
project should focus on both the issues of comprehensive database
development as well as effective water quality monitoring and modeling, and
also capacity building to support better water quality management.
Eventually, well established best management practices (BMPs) through the
systematic water quality monitoring and modeling system will provide an
appropriate strategy in establishing IWRM in CRB as well as other river
basins in the Republic of Indonesia.

65

APPENDIX A. Minutes of the First Stakeholders Meeting at PJT


II March 23, 2007
Comments from Mr. Harianto (TPJ)
The water quality to Buaran and Pulogadung drinking water treatment plants
(WTP) are influenced by the water quality condition in Bekasi and Cikarang
Rivers. These rivers should be adequately studied.
Comments from Mr. Febrio Awananto (Palyja)
The Palyja has done the hydraulic study (only the quantity part) regarding
the reliability of the Jatiluhur water resources to supply water to the WTP in
Jakarta until Cawang. One of the results of the studied said that there is
different configuration of the supply from Jatiluhur during rainy season and
dry season due to the local rivers. He said that it is important to consider the
condition of WTC during rainy and dry season, and the effect of the siphon
constructions in term of the quantity.
Comments from Mr. Sri (Palyja)
He asked about the project, it is only the study or until the action plan. He
hoped that the project can make the water quality from WTC better.
Comments from Mr. Alamsyah (PAM Jaya)
From 16th til 23rd of November the ammonium content in from the WTC is
above the standard that really influences the treatment cost of the Buaran and
Pejompongan WTP. Too many chemical treatments are also no good for the
customers. These should be considered in the project. If the project has
scenario on siphons development, it should also consider the quantity
reliability point of view from the Jatiluhur reservoir.
Comments from Mrs. Supanya (TPJ)
The objective and expected results from the project was not clear enough.
From the user perspective, the water quality control is more important than
water quality monitoring. The recent situation needs to control the incoming
pollutants. It needs more to action plan how to reduce the pollutants into the
canal, how to improve the water quality in the practical and logical ways.

66

Comments from KLH Bekasi City


To improve the water quality in the river, it needs to build the wastewater
treatment plant. The Bekasi City does not have the wastewater treatment
plant to treat water before disposing the waste into the water bodies. The
industries discharge the waste directly into the river due to several reasons:
they do not have the WWTP and they cannot afford to build and operate the
WWTP. The Bekasi City is really concern about the WTC because it indicates
the cleanliness of the City that is annually judged by the National
Government. The Bekasi City is keen to cooperate with the PJT II to solve the
problem in the WTC.
Comments from Mr. Alamsyah (PAM Jaya)
The point sources relatively come from the domestic. PJT II should cooperate
with the local government to solve this problem. The BPLH DKI did water
quality monitoring and has data on the WQ. PJT II may contact them in order
to get the WQ data.
Comments from Mr. Hariyanto (TPJ)
Eight years ago, there was a planning to build drinking water treatment plant
directly from Jatiluhur reservoir. How is this going on? He thought it would
be good to open it again seeing the importance of the project and benefits
reveals from the project. Related to the price, the water from PJT II is valued
as Rp. 128/m3, and the price from the Tangerang is already Rp. 1,500/m3.
Answer from Mr. Herman Idrus
The Canal 1 project still opens until now. The project needs a lot of initial
investment. This is the constraint of the project.
Comments from Mr. Alamsyah TPJ
There was an investor from Malaysia to PJT II to invest the water supply
directly from Jatiluhur reservoir. What is the follow up from PJT II regarding
this?
Answer from Mr. Herman Idrus
The investor from Malaysia wants to invest in the drinking water supply
system. This kind of project is not a PJT II domain. The Ministry of Public
Works is responsible to do the action.

67

APPENDIX B.

List of Attendees in the First Stakeholders


Meeting at PJT II

LIST OF ATTENDANCE STAKEHOLDER MEETING (PDA - WQMS PROJECT)


Date: 26th of March 2007 Time: 09.00 - 11.00
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Name
Windarmaya
R. Widhya
Supunya Yonpiam
Sang Uk Lee
Joonwoo Noh
Rudi Afrianto
Gok Ari Joso
Anom S.
Irpan
Herman Idrus
Sutisna Pikrasaleh
Reni Mayasari
Erni Murniati
U. Yulidanto
Resky H.
Hendra Rachtono
Joni Panusunan
Hariyatno
Sangyoung Park
Alamsyah Pandjaitan
Hiswandi Hasan
Tarsinus P.
Purwanto
Daan
Noor Tjahjono
R.M. Erwin
Sri W. Kaderi
Syafri
Zainal

Institution
PT. Thames PAM JAYA
Pusat Litbang SDA
PT. Thames PAM JAYA
K-water
K-water
Divisi II - PJT II
Divisi II - PJT II
Divisi V - PJT II
Divisi V - PJT II
Karo Perencanaan
PKSDA - PJT II
PKSDA - PJT II
Perencanaan - PJT II
UPULAK - PJT II
Divisi I - PJT II
Perencanaan - PJT II
PKSDA - PJT II
Thames PAM Jaya
K-water
PAM Jaya
PAM Jaya
Palyja
Palyja
Palyja
Balai Besar WS Citarum
Divisi I - PJT II
Thames PAM Jaya
DPLH Kota Bekasi
DPLH Kota Bekasi

Note:
Pusat Litbang: Research and Development Agency from the Ministry of Public Works
Palyja: PAM Lyonnesse Jaya (operational company of drinking water supply for Jakarta)
Thames PAM Jaya: operational company of drinking water supply for Jakarta
DPLH Kota Bekasi: The environmental service unit for Bekasi City
Balai Besar WS Citarum: Board of Citarum River Basin

68

APPENDIX C.

Minutes of the second Stakeholders Meeting at


Bappenas on June 12, 2007

First comment from the Chairman


How is the comparison between water quality from the Curug weir and at
the end of the WTC? From the figure, it appeared that the difference is not
so high.
Answer by Jeongkon Kim
The figure only presented one of the samples during calibration process.
According to the historical data, the water quality receiving from Jatiluhur
is better than from the tributaries that have high fluctuation on the water
quality. That degrades overall water quality at the end of the WTC.
Second comment from the Chairman
It is now our duty how to supply a good water quality through out the year
as input for the ICWRMP.
Comments from Mr. Erwin, PJT II Division I
During flood season in Bekasi River the water quantity is not a big problem.
But the turbidity level rose very high. Whenever flood is coming, even
though the water quantity is abundant, the PAM Jaya only could take small
amount of water from WTC to their drinking water treatment plants. This
reason is that the installation cannot intake water flow because of the high
turbidity level more than 2,000 NTU.
The WTC configuration utilizes the local resources, i.e., Cibeet River,
Cikarang River, and Bekasi River. Different portions of water composition
are provided from Jatiluhur reservoir and local resources during dry and
wet season. During wet season, water composition is normally obtained by
local resources about 80%, conversely, during dry season the WTC is
mainly supplied by the reservoir about 80% as well. If the siphon is
constructed, how to manage the water quantity since the whole amount of
water should be supplied by the Jatiluhur reservoir that gives impact
maybe on channel dimension, etc.

69

Comments from PAM Jaya


The capacity of Buaran and Pulogadung drinking water treatment plants
are designed to take turbid flow less than 2,000 NTU. In some cases they
can be operated up to 5,000 NTU, but the installation will be stopped above
10,000 NTU. Sometimes the turbidity level from the WTC can reach 16,000
NTU. With high level of turbidity the production cost in the treatment
plants will be increased.
Another concern during dry season is that we once experienced high
ammonium content, higher than 2 ppm. To treat this water quality it needs
additional chemical treatment that will increase the treatment cost. In an
installation managed by my organization we use pulsator to treat high
ammonium concentration. However, this equipment needs routine
maintenance because of high sedimentation. Cleaning the equipment is
painstaking and time-consuming process; therefore, it requires adjustment
of installation operation.
Comments from Puslitbang SDA
Have you compared the previous studies related to WTC? For example,
Puslitbang SDA in cooperation with PJT II has used a water quality model
(i.e., MODQUAL) in 1986.
WTC has experienced high level of fecal coliform. Why is this parameter not
included into the model?
BOD content has relation with DO content. But based on the presented data,
the BOD content is not comparable to DO content, the BOD is so small. The
standard of BOD content is less than 5 mg/l.
Qual2K model is more familiar with Microsoft Excel based and easier to
operate. What reasons do you use QUAL2E-PLUS.
QUAL2E-PLUS is a steady state model; therefore, it needs real-time
measurements to calibrate the model. How do you compensate this
assumption?

70

We need clarification on water uses in WTC area. Based on our data, 80% of
water is not used to supply drinking water for treatment plants, and flow
for flushing is around 20 cms.
Along the canal, the illegal settlement is increasing. We are now doing,
what we called, Eco-technology. We use vegetation and plant different
kinds along the canal to absorb and reduce the pollutant into the river.
Answer by Jeongkon Kim
As we mentioned on the presentation, we recognized that PJT II has done
water quality model using MODQUAL in 1980s. But the model had limited
success due to availability of data.
Comments from Mr. Morris:
Is MODQUAL still practiced until now? Which river basin?
Answer from Puslitbang:
Puslitbang SDA is still practicing MODQUAL and we applied it in several
river basins. There are other correlations between BOD and DO. Sometimes
we cannot compare between the BOD and DO and it depends on river
characteristics.
QUAL2E-PLUS was developed based on Qual2E model. K-water developed
the model using Graphic User Interface therefore it is also easier to operate.
Comment from Mr. Morris:
Maybe we should ask the one who involved in building the model from PJT
II.
Clarification from Erni:
Frankly speaking, I have never been using MODQUAL, so I cannot
compare which model is more user-friendly. But I would like to emphasize
on capacity building and transfer of technology. While this project is
progressing, we have big opportunities to increase our ability on water
quality monitoring system. Related to the model, we work together with Kwater researchers and build the model started from a scratch.
They provided us with the software, manual, and their expertise. In the first
meeting, during Inception Report Review, we asked them about the
continuity of using the software and what will happen after the Project. It is

71

one of the advantages that the software is developed by K-water, and then
we have the right to use it in PJT II not only during the project but after the
project. We are in the same umbrella as members of Network of Asian River
Basin Organization which is the action plan emphasized on capacity
building.
By learning the model operation started from a scratch, we can upgrade our
capability not only in monitoring, but also in water quality analysis,
verification, as part of building our thinking framework on water quality
monitoring system. Model is only one of tools in water quality monitoring
system. We tried to measure all of the points in one day with the
assumption that there would not be many changes in flowrates and water
quality condition along the canal.
As we presented on the slides about 80% of raw water of drinking water
treatment plants in Jakarta is depended on WTC. It does not mean that 80%
of WTC water is deliver to supply water for Jakarta drinking water
treatment plants. The composition of water is still highest for irrigation of
more than 70%. Originally, WTC is designed to flush the Ciliwung river
around 5 cms, but in reality it is lower than that number. Only water flow at
the end of the WTC open canal at the B.Tb.53 has overflow occasionally.
Comments from the Chairman: We have to work together to have better
water quality in the canal.
Comment from Puslitbang SDA
The calibration only on March and April does not represent the overall
condition through out the year during dry and rainy season.
Answer from Mr. Herman Idrus:
The project will end at the end of this year. We do regular monitoring twice
a month at 11 sampling points by this December. Hence, the calibration
process will continue until the end of the year.

Comment from NGO


Mostly we work in the upper Citarum. Now we know that it is not only in
the upper Citarum but also in the lower Citarum we have water quality
problem, exceeding Class V in several parts of the river.

72

For community development we monitor 15 rivers helping from Student


Community on Water Resources Division, and we already built the
laboratory for water quality in Senior High School in Pangalengan and
Ciwidey. We increase awareness of the community to care about the water
quality and to do something that has impact on water quality.
Comments from LH Kota Bekasi
Our office was established in 2004. In 2006 we had budget from local
government to monitor water quality in Bekasi River cooperated with PJT II.
Comment from Mr. Morris
We need to monitor water quality regularly and in basin-wide scale.
Therefore, we should compile and combine the data from different
institutions to have more benefits from it.
Comments from JABABEKA
We established since 1991 and have more than 1,200 tenants (investors) that
should be guaranteed continuing supply of water. We should integrate the
water quantity and quality as well.
We had cases that water in the treatment plant is fine, but to the consumers
it became green yellowish. We changed our treatment chemical from
sodium to flour to reduce side-effects possibly caused by the process.
Along the canal there is increasing illegal settlement and also illegal
domestic disposal. We have done resettlement in left bank along the
Cikarang till Bekasi section. But then it turned out that they built now in the
right bank. The settlement program should be integrated.
In case of Cikarang siphon construction. We proposed also about the flood
management. Now without siphon, the flood is never occurred because
there is regulation in Cikarang weir. We hope after the construction it will
not influence the upstream flow of the Cikarang weir that will impact the
amount of water to the lower part.

73

APPENDIX D.

List of Attendees in the Second Stakeholders


Meeting at Bappenas

No.

Name

Organization

1.

Didi Adji Siddik

BPLHD Prov. Jabar

2.

Yafdarius

BBWS Ciliwung- Cisadane

3.

R.M Erwin, ST, MT

Divisi I PJT II

4.

Eddy A. Djajadiredja

Puslitbang SDA

5.

William Putuhena

Puslitbang SDA

6.

Iskandar Yusuf

Puslitbang SDA

7.

Alamsyah Pandjaitan

PAM Jaya

8.

Sri Sudarsih

PAM Jaya

9.

Noortjahjono

BBWS Citarum

10.

Danik Prona

Bappenas

11.

Geoff Wright

ADB Consultant

12.

Chris Morris

ADB

13.

Mufti Haris

PT. Jababeka

14.

Sutrisno

PJT II

15.

Cecep Kurnia

Warga Peduli Lingkungan (WPL)

16.

Gatut Bayuadji

Bina PSDA, Dep. PU

17.

Jonner Simanjuntak

DPLH Kota Bekasi

18.

Harry Sudrajat

DPLH Kota Bekasi

19.

Wigiana Nopianti

Balai PSDA Citarum

20.

Siti Sri Mulyati

Balai PSDA Citarum

21.

Sutisna

PJT II

22.

Herman Idrus

PJT II

23.

Ick Hwan Ko

K-water

24.

Jeongkon Kim

K-water

25.

Budhi Santoso

Bappenas

26.

Reni Mayasari

PJT II

27.

M. Sugeng Suwad

DTRLH Kab. Bogor

28.

Pikho Rizki

DTRLH Kab. Bogor

29.

Joni Panusunan

PJT II

30.

Hendra

PJT II

31.

Erni Murniati

PJT II

74

APPENDIX E.

Minutes of the third Stakeholders Meeting at


Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia, on February
19, 2008

Comments from Mr. Kris Tetuko, PAM Jaya


1. Additionally to the existing water quality parameters, our treatment
plants are sufferred from detergent content in the raw water. We can only
reduce 50% of the original content. We propose to monitor the detergent,
at least every three months.
Answer: We considered this.
2. Some water quality parameter sometimes change tremendously that influ
ence the drinking water treatment plant operation, especially turbidity du
ring flood or high water level. Therefore, it is suggested to have early war
ning system for turbidity to have the water plant warned about the qualit
y of water in the inlet.
Answer: There are 24 hours field officers that monitor the water condition in
every weirs, i.e. in Curug, Cibeet, Cikarang, Bekasi Weirs. We can utilize the
existing communication system to warn about the water quality in the canal to
the operator in the treatment plant by providing them portable water quality
meter and increase their capacity on basic water quality parameter. But during
night time, this will be difficult. Automatic water quality monitoring device will
be required.
3. What does the point and non-point source mean?
Answer: We differentiate the point and non-point source by the type of the outlet.
If we can measure the contaminants from the certain location or point, we call
this point-source. If the source come from area and differentiate for example by
the type of activities, such as agriculture, we refer this as non-point-source.
4. Why do you choose of siphon construction as option to improve water qu
ality in the WTC?
Answer: The water quality in WTC is highly influenced by the rivers condition
that crossing the WTC, namely Cibeet, Cikarang, and Bekasi. This has been
reported by several studies and has become reality.
5. Normally, there is relationship between BOD and DO. If BOD decreases t

75

hen DO will increase, but I saw from the presentation figure, the BOD dec
reases but the DO is also decrease.
Answer: In the system DO is influenced by several factors, such as atmosphere
reaeration, from photosynthesis algae. This combination influences the DO
content.
6. Besides BOD, we should also monitor COD
Answer: We also monitor COD.
Comments from Mr. Simon, Research Center for Water Resources, Ministry
of Public Works:
1. The water quality monitoring does not include the heavy metal parameter
s, such as Mercury, Brome, Chrome, etc. I consider these important due to
increasing industrial activities along the WTC. By monitoring the metal p
arameters, the trend of water quality by industrial activities can be exami
ned. The model should be also included the heavy metal parameters, so w
e have more complete analysis.
Answer: Previously we monitored 32 parameters including heavy metal as
presented in the slides. The monitoring program was part of the Hydrological
Crash Program, a Dutch funded project, in 1992 and refined by the Jatiluhur
Water Resources Project Preparation Study in 1998. Since 2004 using PJT II
own budget, the monitoring points and the observed parameter is reduced due to
budgetary constraint.
2. Bacteria analysis should also be included
Answer: Previous monitoring parameters including Eusteria Coli. During this
project activity, we monitored only certain important parameters.
3. Water quality monitoring locations and parameters in the basin
Answer: We monitor 75 locations with 16 parameters as shown in the slides.
4. The present model used the present status of the basin. How about the pr
ojection? To indicate what will be going to happen in the future?
Answer: The activity is based on the existing situation. For the future projection
need another model to predict the situations that include the increasing of
demographic features, etc.

76

5. The model also should include agriculture pollutants and there should be
inventory of irrigation canals that influence the water condition in the wat
er supply system
Answer: PJT II has been regularly monitored and made inventory of irrigation
off-takes from the WTC. Some of drainage flow to the WTC has been removed by
the previous project. Pollutant source from domestic activity along the WTC is
more significant to the improvement of water quality in the WTC.
6. Within the large settlement area, the wastewater treatment plant should b
e constructed. This rule has been applied by the GoI. But the real-estate de
veloper tried to avoid this rule by dividing the area into several small sch
eme estates. How far this rule is being implemented? Also the contaminan
t from small home industry, such as tofu/tahu and tempe which contr
ibute to large organic materials.
Answer: The question should be directed to the Ministry of Environment and
local government.
Comment from Mr. Chris Morris, ADB:
1. There is some traps (natural purification? Wetlands?) to have the
condition of water quality better.
2. If Government of Indonesia (GoI) will invest some funds for water quality
improvement, what recommendation do you suggest to improve water
quality, in term of better financial return and better water quality to PAM
Jaya?
Answer: As indicates in the alternative of options to have better water quality in
the WTC, reducing pollutant loadings from illegal settlement along the WTC is
significant to improve the water quality in the WTC.
Comments from BPLHD DKI Jakarta:
1. We have known the Qual2E and applying it. The new model that we are a
pplying now is Qual2K.
Answer: We can use the model but theyre not much different.

77

APPENDIX F. List of Participants in the third Stakeholders Meeting


at Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia, on February
19, 2008

78

APPENDIX G. Letter of Agreement between K-water and PJT II

79

80

APPENDIX H. List of Attendees in the Inception Meeting

81

82

Major Events

Future plan for CRB IWRM

3rd stakeholder meeting(PJT2)

2nd WQ monitoring and modeling


training(K water)

2nd stakeholder meeting(PJT2)

Trip to PJT
2 & WTC

PJT2

Institutional capacity building

M idterm
report

K water
PJT2
K water

WQ Monitoring (Flow, BOD, TN, TP, DO, Temp., Turbidity etc.)

1st WQ monitoring and modeling


training(PJT2)

PJT2

Inter.
meeting &
Field trip

1st stakeholder meeting(PJT2)

BMP estimation for IWRM

Scenario analysis for BMP

Model calibration

QUAL2E-Plus Plus model building


for WTC

Hydraulic and Hydrologic data


analysis

WQ monitoring and Database


building

Field survey and monitoring plan

Data gathering and analysis

Projected Plan

APPENDIX I. Progress schedule to develop water quality management system

WQ Monitoring

WQ Modeling

WQ
Management Capacity Building & Stakeholders meeting
System

10

11

Final report

PJT2

12

83

14:50

15:08

15:20

16:14

17:01

17:35

18:12

10

11

12:17

12:22

10:10

9:12

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

23.7

15.9

16.8

20.4

cms

Flow

27.8

28.3

28.4

28.9

29.9

31.7

33.2

32.5

30.3

32.1

n/a

Temp.

6.2

6.2

6.2

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.2

6.4

6.7

6.7

n/a

pH

(a) Sampling date: March 21, 2007

3.9

4.7

4.8

5.3

4.7

4.5

4.4

4.0

5.2

n/a

mg/L

DO

3.6

5.0

3.8

4.8

5.9

2.3

1.9

2.7

2.8

2.1

2.3

mg/L

BOD5

10.2

15.2

10.2

13.2

15.2

5.1

<5.0

7.1

7.1

5.1

6.1

mg/L

COD

0.55

0.80

0.65

0.70

0.65

0.39

0.77

0.53

0.17

0.59

0.19

mg/L

NO3-N

0.091

0.078

0.062

0.068

0.077

0.083

0.055

0.070

0.098

0.017

0.028

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.11

0.28

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.11

1.12

0.11

1.68

mg/L

NH3-N

0.56

0.28

0.28

0.62

0.67

0.90

0.45

0.39

0.67

0.95

0.95

mg/L

Org.N

APPENDIX J. Analysis results of water quality data along the WTC during PDA project

0.25

0.06

0.45

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.05

0.65

0.10

0.45

0.60

mg/L

Diss.P

0.10

0.35

0.20

0.25

0.40

0.15

0.15

0.40

0.10

0.15

0.45

mg/L

Org. P

84

13:22

13:32

13:48

14:25

14:42

14:57

10

11

12:22

12:07

12:40

11:12

10:05

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

9.1

16.5

41.2

32.9

cms

Flow

31.1

31.9

32.4

34.1

33.7

34.2

31.9

31.3

32.2

30.6

31.2

Temp.

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.2

6.7

6.4

6.6

6.4

6.5

6.7

6.6

pH

DO

4.4

5.4

5.8

7.1

6.2

5.0

6.1

6.4

6.3

6.2

5.8

mg/L

(b) Sampling date: March 30, 2007

1.7

3.3

3.4

2.6

1.7

1.9

1.9

3.2

1.8

1.7

1.9

mg/L

BOD5

<5.0

8.13

9.14

6.1

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

8.13

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

mg/L

COD

0.54

0.91

0.76

0.63

4.66

0.22

0.76

0.24

0.52

0.16

0.28

mg/L

NO3-N

0.190

0.201

0.064

0.077

0.240

0.310

0.034

0.192

0.132

0.177

0.042

mg/L

NO2-N

0.45

0.56

0.28

0.06

0.11

0.28

0.11

0.84

0.06

0.11

0.28

mg/L

NH3-N

1.12

1.40

1.12

1.57

1.23

1.96

0.06

0.56

0.45

1.23

1.57

mg/L

Org. N

0.15

0.06

0.40

0.15

0.20

0.40

0.05

0.75

0.15

0.40

0.65

mg/L

Diss. P

0.05

0.35

0.21

0.15

0.35

0.10

0.10

0.45

0.15

0.20

0.40

mg/L

Org. P

85

12:00

12:15

13:40

14:10

15:00

16:15

10

11

10:50

10:40

11:45

10:35

9:25

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

27.5

7.3

21.1

21.1

cms

Flow

29.7

30.1

29

29.4

29.3

29.7

30.1

28.7

29.2

28.5

28.7

Temp.

6.8

6.7

67

6.9

6.6

6.7

6.7

6.9

6.8

6.7

6.8

pH

(c) Sampling date: April 12, 2007

4.9

3.7

3.9

5.6

5.5

5.6

5.2

6.1

4.7

2.4

mg/L

DO

7.6

1.7

2.2

3.3

1.5

1.6

2.1

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.5

mg/L

BOD5

20.32

<5.0

6.1

8.1

<5.0

<5.0

6.1

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

mg/L

COD

0.87

0.98

0.71

0.73

0.74

0.85

0.45

0.73

0.51

1.08

0.91

mg/L

NO3-N

0.13

<0.01

0.28

0.03

<0.01

<0.01

0.19

0.01

<0.01

0.01

0.96

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.11

0.28

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

1.40

1.40

mg/L

NH3-N

1.12

1.40

1.23

1.40

1.12

1.40

0.11

0.67

0.28

1.01

1.40

mg/L

Org. N

0.06

0.03

5.00

0.15

0.01

0.05

0.05

0.03

0.05

0.08

0.10

mg/L

Diss. P

0.03

0.30

0.05

0.01

0.20

1.05

1.45

0.05

0.10

0.03

0.12

mg/L

Org. P

86

12:10

12:35

13:10

13:25

14:50

15:30

10

11

10:35

10:25

11:45

10:20

9:35

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

40.3

10.2

22.9

22.9

cms

Flow

29.5

29.5

28.5

29.5

28.8

29.7

28.7

28.1

29.5

28.7

29.6

Temp.

6.9

6.9

6.6

6.7

6.5

6.9

6.7

6.9

6.8

6.9

6.7

pH

6.1

5.9

4.7

5.4

6.2

5.9

6.5

5.7

6.2

5.1

5.6

mg/L

DO

(d) Sampling date: April 28, 2007

1.8

2.1

1.9

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.8

2.9

1.5

1.6

1.7

mg/L

BOD5

5.1

6.1

5.1

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

5.1

7.1

<5.0

<5.0

<5.0

mg/L

COD

0.56

0.81

0.65

0.69

0.65

0.40

0.74

0.54

0.60

0.17

0.19

mg/L

NO3-N

0.089

0.073

0.059

0.063

0.071

0.079

0.053

0.067

0.015

0.091

0.027

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.56

mg/L

NH3-N

0.84

1.57

1.12

1.01

0.54

0.84

1.96

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.28

mg/L

Org. N

0.07

0.05

0.06

1.00

0.01

0.06

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

mg/L

Diss. P

5.00

0.31

0.10

0.02

0.27

1.15

1.55

0.01

0.02

0.10

0.10

mg/L

Org. P

87

13:00

13:15

13:40

13:50

15:15

16:40

10

11

11:00

10:40

12:30

10:30

9:15

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

17.07

4.07

7.41

41.25

cms

Flow

28.3

29.8

28.1

30.3

30.3

29.5

29.9

29.5

28.7

30.4

27.8

Temp.

6.7

6.5

6.5

6.5

6.7

6.8

6.5

6.7

6.6

6.8

pH

(e) Sampling date: May 10, 2007

4.1

5.9

4.5

6.5

4.5

4.1

5.4

2.3

mg/L

DO

3.21

1.39

4.08

1.4

2.21

3.78

1.5

4.18

2.77

1.4

1.39

mg/L

BOD5

8.19

<5

10.24

<5

6.14

9.22

<5

10.24

7.17

<5

<5

mg/L

COD

2.007

1.706

1.218

0.94

0.852

0.984

0.679

0.851

1.303

0.558

1.51

mg/L

NO3-N

0.018

<0.01

0.017

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.15

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.84

0.28

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.84

mg/L

NH3-N

0.45

0.67

0.11

0.06

0.84

0.56

1.68

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.11

mg/L

Org. N

0.03

0.05

0.01

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.35

0.05

0.5

0.02

0.7

mg/L

Diss. P

0.3

0.1

2.1

0.15

0.55

3.6

0.25

1.5

0.75

0.5

0.75

mg/L

Org. P

88

11:50

12:00

13:45

13:55

15:10

16:00

10

11

10:55

11:35

10:45

10:40

10.21

3.95

5.94

45.11

9:50

Flow
cms

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

31

32

31

30

30

30

30

30

30

29

29

Temp.

6.9

6.8

6.7

6.9

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.9

6.7

pH

(f) Sampling date: May 26, 2007

4.9

5.4

4.3

47

5.1

5.4

5.8

5.7

5.2

4.7

3.5

mg/L

DO

3.71

1.39

3.41

1.4

1.61

3.31

1.49

3.66

2.22

1.49

1.71

mg/L

BOD5

9.22

<5

8.19

<5

5.12

7.17

<5

9.22

6.14

<5

5.12

mg/L

COD

0.541

0.813

0.671

0.689

0.651

0.405

0.751

0.831

1.293

0.546

1.52

mg/L

NO3-N

0.081

0.069

0.061

0.059

0.075

0.071

0.057

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.13

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.28

1.12

0.56

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.56

mg/L

NH3-N

0.28

0.56

0.06

0.11

0.56

0.28

1.4

0.28

0.06

0.11

0.11

mg/L

Org. N

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.04

0.05

0.03

0.3

0.05

0.4

0.05

0.5

mg/L

Diss. P

0.12

0.05

1.95

0.15

0.5

3.3

0.25

1.4

0.85

0.3

0.75

mg/L

Org. P

89

9:30

11:05

11:10

11:20

12:15

13.05

13.05

13:45

13:40

14:30

15:05

10

11

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

16.41

7.93

6.3

50.60

Cms

Flow

28.5

29

28.5

30

29

29

30

30

31

31

30

Temp.

6.4

6.3

6.2

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.6

6.8

6.4

6.7

6.7

pH

DO

3.9

3.9

4.6

4.8

6.0

4.8

4.4

4.6

3.7

5.4

mg/L

(g) Sampling date: June 13, 2007

3.43

4.53

2.34

6.32

5.57

5.62

5.82

3.09

4.93

3.44

5.23

mg/L

BOD5

8.19

11.26

5.12

16.38

14.34

14.34

15.36

7.17

12.29

8.19

13.31

mg/L

COD

1.19

1.073

1.685

1.190

0.774

0.608

1.466

0.320

0.269

0.841

0.125

mg/L

NO3-N

<0.01

0.087

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.016

0.014

< 0.01

<0.01

0.017

0.132

mg/L

NO2-N

1.01

1.12

0.11

0.45

0.84

0.84

0.11

1.96

0.84

0.11

0.11

mg/L

NH3-N

0.28

0.45

0.06

1.12

0.56

0.56

1.12

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.28

mg/L

Org.N

0.04

0.05

0.03

0.03

0.07

0.05

0.4

0.10

0.35

0.07

0.4

mg/L

Diss.P

0.1

0.05

1.75

0.15

0.20

3.10

0.35

1.10

0.65

0.3

0.7

mg/L

Org.P

152

291

130

18.5

27.5

17.7

30.7

20.1

69.9

23.4

54.6

NTU

Turb.

90

12:30

12:45

14:00

14:30

15:10

15:15

10

11

10:48

11:45

10:35

10:25

12.62

10.68

6.1

49.55

08:55

Flow

cms

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

29

29

29

28

Temp.

6.7

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.9

6.7

6.8

6.6

pH

5.1

4.9

5.7

4.6

5.1

4.5

4.7

4.4

4.2

4.5

3.7

mg/L

DO

(h) Sampling date: June 27, 2007

2.70

1.5

3.79

4.19

1.49

3.43

5.22

7.07

3.44

3.03

4.45

mg/L

BOD5

6.14

<5

9.22

10.24

<5

8.19

13.31

18.43

8.19

7.17

11.28

mg/L

COD

1076

1189

0.851

0.762

0.695

0.535

1.498

0.336

0.257

0.713

0.328

mg/L

NO3-N

0.089

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.015

0.012

<0.01

<0.01

0.011

0.232

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.11

0,11

mg/L

NH3-N

0.84

0.45

0.56

0.11

1.12

1.40

0.11

0.28

1.4

1.4

1.12

mg/L

Org.N

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.070

0.078

0.036

<0.01

0.117

0.178

<0.01

0.112

mg/L

Diss.P

0.106

1.710

<0.01

<0.01

1.657

<0.01

0.015

0.038

0.042

<0.01

0.064

mg/L

Org.P

88.8

101

69.9

52.1

44.4

35.7

34.5

32

16.1

31.7

86.3

NTU

Turb.

10

mg/L

TSS

91

10:05

10:35

10:45

10:45

11:15

12:00

12:21

13:35

14:00

14:15

14:35

15:00

15:50

10

11

12

13

14

8.82

1.33

3.87

50.6

9:15

Flow

cms

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

29.5

29.7

29.7

29.2

29.4

29.3

29.8

29.7

29.5

29.2

29.5

29.3

28.7

28.5

Temp.

6.7

6.9

6.8

6.7

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.7

6.5

6.9

6.7

6.8

6.6

6.7

pH

6.7

6.4

7.3

8.5

7.5

8.7

7.9

7.2

7.6

4.7

6.4

8.2

6.3

3.9

mg/L

DO

(i) Sampling date: July 13, 2007

5.93

1.49

4.08

5.98

3.39

4.53

4.52

3.44

2.29

5.18

1.54

3.08

2.34

6.37

mg/L

BOD5

15.12

<5

10.08

15.12

8.06

11.09

11.09

8.06

5.04

13.1

<5

7.06

5.04

16.13

mg/L

COD

1.175

0.837

1.585

1.193

0.507

0.898

0.963

1.185

1.258

1.25

1.148

0.125

1.208

1.33

mg/L

NO3-N

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0,01

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.11

mg/L

NH3-N

0.84

0.56

0.28

0.22

0.28

0.22

0.28

0.28

0.17

0.11

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

mg/L

Org.N

0.086

0.115

0.178

0.198

0.06

0.154

0.161

0.258

0.568

0.169

0.396

0.958

0.266

0.227

mg/L

Diss.P

0.098

0.17

0.313

0.062

0.293

0.454

<0.01

0.094

0.083

0.238

0.12

0.155

0.26

0.012

mg/L

Org.P

42.4

12.4

33.3

33.7

44.4

37.2

6.7

39.3

16.9

17.9

19.6

5.76

13.3

11.6

NTU

Turb.

10

mg/L

TSS

92

10:20

11:10

11:45

11:55

12:05

12:30

13:10

13:30

14:10

14:45

15:05

15:20

15:45

16:35

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

2.52

0.91

0.82

58.33

Cms

Flow

30.2

29.8

29.6

29.5

29.8

30.9

29.5

31.8

29.2

28.2

28.5

29.7

29.5

29.7

Temp.

6.9

6.7

6.7

7.1

6.7

6.6

6.6

6.9

6.7

6.7

6.9

6.5

6.8

6.7

pH

6.5

6.7

5.8

7.8

8.1

7.4

7.5

8.8

6.7

5.7

4.3

9.3

6.8

5.2

mg/L

DO

(j) Sampling date: July 26, 2007

1.48

3.13

1.53

1.49

3.43

3.29

4.87

3.43

3.38

1.48

3.43

3.09

3.38

2.69

mg/L

BOD5

<5

7.06

<5

<5

8.06

5.04

12.1

8.06

8.06

<5

8.06

7.06

8.06

6.05

mg/L

COD

0.992

0.774

1.201

0.989

0.525

0.882

0.989

0.966

1.117

1.178

0.992

0.136

1.136

1.19

mg/L

NO3-N

<0,01

0.01

<0,01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.011

<0.01

<0.01

0.012

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.28

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.06

1.4

0.56

0.56

1.12

0.11

0.84

0.56

mg/L

NH3-N

1.68

1.4

1.57

1.4

0.39

0.45

0.67

1.68

1.4

0.28

0.45

0.28

0.56

0.84

mg/L

Org.N

0.169

0.131

0.075

0.125

0.124

0.16

0.167

0.16

0.146

0.194

0.302

0.241

0.333

0.432

mg/L

Diss.P

0.364

0.075

0.039

<0.01

0.223

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.058

0.252

0.29

0.041

0.69

<0,01

mg/L

Org.P

20.8

18.9

6.7

6.6

6.6

6.9

6.7

6.7

6.9

6.5

10.3

11

NTU

Turb.

16.9

13.2

mg/L

TSS

93

8:55

9:15

9:45

9:55

10:05

10:25

11:10

11:30

11:40

13:20

13:35

13:55

14:30

15:00

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

3.58

0.66

0.39

57.43

Cms

Flow

28.7

29.2

30.0

29.7

29.5

29.8

29.5

28.7

29.1

28.9

29.7

29.3

29.2

29.5

Temp.

6.7

6.9

6.8

6.8

6.6

6.7

6.9

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.8

6.7

6.7

6.6

pH

6.3

6.0

7.4

7.9

6.8

8.1

7.1

8.0

7.4

6.2

5.6

7.9

6.1

4.8

mg/L

DO

(k) Sampling date: August 10, 2007

1.48

2.73

1.49

1.48

3.08

2.38

4.12

3.82

3.08

1.49

3.50

2.78

3.13

2.38

mg/L

BOD5

<5

6.05

<5

<5

7.06

5.04

10.08

9.07

7.06

<5

8.06

6.05

7.06

5.04

mg/L

COD

0.974

0.749

1.180

0.959

0.504

0.856

0.967

0.944

1.095

1.154

0.480

0.148

1.123

1.166

mg/L

NO3-N

<0.01

0.011

0.010

<0.01

< 0.01

<0.01

< 0.01

<0.01

0.010

0.011

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

mg/L

NO2-N

0.28

0.45

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.06

1.12

0.28

0.45

0.84

0.11

0.06

0.28

mg/L

NH3-N

0.45

0.28

0.06

0.56

0.11

0.17

1.40

0.28

0.11

0.67

0.45

0.28

0.22

0.39

mg/L

Org.N

0.150

0.130

0.160

0.100

0.170

0.070

0.090

0.190

0.260

0.120

0.150

0.230

0.140

0.240

mg/L

Diss.P

<0.01

0.120

0.080

0.050

<0.01

0.110

<0.01

0.040

0.050

<0.01

0.030

0.100

0.150

0.090

mg/L

Org.P

21.0

17.5

15.5

12.9

21.5

38.6

11.9

5.43

9.8

10.2

12.1

2.5

10.6

11.2

NTU

Turb.

mg/L

TSS

94

9:05

10:06

10:53

10:58

11:05

11:10

12:05

13:35

13:45

14:45

15:10

15:16

15:46

16:40

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

9.79

7.63

7.72

57.11

cms

Flow

28.7

28.9

28.9

28.8

29.9

29.4

29.9

30.1

29.1

28.7

28.6

29.6

28.8

29.7

Temp.

6.5

6.6

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.5

6.6

6.5

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.4

6.4

6.3

pH

6.5

6.3

6.7

5.6

5.5

6.1

5.2

5.1

5.1

4.7

4.9

4.6

4.4

3.2

mg/L

DO

(l) Sampling date: August 24, 2007

1.49

1.44

1.46

2.74

1.45

1.50

1.45

1.44

1.49

1.44

1.49

1.50

1.46

1.49

mg/L

BOD5

<5

<5

<5

6.05

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

<5

mg/L

COD

1.525

1.650

0.888

1.230

1.510

0.648

0.438

1.640

0.830

0.902

0.362

0.804

0.586

0.676

mg/L

NO3-N

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.28

0.06

0.11

0.06

0.11

0.11

0.84

0.28

0.28

0.67

0.84

mg/L

NH3-N

0.11

0.84

0.84

1.40

0.06

0.11

1.08

0.06

0.39

1.01

0.11

0.28

0.28

0.56

mg/L

Org.N

0.12

0.09

0.21

0.13

0.14

0.10

0.09

0.11

0.17

0.16

0.06

0.21

0.24

0.27

mg/L

Diss.P

0.04

0.01

0.06

<0.01

<0.01

0.07

0.06

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.08

0.14

0.16

mg/L

Org.P

20.1

15.8

13.2

11.2

19.5

26.5

10.5

4.61

9.2

10.1

11.3

3.1

9.9

10.6

NTU

Turb.

10

mg/L

TSS

95

9:10

10:20

10:40

10:45

10:52

11:08

11:36

12:05

12:11

13:16

13:28

13:32

14:15

15:15

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

2.08

1.58

1.53

58.66

cms

Flow

31.7

28.2

32.4

32.3

30.4

29.5

29.7

29.9

30.4

28.8

28.8

29.0

28.7

26.0

Temp.

7.7

7.6

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.3

7.3

7.3

pH

3.39

2.79

2.19

4.78

6.97

3.98

4.48

3.45

3.59

4.98

4.08

5.08

3.39

3.39

mg/L

DO

9.51

11.35

5.57

13.85

1.49

5.22

8.51

8.47

4.13

6.32

7.67

3.14

8.06

7.72

mg/L

BOD5

(m) Sampling date: September 17, 2007

25.20

30.24

14.11

37.30

<5

13.10

22.18

22.18

10.08

16.13

20.16

7.06

21.17

20.16

mg/L

COD

3.57

3.76

3.99

4.29

3.50

3.57

4.04

4.41

7.93

4.00

8.02

8.75

6.21

8.53

mg/L

NO3-N

0.01

0.03

0.02

<0.01

0.07

0.04

0.02

0.27

<0.01

0.02

0.18

<0.01

0.05

0.42

mg/L

NO2-N

0.06

0.11

0.11

1.12

0.06

0.06

0.11

1.12

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.28

0.56

1.12

mg/L

NH3-N

0.56

0.28

0.28

0.39

0.67

0.45

0.56

0.39

0.84

0.39

1.40

0.34

0.84

0.34

mg/L

Org.N

<0.01

0.10

0.10

0.05

0.11

0.10

0.18

<0.01

0.15

0.13

0.22

0.24

0.12

0.10

mg/L

Diss.P

0.04

0.12

0.03

0.19

<0.01

0.18

0.09

0.13

0.12

<0.01

0.47

0.11

0.08

0.08

mg/L

Org.P

19.8

31.2

8.50

32.2

12.6

18.9

30.5

42.5

38.2

62.5

45.3

68.2

65.5

74.0

NTU

Turb.

mg/L

TSS

96

8:35

9:27

9:51

9:56

10:04

10:25

11:03

11:24

11:30

11:50

12:09

12:14

13:42

14:42

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

Parameters

5.58

1.00

1.11

52.99

Cms

Flow

29.6

29.8

30.0

31.5

29.8

29.1

29.1

30.1

28.6

28.5

28.6

31.2

28.4

28.3

Temp.

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.9

6.9

6.8

7.1

6.8

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.8

6.8

pH

3.10

2.63

2.35

4.25

6.52

3.62

4.05

3.82

4.10

4.87

5.43

5.20

3.72

3.60

mg/L

DO

2.71

1.48

3.19

9.15

5.27

3.14

1.49

5.96

1.48

3.79

3.46

3.42

7.67

3.19

mg/L

BOD5

(n) Sampling date: September 29, 2007

5.98

<5

6.97

23.90

12.95

6.97

<5

14.94

<5

8.96

7.97

7.97

19.92

6.97

mg/L

COD

7.85

7.73

8.69

7.45

7.66

8.45

4.65

4.53

4.87

5.08

12.53

12.81

13.35

16.54

mg/L

NO3-N

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.05

<0.01

<0.01

0.04

0.56

<0.01

0.01

0.02

0.29

0.03

0.67

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.84

0.11

0.06

0.11

1.12

0.11

0.28

0.84

0.56

1.12

1.12

mg/L

NH3-N

1.12

0.56

0.45

0.28

0.28

0.67

0.56

0.67

0.84

0.45

0.45

0.56

0.28

0.56

mg/L

Org.N

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.16

0.16

0.21

0.12

0.15

0.17

0.09

0.05

0.90

0.15

mg/L

Diss.P

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.05

0.03

<0.01

0.07

<0.01

0.12

0.08

<0.01

<0.01

0.16

0.06

mg/L

Org.P

23.8

25.7

40.8

23.4

15.9

10.5

25.4

18.8

32.5

28.1

52.3

47.8

58.2

49.10

NTU

Turb.

mg/L

TSS

97

Parameters

8:35

9:27

9:51

9:56

10:04

10:25

11:03

11:24

11:30

11:50

12:09

12:14

13:42

14:42

10

11

12

13

14

Sampling
time

Monitoring
station no.

13.31

2.32

2.32

49.83

Cms

Flow

29.6

29.8

30.0

31.5

29.8

29.1

29.1

30.1

28.6

28.5

28.6

31.2

28.4

28.3

Temp.

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.9

6.9

6.8

7.1

6.8

6.8

6.9

6.9

6.8

6.8

pH

3.10

2.63

2.35

4.25

6.52

3.62

4.05

3.82

4.10

4.87

5.43

5.20

3.72

3.60

mg/L

DO

2.71

1.48

3.19

9.15

5.27

3.14

1.49

5.96

1.48

3.79

3.46

3.42

7.67

3.19

mg/L

BOD5

(o) Sampling date: October 22, 2007

5.98

<5

6.97

23.90

12.95

6.97

<5

14.94

<5

8.96

7.97

7.97

19.92

6.97

mg/L

COD

7.85

7.73

8.69

7.45

7.66

8.45

4.65

4.53

4.87

5.08

12.53

12.81

13.35

16.54

mg/L

NO3-N

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.05

< 0.01

< 0.01

0.04

0.56

< 0.01

0.01

0.02

0.29

0.03

0.67

mg/L

NO2-N

0.11

0.06

0.06

0.84

0.11

0.06

0.11

1.12

0.11

0.28

0.84

0.56

1.12

1.12

mg/L

NH3-N

1.12

0.56

0.45

0.28

0.28

0.67

0.56

0.67

0.84

0.45

0.45

0.56

0.28

0.56

mg/L

Org.N

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.16

0.16

0.21

0.12

0.15

0.17

0.09

0.05

0.90

0.15

mg/L

Diss.P

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

0.05

0.03

< 0.01

0.07

< 0.01

0.12

0.08

< 0.01

< 0.01

0.16

0.06

mg/L

Org. P

23.8

25.7

40.8

23.4

15.9

10.5

25.4

18.8

32.5

28.1

52.3

47.8

58.2

49.10

NTU

Turb.

mg/L

TSS

98

17.32
[3.62]

03/21/2007

Bekasi River

23.67
[3.76]

10.14
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

11.69

7.48
17.62
[5.88]

Cikarang River

10.88
[2.29]

15.94
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

9.20

21.28
37.22
[2.67]

CFC

16.79
[2.78]

Cibeet River

22.24
[1.71]

5.45

Figure E.1 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on March 21, 2007

17.32
[4.98]

4.80

APPENDIX K. Water quality simulation results using QUAL2E-PLUS

20.43
[2.30]

Curug

99

DO (mg/L)

40

50

30

40

50

60

70

60

70

03-21-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Measured

10

30

03-21-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated

10

Measured

Simulated

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

20

40

50

30

40

50

60

70

60

70

03-21-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Measured

10

30

03-21-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated

10

Measured

Simulated

Figure E.2 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of March 21, 2007

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

100

14.88
[1.71]

03/30/2007

Bekasi River

[3.41]

9.13

10.07
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

0.18

5.75
15.82
[1.71]

Cikarang River

2.39
[1.91]

16.47
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

3.04

24.71
41.18
[3.21]

CFC

8.30
[1.81]

Cibeet River

8.30
[1.71]

0.00

Figure E.3 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on March 30, 2007

14.88
[3.31]

4.14

32.88
[1.91]

Curug

101

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

03-30-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

03-30-2007

Measured

Simulated

20

40

50

30

40

50

60

70

60

70

03-30-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Measured

10

30

03-30-2007

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated

10

Measured

Simulated

Figure E.4 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of March 30, 2007

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

102

17.37
[3.62]

04/12/2007

27.53
[3.76]
Bekasi River

9.59
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

14.21

6.64
16.23
[5.88]

7.28
[2.29]
Cikarang River

13.18
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

4.23

21.06
34.24
[2.67]

CFC
13.14
[2.78]
21.11
[1.71]
Cibeet River

7.97

Figure E.5 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on April 12, 2007

17.37
[4.98]

5.54

21.10
[2.30]

Curug

103

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

Apr/12/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Apr/12/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

20

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Measured

Simulated

70

60

70

Apr/12/07

60

Apr/12/07

Figure E.6 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of April 12, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

104

16.87
[1.71]

04/28/2007

40.25
[3.41]
Bekasi River

7.62
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

25.45

11.36
18.98
[1.71]

10.22
[1.91]
Cikarang River

16.94
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

8.18

23.13
40.07
[3.21]

CFC
17.14
23.95
[1.71]
Cibeet River

6.81

Figure E.7 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on April 28, 2007

16.87
[3.31]

5.55

22.93
[1.91]

Curug

105

DO (mg/L)

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

40

50

70

60

70

Apr/28/07

60

Apr/28/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

20

30

40

50

20

40

50

70

60

70

Apr/28/07

60

Apr/28/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.8 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of April 28, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

106

17.39
[3.62]

May/10/2007

29.82
[3.76]
Bekasi River

6.36
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

13.25

9.76
16.12
[5.88]

50.39
[2.29]
Cikarang River

17.05
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

51.32

31.61
48.66
[2.67]

CFC
7.41
[2.78]
17.11
[1.71]
Cibeet River

9.70

Figure E.9 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on May 10, 2007

17.39
[4.98]

5.54

41.25
[2.30]

Curug

107

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

May/10/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

10

10

May/10/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

May/10/07

60

May/10/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.10 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of May 10, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

108

16.83
[1.71]

May/26/2007

10.21
[3.41]
Bekasi River

10.65
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

0.29

5.42
16.07
[1.71]

3.95
[1.91]
Cikarang River

15.20
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

3.08

35.85
51.05
[3.21]

5.94

CFC

5.94
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 11 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on May 26, 2007

16.83
[3.31]

3.74

45.11
[1.91]

Curug

109

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

May/26/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

May/26/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

May/26/07

60

May/26/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.12 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of May 26, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

110

17.26
[3.62]

June/12/2007

16.41
[3.76]
Bekasi River

7.13
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

0.54

8.25
15.38
[5.88]

7.93
[2.29]
Cikarang River

11.22
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

3.77

38.63
49.85
[2.67]

CFC
6.30
[2.78]
6.30
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 13 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on June 12, 2007

17.26
[4.98]

5.74

43.55
[2.30]

Curug

111

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

Jun/12/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Jun/12/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

20

40

50

70

60

70

Jun/12/07

60

Jun/12/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.14 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of June 12, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

112

17.20
[1.71]

June/27/2007

12.62
[3.41]
Bekasi River

11.29
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

1.33

10.62
21.91
[1.71]

10.68
[1.91]
Cikarang River

16.96
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

5.73

38.69
55.65
[3.21]

6.10

CFC

6.10
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 15 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on June 27, 2007

17.20
[3.31]

5.38

49.55
[1.91]

Curug

113

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

Jun/27/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Jun/27/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

20

40

50

70

60

70

Jun/27/07

60

Jun/27/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.16 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of June 27, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

114

17.05
[3.62]

July/13/2007

8.82
[3.76]
Bekasi River

12.16
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

0.13

9.35
21.51
[5.88]

1.33
[2.29]
Cikarang River

24.90
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

4.72

29.57
54.47
[2.67]

CFC
3.87
[2.78]
3.87
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 17 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on July 13, 2007

17.05
[4.98]

3.80

50.60
[2.30]

Curug

115

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

60

Jul/13/07

70

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Jul/13/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

20

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

60

Jul/13/07

60

Jul/13/07

Figure E.18 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of July 13, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

70

70

116

16.52
[1.71]

July/26/2007

2.52
[3.41]
Bekasi River

17.75
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

0.00

8.58
26.33
[1.71]

0.91
[1.91]
Cikarang River

29.08
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

3.66

30.07
59.15
[3.21]

0.82

CFC

0.82
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 19 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on July 26, 2007

16.52
[3.31]

3.75

58.33
[1.91]

Curug

117

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

60

Jul/26/07

70

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Jul/26/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

20

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

30

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

60

Jul/26/07

60

Jul/26/07

Figure E.20 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of July 26, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

70

70

118

16.33
[3.62]

Aug/10/2007

3.58
[3.76]
Bekasi River

17.63
[4.76]

Bekasi Weir

0.51

4.98
22.61
[5.88]

0.66
[2.29]
Cikarang River

24.84
[1.90]

Cikarang Weir

2.89

32.98
57.82
[2.67]

CFC
0.39
[2.78]
0.39
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 21 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on August 10, 2007

16.33
[4.98]

4.37

57.43
[2.30]

Curug

119

DO (mg/L)

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

30

40

50

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

60

70

60

70

Aug/10/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Aug/10/07

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

Aug/10/07

60

Aug/10/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.22 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of August 10, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

120

17.25
[1.71]

Aug/24/2007

9.79
[3.41]
Bekasi River

16.67
[2.61]

Bekasi Weir

3.04

7.42
24.09
[1.71]

7.63
[1.91]
Cikarang River

23.90
[1.91]

Cikarang Weir

7.44

40.93
64.83
[3.21]

7.72

CFC

7.72
[1.71]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 23 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on August 24, 2007

17.25
[3.31]

6.17

57.11
[1.91]

Curug

121

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

70

Aug/24/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Aug/24/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

Aug/24/07

60

Aug/24/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.24 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of August 24, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)

122

16.85
[9.51]

Sep/17/2007

2.08
[5.57]
Bekasi River

18.75
[13.85]

Bekasi Weir

0.08

[1.49]

6.98
25.73
[5.22]

1.58
[8.47]
Cikarang River

28.62
[8.51]

Cikarang Weir

4.47

[4.13]

31.77
60.39
[6.32]

CFC
1.53

[7.67]

1.53
[3.14]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 25 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on September 17, 2007

16.85
[11.35]

3.90

[8.06]
58.86
[7.72]

Curug

123

DO (mg/L)

10

20

30

40

50

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

60

70

10

30

40

50

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured
60

70

Sep/17/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

Sep/17/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

Sep/17/07

60

sep/17/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.26 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of September 17, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)

TP (mg/L)

124

16.46
[2.71]

Sep/29/2007

5.58
[3.19]
Bekasi River

15.59
[9.15]

Bekasi Weir

0.12

[5.27]

7.89
23.48
[3.14]

1.00
[5.96]
Cikarang River

26.98
[1.49]

Cikarang Weir

4.50

[1.48]

27.12
54.10
[3.79]

CFC
1.11

[3.46]

1.11
[3.42]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 27 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on September 22, 2007

16.46
[1.48]

4.59

[7.67]
52.99
[3.19]

Curug

125

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

10

30

40

50

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

Simulated
Measured
60

70

Sep/29/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Sep/29/07

Simulated
Measured

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

Sep/29/07

60

Sep/29/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

Simulated
Measured

10

Simulated
Measured

Figure E.28 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of September 22, 2007.

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)

TP (mg/L)

126

16.65
[3.42]

Oct/22/2007

13.31
[2.76]
Bekasi River

15.09
[6.67]

Bekasi Weir

6.27

[4.87]

6.09
21.18
[2.71]

2.32
[3.46]
Cikarang River

26.46
[1.46]

Cikarang Weir

7.60

[6.32]

25.69
52.15
[7.03]

CFC
2.32

[3.42]

2.32
[3.77]
Cibeet River

0.00

Figure E. 29 Flowrates and BOD( in parenthesis) measured on October 22, 2007

16.65
[7.43]

5.48

[5.22]
49.83
[1.41]

Curug

127

DO (mg/L)

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

10

30

40

50

60

Oct/22/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

SUM-N
Measured TP

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

70

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

10

10

Oct/22/07

DISS OXYGEN
Measured DO

20

10

30

40

50

30

40

50
Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

20

70

60

70

Oct/22/07

60

Oct/22/07

Distance from the Curug Weir (Km)

SUM-P
Measured TP

10

BOD
Measured BOD

Figure E.30 Comparison between measured and simulated water quality of October 22, 2007

TN (mg/L)

10

BOD (mg/L)
TP (mg/L)