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INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES: Industrial disputes are the disputes which arise
due to any disagreement in an industrial relation. Industrial relation
involves various aspects of interactions between the employer and the
employees. These disputes may take various forms such as protest, strikes,
demonstration, lockouts, retrenchment, dismissal of workers etc. The
Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 provides machinery for peaceful resolution of
disputes and to promote harmonious relation between employer and the
workers. It also contains provisions relating to individual disputes and also
for collective disputes in sections 2(A) and 2(k) respectively. An industrial
dispute is defined as any dispute or difference between employer and
employer, or between employer and workmen, or between workmen and
workmen, which is connected to the employment or non employment, or
the terms of the employment or in the conditions of labour of any person
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES: Industrial disputes are referred to
the industrial relations machinery, whether they involve strikes or not, had
arisen due to the various causes, which may be classified into economic,
organizational, physical, technical, political, psychological and marketoriented conditions. However the relative importance of each one of these
causes is very difficult to evaluate,. The workers were especially interested

in higher wages, congenial working conditions, and opportunities for career

development, welfare facilities, job satisfaction and the hike. When these
are denied to them, the workers are forced to assert their rights, which then
lead to industrial disputes.
This study was conducted to assess the major causes of the industrial
disputes, also to identify the factor which influences the industrial disputes
and to examine the mode of settlement of disputes. This study also shows
the attitude of the workers towards the performance of the industrial
relations department.

The study was empirical in nature and it was carried out to find out the
major causes of dispute, factors which influence industrial disputes and the
mode of settlement of industrial disputes.
Construction of the interview schedule: The study involved the
collection of data from both primary and secondary sources.
The primary data was collected from the sample respondents. For this
purpose two separate interviews was prepared; for the workers and for the
management personnel. The schedule for the workers was designed to seek
data on the workers background, their perceptions regarding the causes of
disputes and the mode of settlement of disputes. The interview was
scheduled for the managerial personnel regarding their perception or views
on the causes and settlement of disputes. The interview schedule was pretested with the workers and the management personnel in one of the units
in each category.
Sampling Design: Total 222 textile mills were there in as on January 1,
1999. The following criteria were taken into account while selecting the
sample units for the study.
a. The selected units should represent both the private and the
cooperative sectors.

b. There were ten textile mills, employing more than 500 workers in
the study area. Of the ten mills, eight mills are under private sector,
and two mills are in cooperative sector. Therefore, four units from
the private sector and one from the cooperative sector (50 percent
from each sector) were selected random basis. Thus, in total, five
mills were selected for the present study.
Selection of the sample workers: there were wide variations in the
number of the workers employed in the five mills selected for the study.
However, sixty workers were selected from each of the five sample units,
i.e. 240 workers in all from the private sector units, and 60 workers were
selected from the cooperative sector unit by adopting the simple random
sampling technique. Thus, a total of 300 workers were selected for the
present study
Selection of sample managerial personnel: the simple random sampling
technique was also used for the managerial personnel. Ten managerial
personnel were selected from each of the five units, that is, 40 sample
managerial personnel in all from the private sector and 10 sample from the
cooperative sector. Thus, the total managerial personnel selected for the
study worked out to be 50.
Tools of analysis: For the purpose of the analysis, statistical tools like
Garret s ranking technique, Choice based ranking and Mann- Whitney Utest were used.



1. 17TH Industrial Relations Conference (1994). Report Of The

Proceedings Of The Council Of Indian Employers. New Delhi,
February 1994, p.34.
2. A.M. Ross And P.T Hartman (1960). Changing Pattern of Industrial
Conflict. John Wiley, Inc., New York.
3. Bose, s.c. and madasamy, v. (2009)





The present study endeavored to find out the trend of industrial conflicts in India due to
changes in composition and structure base after the initiation of the economic reforms.
Industrial relations are a major force which influences the social, political and economic
development of an economy. With the initiation of the economic reform, it was
anticipated that the industrial sector would come forward as the key to additional
employment opportunity to labor force. To maintain social, economic and political
stability industrial relation are an essential factor for developing economics like India.
The economy of any country depend on the industrial sector that are considered as the
backbone of the nation.
Conflicts or disputants are inbuilt characteristics of any organization and cannot be
eliminated completely, but the efforts can be made to manage them and shape them as
tools for adding a substantial value to an organization. History shows that most of the
country in the world are developed only by good industrial relationship and harmony.
As in England, the labor class was responsible for its industrial revaluation. Germany,
Japan and another country lay emphasis on maintaining good industrial relationship to
maintain their economic, social and political status.
Industrial relation pertain to the study and practice of collective bargaining, trade and
unionism and labor management relations, while HRM is separate, largely distinct field
that deals with non-union employment relation, personal practices and policies of
The study analyzed the ways of solving conflicts in industries, increased competition,
reduction in manpower through voluntary retirement service, union membership and
various government policies have had an impact on changing industrial relation in
India. The present study will not only enrich the existing literature, but will also provide

an enhanced picture regarding the relative position of various conflicts and their causes
in India.

To find out the configuration of industrial disputes in India, the present study uses the
time series data for a period of 9 years. The present study incorporate the data for a
period of 9 years only due to the availability of data regarding various variables like
Mandays Lost, number of disputes, workers involved in various types of disputes, and
production losses observed in public and private sector respectively. Though these

statistics suffer from a lot of limitation like unavailability of current data, yet they are
useful to know the pattern of conflict over a period of time. The present study deals with
the course of industrial conflicts over the last one decade and their responsible factors.
The study further divided in different parts illustrating the scenario of industrial conflict
with the help of some indices followed by inter-sector analysis, inter-industry analysis
and various causes of concern for conflicts in different industries operating in India.