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Steel Castings Handbook


Supplement 5
General Properties of Steel Castings
Preface
Steel castings, whenever possible, are purchased to property requirements rather than to chemical analysis specifications. Thus, the foundry engineer can select the alloy compositions which best satisfy mechanical property specifications.
Most of the national specifications are written in the terms of the alloy type plus tensile properties and in some cases,
hardness values, impact values, and hardenability ranges.
The property values presented in this supplement are those which may be expected from carbon and low alloy cast
steels in general. Mechanical properties have been determined from test specimens prepared in accordance with standard
practice.
Additional information on carbon and low alloy steels, as well as wear-resistant steels, corrosion-resistant alloys, both
high alloy and nickel base, heat-resistant alloys and low temperature and cryogenic steels is fully discussed in the Steel
Castings Handbook, 5th Edition, published by the Steel Founders' Society of America.

Contents

Page
DEFINITION AND ALLOY CLASSIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Property Ranges and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Strength-Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Strength-Ductility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Strength-Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
Strength-Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
10
Constant Amplitude Testa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variable Amplitude Testa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
Section Size, Mass Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Alloy and Heat Treatment Influence on Section Size Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
GENERAL ENGINEERING TYPES OF CAST STEEL GRADES .............................................. . 22-23
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24

150

<!)

0:

110

t;;

100

90

c;;
z

80

..J

~'l

70

~,,

50

" ...

LLI
0:

60

<(

50

I&.

40

30

i=
(.)

20

:;:::)

0:

~
w

500

0:

t;;

~
w

~........
-...:::::' ...

..................
~

'
.............
/
-......:::: ......

>=

20

35

30

gz

...

500 I-

----- ---...... ---:--,---

......... _ _...

...... ..........
/ ...... ...-.......-

/ -,;;;...:;:::. '

ae
~

0.10 0.20 030 OAO 0.50 0.60 070 080 0.90

50
30

<!)

<!)

400 ~

1-

300 (/)
0

I-WATER QUENCHED AND


TEMPERED -1200F(649'tl

200

2- NORMALIZED

..J

>=

3-NORMALIZED AND
TEMPERED- 1200~(649C l
4- ANNEALED

25
20
15
10

5
oL-~--~~--~~--~~--~~~

0
0.0

40

__

4"..::._-... ...

10

60

40

::z:

1~/
/

.......-'

80

400 1-

AND
TEMPERED -1200F (649C
4- ANNEALED

0..

600::'!:

Ld

3- NORMALIZED

~.......................................

90

G
10
z

600 ~

I - WATER QUENCHED AND o


TEMPERED-1200F (649Cl
2- NORMALIZED

4~
,,

800

1-

(/)

fi,/

::z:

0:
7001-

A_,",

::.!!
0

...

,.,.'/'

~.-;/

1- 60

<(

900

100 . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .

~
I
::z:

::e

...... ... --I~ ,./:;::;>~-~

::z:

1-

zw

1000~

Cl)

...:

1.0

00 0.10 020 030 0.40 050 060 070 0.80 0.90

CARBON-%

1.0

CARBON- %

Fig. 1 Tensile strength and reduction of area vs. carbon


content of cast carbon steels (1).

Fig. 2 Yield strength and elongation vs. carbon content of


cast carbon steels (1).

DEFINITIONS AND ALLOY CLASSIFICATIONS

tive Engineers, Inc., SAE, have historically been used to


identify the various types of steel by their principal alloy
content (Appendix A)*. Cast steels, however, do not
follow precisely the composition ranges specified by
AISI and SAE designations for wrought steels. In most
cases the cast steel grades will contain 0.30 to 0.65% Si,
and 0.50 to 1.00% Mn, unless specified differently. The
principal low alloy cast steel designations, their AISI
and SAE equivalents, and their alloy type are listed
below:

Carbon steels contain only carbon as the principal


alloying element. Other elements are present in small
quantities including those added for deoxidation. Silicon and manganese in cast carbon steels typically
range from 0.25 to about 0.80% Si, and 0.50 to about
1.00% Mn, respectively. Carbon steels are classified
by their carbon content into:
Low carbon steel
. C:::::; 0.20%
Medium carbon steel . . . . C = 0.20-0.50%
High carbon steel
. C 2:: 0.50%
Low alloy steels contain alloying elements, in addition to carbon, up to a total alloy content of 8%.
Cast steel containing more than the following amounts
of a single alloying element is considered low alloy
cast steel:
Manganese
1.00%
Silicon
0.80
Nickel
0.50
Copper
0.50
Chromium
0.25
Molybdenum
0.10
Vanadium
0.05
Tungsten . .
0.05
For deoxidation of carbon and low alloy steels, i.e.
for control of their oxygen content, the elements
aluminum, titanium, and zirconium are used. Of these
eleme'nts, aluminum is used most frequently, because
of its effectiveness and low cost.
Numerous types of cast low alloy steel grades exist

Cast Steel
Designation
1300
8000,8400
80800
2300
8600,4300
9500
4100

Nearest Equivalent
AISI and SAE
Designation
1300
8000,8400
80800
2300
8600,4300
9500
4100

Alloy Type
Mn
Mn-Mo
Mn-Mo-8
Ni
Ni-Cr-Mo
Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo
Cr-Mo

The AISI no longer uses the 8000, 8400, 2300, and


9500 designations. However, because these alloy types
are used extensively as cast steels, their cast steel
designation numbers are continued in the steel casting
industry. There are additional alloy types which are
infrequently specified as cast steels, namely: 3100
(Ni-Cr), 3300 (Ni-Cr), 4000 (Mo ), 5100 (Cr), 6100
(Cr-V), 4600 (Ni-Mo), and 9200 (Si).
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES

to meet the specific requirements of the end use, such


as structural strength and resistance to wear, heat,
and corrosion. The designations of the American Iron
and Steel Institute, AISI, and the Society of Automo-

Property Ranges and Trends

Carbon and low alloy steel castings are produced


to a great variety of properties because composition

*Refers to Steel Casting Handbook-5th edition.

110

80
--NORMALIZED

260

240

::c

ID

I 220

.;._

50

a:
ID

90
80 ..,

60

LLI
1

50

>
u

>

30

4QU

30

20

180

>~
LLI
z

70

LLI

20

...J
....I

LLI

--QUENCHED AND
TEMPERED

40

LL1

0
0::

60

0::

,. I

LLI 200

.Q

t!)

en
en
~

100

70

10

10

160

1- WATER QUENCHED AND


TEMPERED- 1200"F (649"Cl

140

~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-~

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

2 - NORMALIZED

4- ANNEALED
100

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Fig. 4 Room temperature Charpy V-notch values vs. carbon


content of cast carbon steel in the normalized and tempered
condition [tempering temperature l200F (650"C)] (1).

'3- NORMALIZED AND

TEMPERED-1200"F(649 C

120

04

CARBON-%

~~--~--~--~--~--~--~--L---L--.....1

0.0

0.10

0.20 0.30 040

050 0.60 0.70 0.80

090

1.0

CARBON-%
Fig. 3

Hardness vs. carbon content of cast carbon steels (1).

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE- "C


100

and heattreatment can be selected to achieve specific


combinations of properties, including hardness,
strength, ductility, fatigue, and toughness. While selections can be made from a wide range of properties,
it is important to recognize the interrelationship of
these properties. For example, higher hardness, lower
toughness, and lower ductility values are associated
with higher strength values.
Property trends among carbon steels are illustrated as
a function of the carbon content in Figures 1 through 4.
Unless otherwise noted, the properties discussed refer to
those obtained from specimens which have been removed
from standard ASTM keel blocks, which are made with a
1.25-in. (32-mm) section size. The subject of how these
properties are affected by larger section sizes is discussed
in this supplement under the heading Section Size, Mass
Effects.
For low alloy steels, the properties of Ni-Cr-Mo
cast 8630 grade in Figure 5 illustrate the range of
properties which can be achieved with a single material
and the interrelationship of its mechanical properties.
These relationships and mechanical property ranges
will be further discussed in the following paragraphs
for carbon and low alloy cast steels.
Strength-Hardness. Depending on alloy choice
and heat treatment, ultimate tensile strength levels
from 60 to 250 ksi (414-1724 MPa) can be achieved

~ 150

200

300

400

500

600

700

400

60

c- 0.28-0.33
(f)
(f)

w
a::

1(f)

100

Mn-1.00 mox
Si -0.80 mox
Ni- 0.40-0.80
Cr -0.40-0.80
300 Mo-0.15- 0.30

~
40

>-

1_j

20

t;
::::>

50

200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE -F
Fig. 5 Mechanical properties of 0.6Ni-0.6Cr-0.22Mo cast 8630
steel (2).

and tempered steels having Brinell hardness values

with cast carbon and low alloy steels.

within the range of 120 to 280 BHN.

For cast carbon steels Figure 6 illustrates tensile


strength and tensile ductility values which can be
expected from normalized steels and from quenched

For carbon steel the hardness and strength values


are largely determined by the carbon content and the
heat treatment as illustrated in Figure 3. The effect
3

~ 130

900

120
t;
z 110
!::! 100
In 90

800 J:

500

ascr

460

100

600

...J 80

aJ
1-

cr

1-

IJ)

o
_ <'{

400~

400

.
z

tii

g
ILl

1000

1200

1400

1600

"!
45

- - NORMALIZED
WATER QUENCHED
AND TEMPERED-

35

IJ)

(/)

LIJ 340

Lll ~

---

00!

40

--

0
0::

.............................. ........

25
20
15 120

140

160

180

<X

:I:
_J
_J

IJ)

LIJ

........................
............

ascr

1-

12ooF t649Cl

35
30

300

'-

260

iE

CD 220

180
140

-- --

200 220 240

420

:I:
CD 380

):<!>

20
0

c
a..
500
:E
ol

ll:!o 30

:.e

60

I-ILI 50
0~

800

ILl

500

z~

ocr
::)<{

In

70

"iii
-"'
I
OJ: 65
...JI:;
~z 55
>-ILl

600

t;

ILl

u;

TENSILE STRENGTH- MPa

!i

IOQL---~--~--~----~--._--~--~--~---J

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

TENSILE STRENGTH- ksi


Fig. 8
Hardness vs. tensile strength of low alloy cast steels
regardless of heat treatment (1).

260 280

BRINELL HARDNESS- BHN

Fig. 6
Tensile properties of cast carbon steels as a function
of hardness (1).

1500
I

J: 180

a:

t;

J:
11100 ~

In

900

In

700

iii

z
ILl
cr

240

220

80

::::> 200

-;!.

180

a:

<{

...J
...J

w
z
ii:
([)

:;:

500

60

J:

cr
0

_J

ILl
):

([)

r.n
r.n
w

LIJ

ILl

a..
1300~

160

tii

20

10

ILl

(!)

I - 1050 F t 566c 1
2- 1200 F (649.Cl
3- 1300 F ( 704 c l

<{

ILl

50

.....

40

30

20

ct

CARBON-%

i=
(.)

10

ll!

Fig. 7
Hardness vs. carbon content of normalized cast
carbon steels tempered at various temperatures for two hours (1).

60

cr

80

100 120

140

160 180 200 220 240 260

TENSILE STRENGTH - ksi

Fig. 9
Tensile properties of cast low alloy steels in the
quenched and tempered and in the normalized and tempered
conditions (1).

of tempering normalized carbon steel is shown by


data in Figure 7.
The normally expected Brinell hardness-ultimate
tensile strength combinations of cast low alloy steels

are shown in Figure 8. The proportionality of


strength to hardness is widely recognized.
Strength-Ductility. Ductility depends on the
4

YIELD

STRENGTH- MPo

YIELD STRENGTH - MPo


400

600

800

1000

1200
1600

900

0..

:E

0..

800 :E
:I:

1400 :I:
1-

:I:

1(!)

700

oc

i=
(!)
z

oc

500

(/)

z
w

1000 ~

....J

U5

U5
z
w 120

(/)

z
w

800 1-

1-

1-

(/)

(/)

(/)

....J

1200 ~
1-

1-

600 ~

(/)

1-

(!)

4001600

~
I

zI

40

<[

30

(!)

~
(!)

20

-:>

u
0
C\i

10

u
0

C\i
80
100 ::-80

60

80

.....

u
0
C\i

80

lJ...
0

0
1'-

6o

>-

40

oc
w

20

lJ...

oL-~---L---L--~--L-~---L~

60

0
1'-

40

140

160

180

>

STRENGTH - ksi

>

20

QT

20

ships of Figures I, 2, and 9 are replotted in Figures 10


and II to reveal the major trends for cast carbon and low
alloy steels. Quenched and tempered steels exhibit the
higher ductility values for a given yield strength level
compared to normalized, normalized and tempered, and
annealed steels.
Strength-Toughness. Several test methods exist
to evaluate toughness of steel, or the resistance to
sudden or brittle fracture. These include the Charpy
V-notch impact test, the drop weight test, the dynamic
tear test and specialized procedures to determine plane
strain fracture toughness. Results of all these tests
are in use and will be reviewed here because each
of these tests offers specific advantages that are unique
to the test method as discussed in Chapter 4-Functional Considerations in Design.*
Charpy V-notch impact energy trends at room tern-

0~----~-------L------~----~

20

100 120

Fig. 11 Room temperature properties of cast low-alloy steels.


QT = quenched and tempered. NT = normalized and tempered
(3).

oc

oc

80

YIELD

t;
w

(!)

>

tOO o

40

60

80

100

YIELD STRENGTH - ksi


Fig. 10 Room temperature properties of cast carbon steels.
QT = quenched, tempered at 1200"F (650C}. N = normalized.
NT = normalized, tempered at 1200"F (650C). A = annealed (3).

strength, or hardness, of the cast steel to a very large


extent (Figures 6 and 9). Actual ductility requirements
vary, of course, with the strength level and the specification to which a steel is ordered (Chapter 27-Specifying Steel Castings*). Because yield strength is a primary
design criterion for structural applications, the relation Refers to Steel Casting Handbook-5th edition.

YIELD

TEMPERATURE- C
-5o -40 -30 -20 -to

10

20 30 40

STRENGTH - MPo

50

90

:!

....:

80

I - QUENCHED AND TEMPERED


2 - NORMALIZED

70

3- ANNEALED

r<t-100

...,

60

80 I

40

30

60

'@~

ffi
z
I

40

(.)

(.)

20

20

40

60

80

100

\~f::
;I

120

TEMPERATURE-oF
Fig. 12 Effect of various heat treatments on the Charpy
V-notch transition curves of a 0.30% carbon steel (1).
20

40

60

YIELD

-10

u
0

-20

1-

-30

6z

-40
-50
-60

CARSON,

Mn I% max

-70

<t LOW ALLOY

-80

<t

perature in Figures I 0 and II reveal the distinct effect of


strength and heat treatment on toughness. Higher
toughness is obtained when a steel is quenched and
tempered, rather than normalized and tempered. The
effect of heat treatment and testing temperature on
Charpy V-notch toughness is further illustrated in Figures 12 and 13 for a carbon steel and for a low alloy cast
8630 steel. Quenching, followed by tempering, produces
superior toughness as indicated by the shift of the impact
energy transition curve to lower temperatures. The
improved toughness of quenched and tempered steels is

<D

\~omee
anoe

-50

-60 -40 -20

<t <t <t

10

;;
~<t.

10

:~

20

cx:x:>OO 0

110

>

30

0~

<t ()])

u..

UJ

UJ

>

50

(!)

50

~"

<t

>-

>(!)
a::
~
z

40

4330, CA-15

80

-90
100

120

STRENGTH - ksi

Fig. 14 The NDTI and yield strength of normalized and


tempered commercial cast steels (1.5-in. (38-mm) section] (5).

realized in spite of the higher strength level as evident for


the cast 8630 low alloy steel (Fig. 13).
Nil ductility transition temperatures, NDTT, from
+ l00F (38C) to as low as -l30F ( -90C) have been
recorded in tests on normalized and tempered cast

TEMPERATURE - C
-100

-200

100

200

60
40

50

.;..

30

>(!)

a:
z
LU

...,

~:e

..0

40

a:
z

LU

LU
I

>(!)

30 LU
I

HEAT G, Q ST
UTS = 141 (972 MPa l

20

>

>

(,)

(,)

/15
/0

sY

B/

10

~
ll/
~ - o__ ..~

20

0
.-'r.HL--- HEAT 0, NST
UTS =90ksi (620 MP0 )

ll/ll

~:___--HEATH,

NST

100

200

10

.t
-300

-200

-100

300

400

500

TEMPERATURE - F
Fig. 13 Charpy V-notch test results for various heats of cast 8630 steel in the quenched and tempered and normalized and tempered
condition (4).

YIELD STRENGTH - M Pa
700
1100
500
900

300

1300

-100
120

.i'"'cw/'ys'"/1
0

50

(0
0
0
'i
u)j.
.

0
IL.
0

11-

TEMPERATURE -

so

-10

z
100

o""-... o <Sl

o-o4330 (Ni Cr Mol


"150
40

60

80

100

~100
-25

120

140

IGO

180

-20

20

40

60
160

Wee - QUENCHED

140

6 TEMPERED
3-IOin.(76-254-mml
THICK PLATES

120

80

100 ~
LLI
80

f5

LLI
I 40

60

>
u

-100

..,
>-

0:: 60
LLI

-75

t CARBON STEEL
0 LOW ALLOY
t 4330(Ni Cr Mol

-40

<.!)

-60

>-

50 0

1/

-I

11-

00

-80

oc

>
u

40
20

20

200

YIELD STRENGTH-ksi

Fig. 15 The NDTT and yield strength of quenched and


tempered commercial cast steels [1.5-in. (38-mm) section] (5).
Fig. 16 NDTT values (triangles) and the scatter band of
Charpy V-notch energy transition curves of several quenched and
tempered C-Mn cast steels (A216, grade WCC). Nominal ultimate
tensile strength = 80 ksi (552 MPa) (1).

carbon and low alloy steels in the yield strength range


of 30 to 95 ksi (207 to 655 MPa) ( Figure 14 ).
Comparison of the data in Figure 14 with those
of Figure 15 shows the superior toughness values,
at equal strength levels, which low alloy steels offer
compared to carbon steels. When cast steels are
quenched and tempered, the range of strength and
of toughness is thus broadened (Figure 15). NDTT
values of as high as +SOOF ( + 1OOC) to as low as -l60F
( -107C) can be obtained in the yield strength range
of 50 to 195 ksi (345 to 1345 MPa) depending on alloy
selection (Figure 15).

An approximate relationship exists between the


Charpy V-notch impact energy-temperature behavior
and the NDTT. The NDTT frequently coincides with
the energy transition temperature determined in
Charpy V-notch tests. Applicable data for cast C-Mn
steels of the A216, WCC type are shown in Figure
.16.
Dynamic tear impact energy results relate to
strength, heat treatment, and alloy content in a manner
similar to those of Charpy V-notch impact and drop-

TEMPERATURE- C
-80

Fig.17 Scatter bands of


Charpy V-notch and dynamic
tear energy transition curves
from several heats of C-Mn steel
of ASTM A216, type WCC.
Values represent surface and
center locations of 3-in. (76-mm)
plate castings (1). Conversion: 1
ft-lb = 1.356 1.

-60

120

-40

-20

40

20

60

1001-

80

.c

-I

60

>cr

BOO

LLI

>cr

<.!)

<.!)

.c
1000.:..

600

>

<.)

20

w
cr
<(
w

1-

:4

<.)

400

Of-

I
-40

I
0

200

518 in.

c
CX)

'

I{)

I
40

TEMPERATURE- F

z
0

......

-80

<(

>-

_
I
-120

LLI

CHARPY- V

40

80

120

160

TEMPERATURE- C

-120

-eo

-40

TEMPERATURE -

eo
.0

~
a::

60 CHARPY- V

;:

eoo

>- 40

c.:>

a::

600

UJ

20

UJ

400
5te DYNAMIC TEAR

-200 -1eo -120 -eo

-40

40

a5UJ

eo

120

<(

~
!::,!

b
c
......

1001N

-"c 8017
"iii

....u
::.c::

601401-

- IOOj;fI
80 E

I........._ I I

WROUGHT Ni-Cr-Mo
AISI 4340 I

...............
I

20

60

40

IJ

20

120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260


0.2% YIELD STRENGTH - ksi
Fig. 19 Plane strain fracture toughness, K 1c, to strength
relationships at room temperature for quenched and tempered
Ni-Cr-Mo steels (8-14).

TEMPERATURE- C

120.------...-----..-----..----

120

100

eo

...."'
:::c
(l)

60

40

ffi

a:

Iii
0
...J

1&.1

20 >=
OPEN

PTS.

40

'-Krc

20

I&J

>=

50

100

Fracture mechanics tests have the advantage over


conventional toughness tests of being able to yield material property values which can be used in design equations (Chapter 4)*. These tests are expensive to perform,
however, and interest therefore is strong in empirical
correlations between K~c and the results from quicker,
less expensive tests. For Ni-Cr-Mo cast 4335, and MnNi-Cr-Mo cast 9535 type steels room temperature values
of K Jc and Charpy V-notch absorbed energy were found
to relate according to the equation (9):

1I

a::
60 t;

weight tests. Data for C-Mn and Ni-Cr-Mo steels are


shown in Figure 17 and 18, along with Charpy V-notch
impact test results.
Plane strain fracture toughness, K Ic, data for a
variety of steels in Table I reflect the important
strength-toughness relationship. For quenched and
tempered Ni-Cr-Mo steels, Figure 19 indicates high
K 1c values of about 100 ksiin. 112 (110 MNm- 312 )
at a 0.2% offset yield strength level of 150 ksi (1034
MPa). At a yield strength level of 240 ksi (1655 MPa),
the K Ic values level off to about 60 ksi in. ' 12 (66
MN m - 31 2 ). Wrought plate data of comparable NiCr-Mo steel of somewhat higher carbon content are
plotted in Figure 19 to emphasize the strength
relationship of K Ic and to demonstrate the comparable
performance of cast and wrought products in this area.
Plane strain fracture toughness, like strength, is a
temperature sensitive property. Test results in Figures 20
and 21 show examples of the K /c and yield strength
change with temperature for the frequently used cast
steels of the C-Mn type (A216, WCC) and the 1.25Cr0.5Mo-0.2V type. Another plane strain fracture toughness-strength relationship is apparent from the cast NiCr-Mo steel data on the important effect of tempering
temperature for quenched steels (Figure 22).

- 120

'~o,

Fig. 21 Temperature dependence of yield strength and K Ic


fracture toughness for 1.25Cr-.5M0-.2V large steel casting. (6).
Conversion: I ksiin.' 12 = l.l MNm- 312 , and I ksi = 6.89 MPa.

1800

o......._ ~
'bcJJ.i.o o

l-

TEMPERATURE - F

0.2% YIELD STRENGTH - MP0

120

I&J

--0----0
0---0
-300-250 -200 -150 -100 -50

Fig. 18 Scatter bands of Charpy V-notch and dynamic tear


energy transition curves from several heats of Ni-Cr-Mo steel,
HY-80 type. Values represent surface and center location of 3-in.
(76-mm) plate castings (1). Conversion: 1 ftlb = 1.356 J.

1200 1400 1600


I
I
I
CAST Ni- Cr- Mo
AISI 4325 ~
AISI4335 0
HY-80 TYPE 0
,o

eo

"'

....:

:::c

OPEN PTS. VALID ASTM E-24

I()

1000
I

100

"vs o

a::

OJ

TEMPERATURE- F

800
I

,.

-~c

<(

200

....:
I

40

VALID ASTM- E24

OL---~25~0~~-~-~,5~0~--~-~50~--~50

TEMPERATURE- F

Fig. 20 Temperature dependence of yield strength and K Ic


fracture toughness for an A216 (WCC Grade) large steel casting,
20 x 20 x 48 in. (508 x 508 x 1219 mm) keel block (6).
Conversion: I ksiin.' 12 = l.l MNm- 312, and 1 ksi = 6.89 MPa.

Refers to Steel Casting Handbook-5th edition.

TABLE 1 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Cast Steels at Room Temperature

Alloy Type
1.25Cr, .5Mo
CAST 1030
A-216, wee
.5Cr, .5Mo, .25V
13Cr
c- 1.5Mn
.5C- lCr
.5 c
CAST 9535
.35C, .6Ni, .7Cr, .4Mo
CAST 4335
CAST 9536
.3C, lNi, lCr, .3Mo
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
CAST 4335
NiCrMo
NiCrMo CAST 4340
Maraging-IN-0180
CAST 4325
CAST 4325
CrMo
NiCrMo CAST 4340
Maraging-230MA
NiCrMo (HY-80 type)
NiCrMo (HY-80 type)
sR
N
T

= stress relieved
= normalized
= tempered

Heat
Treatment
SRANTSR

NT
ATNT
NT

NT

Yield Strength
.2% offset
(MPa)

k Slln.
. . 1/2

40
44
48
53
58

(275)
(303)
(331)
(367)
(400)
(412)
(413)
(425)
(614)
(683)
(747)
(752)
(787)
(814)
(869)
(883)
(903)
(1076)
(1090)
(1166)
(1193)
(1207)
(1207)
(1255)
(1263)
(1280)
(1379)
(1450)
(1605)
(1620)
(1724)

80
116
155
50
70
98
53
59
61
58
63
54
60
87
85
95
96
96
105
84
82
89
105
120
82
95
76
61
95
67
47

NT

59

NT
NT
NT
NT

60
61
89
99
108
109
114
118
126
128
131
156
158
169
173
175
175
182
183
186
200
210
233
235
250

SLQT
NT
NT
SLQT
SLQT
SLQT
SLQT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
QT
A
Q
SLQ

Klc

ksi

(MNm-3/2)

Reference

(88)
(127)
(170)
(55)
(76)
(107)
(58)
(65)
(67)
(64)
(69)
(59)
(66)
(97)
(93)
(104)
(105)
(105)
(115)
(92)
(90)
(98)
(115)
(132)
(75)
(104)
(84)
(67)
(104)
(74)
(51)

6
7
6
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
11
11
8
8
10
11
11
10
10

= annealed
= quenched
= slack quenched

The constants in the above equation were a = 2. 786


and b = 0.090 when K 1c was expressed in ksiin. 11 \
yield strength, cry, in ksi, and absorbed energy, E,
in ft lb. These constants compare well with those
for wrought steels (15,16). Similar correlations for the
room temperature dynamic tear energy of cast steels
yielded the constants a = 0.775 and b = -0.279;
however, the term E I cry in the above equation is
taken to the one-half power (9).
Strength-Fatigue. The most basic method of presenting engineering fatigue data is by means of the
S-N curve. The S-N curve relates the dependence
of the life of the fatigue specimen, in terms of the
number of cycles to failure, N, to the maximum applied
stress, S. Additional tests have been used, and the
principal imdings for cast steel are highlighted in the
following sections.

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - C
250

iii

....

300

350

400

450

500

200 1-

:J:
~

190 1-

zL&J

180 '-

(.!)

a:

170

..J

160

r-

>=
a-(\1

150

90

!-

80

70

(/)

L&J

-~-c:
;;;

....
1..,
....
:II:

60

90 ..._N

,.,

'E
~

70

.;.

c--

80

60

50 '-50

Fig. 22 The effect of tempering temperature on strength and


toughness of four heats of 1.5%Ni-Cr-Mo steel after water
quenching (8).

500

bOO

700

800

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE -

900

TABLE 2 Fatigue Properties of Cast Steels (18)


Class'
and
Heat
Treatment

Tensile
Strength
ksi
(MPa)

Yield
Strength
ksi
(MPa)

60
65
70
80
85
100

A
N
N
NT
NT
QT

63
68
75
82
90
105

(434)
(469)
(517)
(565)
(621)
(724)

35
38
42
48
75

(241)
(262)
(290)
(331)
(379)
(517)

65
70
80
90
105
120
150
175
200

NT
NT
NT
NT
NT
QT
QT
QT
QT

68
74
86
95
110
128
158
179
205

(469)
(510)
(593)
(655)
(758)
(883)
(1089)
(1234)
(1413)

38
44
54
64
91
112
142
160
170

(262)
(303)
(372)
(441)
(627)
(772)
(979)
(1103)
(1172)

55

Red.in
Area
%

Elong.
%

Carbon Steels
30
28
27
23
20
19
A /loy Steels 2
55
32
50
28
46
24
44
20
48
21
16
38
30
13
25
11
21
8
54
48
45
40
38
41

'Class of steel based on tensile strength, ksi (MPa). A


and tempered.
2
Below 8% total alloy content.

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

0.8

>5
i=

1-

NORMALIZED AND TEMPERED

~
0

0.6

u;

UJ

0.4

b
z
R.R.MOORE FATIGUE TESTS, K 1 = 2.2

100

120

140

160

180

200

TENSILE STRENGTH - ksi

Fig. 23 The fatigue notch sensitivity factor vs. tensile


strength for several steels with different heat treatments (18-24).

TENSILE
YIELD
STRENGTH STRENGTHELONG. HARDNESS
ksi MPa
ksi MPo __..!!.._
BHN

55
50

J,

45

....:

CAST
94 (648} 56 (386} 25
187
~W~R=O~U~G~HT~~9~0~(~62~~~~5~6~(~3~86~}~2~7____~17~0~-4
350

u;

a..

:!:

'

C/)

WROUGHT

0: 40

CAST

t;

NO

300 ~
0:

t;

NOTCH

250 :!:

:!: 35
::::>
:!:

::::>
:!:

><30

200 <(

<(

Endurance
Ratio

30
30
35
37
39
45

(207)
(207)
(241)
(255)
(269)
(310)

0.48
0.44
0.47
0.45
0.43
0.47

137
143
170
192
217
262
311
352
401

32
35
39
42
53
62
74
84
88

(221)
(241)
(269)
(290)
(365)
(427)
(510)
(579)
(607)

0.47
0.47
0.45
0.44
0.48
0.48
0.47
0.47
0.43

= Normalized and tempered, QT

= Quenched

Constant Amplitude Tests. The endurance ratio


(endurance limit divided by the tensile strength) of
cast carbon and low alloy steels, determined in R.
R. Moore rotating beam bending fatigue tests (mean
stress = 0) is generally taken to be about 0.40 to
0.50 for smooth bars. Data in Table 2 reveal this
endurance ratio to be largely independent of strength
and whether the steel is plain carbon or low alloy,
and whether it has been normalized, normalized and
tempered, quenched and tempered, etc. (17,18).
The fatigue notch sensitivity, q, determined in
rotating beam bending fatigue tests, is related to the
microstructure of the steel (composition and heat
treatment) and strength. Table 3 shows that the
fatigue notch sensitivity factor increases generally with
increasing strength, from 0.23 for annealed carbon
steel at a tensile strength of 83.5 ksi (577 MPa), to
0.68 for the higher strength normalized and tempered
low alloy steels (18,19). The quenched and tempered
steels with a martensitic structure are less notch
sensitive than the normalized and tempered steels with
a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (Figure 23). Similar
results and trends on notch sensitivity have been
reported for tests with sharper notches (20). Table
4 reveals remarkably low sensitivity of cast steel
to very sharp notches, i.e. to high stress concentration
factors.
Cast steel suffers less degradation of fatigue properties due to notches than equivalent wrought steel.
When the ideal laboratory test conditions are replaced
with more realistic service conditions, the cast steel
shows much less notch sensitivity to variations in the
values of the test parameters than wrought steel. Table

1300

tr
0

t;

Endurance
Limit
ksi
(MPa)

131
131
143
163
179
212

= Annealed, N = Normalized, NT

TENSILE STRENGTH- MPo


600

Hardness
BHN

:!:

:!: 25

Fig. 24 Fatigue characteristics (S-N curves) for cast and

150
5
10

106

wrought 1040 steel in the normalized and tempered condition,


both notched and unnotched (19). R. R. Moore rotating beam
test.s, K, = 2.2.

7
10

CYCLES TO FAIWRE
10

TABLE 3 Fatigue Notch Sensitivity of Several Cast Steels*(19)


Steel
Grade

Endurance Limit

Tensile
Strength
ksi
(MPa)

Notched
(MPa)
ksi

Unnotched
ksi
(MPa)

1040
1330
1330
4135
4335
8630

94.2
99.3
97
112.7
126.5
110.5

(648)
(685)
(669)
(777)
(872)
(762)

37.7
48.4
41.7
51.2
63
54

(260)
(334)
(288)
(353)
(434)
(372)

1330
4135
4335
8630

122.2
146.4
168.2
137.5

(843)
(1009)
(1160)
(948)

58.5
61.3
77.6
64.9

(403)
(423)
(535)
(447)

1040

83.5

(576)

33.2

(229)

Normalized and Tempered


(193)
28
(219)
31.7
(215)
31.2
(230)
33.3
(241)
34.9
33.1
(228)
Quenched and Tempered
(257)
37.3
(280)
40.6
48.2
(332)
38.6
(266)
Annealed
26
(179)

Unnotched

Notched

Fatigue Notch
Sensitivity
Factor (q**)

0.40
0.49
0.43
0.45
0.50
0.49

0.30
0.32
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.30

0.29
0.44
0.28
0.45
0.68
0.53

0.48
0.42
0.46
0.47

0.31
0.28
0.29
0.27

0.48
0.43
0.51
0.57

0.40

0.31

0.23

Endurance Ratio

*Notched tests run with theoretical stress concentration factor of 2.2.


q = (Kr -1)/(K, -1), Kr = Notch fatigue factor = Endurance limit unnotched/Endurance limit notched, K,
concentration factor

Theoretical stress

TABLE 4 Fatigue Notch Sensitivity of Cast 8630 Steel (20)

Heat Treatment
Norm & Temper
Norm & Temper
Norm & Temper
Quench & Temper
Quench & Temper
Anneal
Quench & Temper

Notch
Radius
(mm)
in.

Tensile
Strength
(MPa)
ksi
83.1
83.4
87.3
126.0
145.0
88.9
132.0

0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.001
0.001

(573)
(575)
(602)
(869)
(1000)
(613)
(910)

*q = (Kr -1)/(K, -1), Kr = Notch fatigue factor


concentration factor

(.381)
(.381)
(.381)
(.381)
(.381)
(.025)
(.025)

Stress
Concentration
Factor

Fatigue Notch
Sensitivity
Factor(q)

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
6.2
6.2

0.45
0.51
0.48
0.41
0.53
0.14
0.22

Endurance limit unnotched/Endurance limit notched, K, = Theoretical stress

5 shows the wrought steel to be 1.5 to 2.3 times as notch


sensitive as cast steel. Under the ideal laboratory test
conditions and test preparation (uniform section size,
polished and honed surfaces, etc.), the endurance limit of
wrought steel is higher. The same fatigue characteristics
as those of cast steel, however, are obtained when a
notch is introduced, or when standard lathe-turned surfaces are employed in the rotating beam bending fatigue
test (19, 25). These effects are illustrated in Figures 24
through 27.

were conducted in air at 10 to 30 Hz depending on load


ratio, initial stress intensity, and crack length. Additional crack propagation rate data are listed in Table 8
for normalized and tempered cast steels used in the
pressure vessel and power generating industry and for a
variety of cast carbon and low alloy steels.

Variable Amplitude Tests. Variable load amplitude


fatigue test using the T f H SAE service spectrum (Figure 31) and a modified transmission history which eliminates all compressive loading indicate equal total life for
cast and wrought carbon steel (cast SAE 1030 and
wrought SAE I 020, respectively) (Figure 32). The slower
crack growth rate in the cast material compensated for
the longer crack initiation life [a= 0.01 in. (0.25 mm)] of
the wrought carbon steel.

The cyclic stress-strain characteristics in Figure 28 and


Table 6 show a reduction of the strain hardening exponent of the normalized and tempered cast carbon steel
(SAE 1030) from n = 0.3 in monotonic tension ton'= 0.13
under cyclic strain controlled tests (7).
The strain life characteristics of normalized and tempered cast carbon steel (SAE I 030) and wrought steel are
similar as exhibited in Figure 29 and Table 7 for strain
controlled constant amplitude low cycle fatigue tests
(0.001 to 0.02 strain range amplitudes, with constant
strain rate triangle wave form of2.5 x 10 - 4 /sec at 0.5 to
3.3 Hz) (7).
Constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth properties for load ratios R = 0 indicate comparable properties
for cast and wrought steel (Figure 30), and slightly better
properties for normalized and tempered cast carbon
steel (SAE 1030) under load ratios of R = -1. These tests

The total fatigue life is further comparable for the cast


and wrought carbon steels with and without the appliation of tensile overloads (Po/ P max= 1.6) as indicated in
Figure 33. Removal of the compressive loads from the
T 1H spectrum increases crack initiation life by a factor
of 3 and crack propagation life by a factor of 2. The
compressive loads are therefore detrimental to both
crack initiation and crack propagation. Tensile overloads increase total life but have mixed effects on crack
initiation and propagation in these variable load amplitude fatigue tests (7).

II

TABLE's Fatigue Notch Sensitivity Factors for Cast and


Wrought Steels at a Number of Strength Levels (18)
Fatigue
Notch Sensitivity
Factor (q)*

Tensile Strength
ksi
(MPa)

Steel

TENSILE
YIELD
STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONG. HARDNESS
ksi (MPol ~~ (MPol ~
BHN
CAST
WROUGHT

83.5
81.4

0.23
0.43

(576)
(561)

Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought

1330
1340
4135
4140
4335
4340
8630
8640

Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought
Cast
Wrought

94.2
90.0
97.0
101.8
112.7
111.1
126.5
124.6
110.5
108.5

19
24

223
217

75

(649)
(620)
(669)
(702)
(777)
(766)
(872)
(859)
(762)
(748)

500 ~
:IE

~ 70

Normalized and Tempered


1040
1040
1330
1340
4135
4140
4335
4340
8630
8640

82 (565)
83(572)

80

Annealed
1040 Cast
1040 Wrought

112 (772)
109(7521

0.29
0.50
0.28
0.65
0.45
0.81
0.68
0.97
0.53
0.85

!/)

'

~ 65

450

a:
.....
!/)

60

55

:IE

//'>..--WROUGHT- LATHE
TURNED
CAST- POLISHED
CAST- LATH
TURNED

~ 50
:IE
45

f3

400 :IE
::::>
:IE
350 <(
:IE

300

Quenched and Tempered


122.2
121.2
146.4
146.8
168.2
168.4
137.5
138.2

(843)
(836)
(1009)
(1012)
(1160)
(1161)
(948)
(953)

0.48
0.73
0.43
0.93
0.51
0.92
0.57
0.90

Fig. 26 Comparison of the fatigue characteristics (S-N


curves) of a cast and a wrought 8640 steel of the same
composition and strength, quenched and tempered, with standard
machine finish and with hand-polished fmish (19). R. R. Moore
rotating beam tests. The polished specimens were first ground,
then hand lapped. The lathe-turned specimens received standard
machine fmish.

*q = (Kr -1)/(K, -1)


Kr = Notch fatigue factor = Endurance limit unnotched/Endurance limit notched
K, = Theoretical stress concentration factor

TENSILE
YIELD
STRENGTH STRENGTH ELONG. HARDNESS
ksi (MPal ksi CMPal ~
BHN
CAST

8630

138 (9521 126 (869)

15

286

138 (9521

22

286

WROUGHT

8640

124(855)

85

W~UGHT}

0...

75

;;;
~

C/)
C/)

1LI

NO
NOTCH

70

C/)

450

CAST

65

Cl.

f3
IX

60

...

350

400

;::)

:J

:IE

1LI

u
z
<t

300

::::>

a:
c

200

<t

:IE

:::E
45
NOTCHED

w
R.R. MOORE ROTATING SEAM FATIGUE TESTS
THEORET. STRESS CONC. FACTOR = 2.2

250

35
4
10

10 5

106

107

100

06L0--~-8~0--~-1~0-0~--1~2-0~~~~--~~--~
180

108

CYCLES TO FAILURE

TENSILE STRENGTH- ksi

Fig. 27 Relation between fatigue endurance limit (both


notched and unnotched) and unnotched tensile strength for a
number of cast and wrought steels with various heat treatments
(19).

Fig. 25 Fatigue characteristics (S-N curves) for cast and


wrought 8600 series steels, quenched and tempered to the same
hardness, both notched and unnotched (19). R. R. Moore rotating
beam tests, K, = 2.2.

12

:i

:J

300

40

1-

.....
3

400::1E

50

500 :IE

;;

tC/)

:IE
;::) 55
:IE

x<t

600

500 :IE

IX

.....
C/)

TENSILE STRENGTH- MP0

550

80

z
<(

a:
c
z
w
:::1

TABLE 6 Monotonic Tensile and Cyclic Stress Strain Properties (7)

Monotonic Tension
Cast
SAE1030

Property
0.2% yield strength, cry-ksi (MPa)
Ultimate strength,cr.-ksi (MPa)
True fracture strength, crr-ksi (MPa)
Reduction in area-%
True fracture ductility, Er
Modulus of elasticity, E-psi (GPa)
Strain hardening exponent, n
Strength coefficient, K, ksi (MPa)

Wrought
SAE1020
(303)
(496)
(750)

44
72

109
46
0.62
3o x to
0.3
158

(262)
(413)
(999)

38
60.0
145
58
0.87
29.5 x 10
0.19*
107

(207)
(1090)

(203)*
(738)*

Cyclic Stress-Strain
Wrought
SAE 1020

Cast
SAE 1030

Property
0.2% yield strength, cr; -ksi (MPa)
Strength coefficient, K' -ksi (MPa)
Strain hardening exponent, n'

46
103

35
112

(317)
(708)

(24W
(772)*
0.18*

0.13

*Representative values taken from Ref. 26

TABLE 7 Constant Amplitude Fatigue Properties (7)

Strain Control Fatigue Properties

Fatigue
Fatigue
Fatigue
Fatigue

Wrought
SAE 1020

Cast
SAE 1030

Property

95

strength coefficient, cr/ -ksi (MPa)


strength exponent,b
ductility coefficient, E/
ductility exponent, c

130

(653)
-0.082
0.28
-0.51

(896)*
-0.12*
0.41*
-0.51*

*Representative values taken from Ref. (29).


Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Properties
1020 Wrought Steel
R=O
R= -1

1030 Cast Steel


Property
A using ksi Yin. and in.
A (using MPa Vm and m)
n

R=O

R,;-1

1.24 x w-ll
2.2 x I0- 13
3.82

1.88 x w-ll
3.14 x w- 13
4.45

.372

x w-ll

.64 x w-n
4.18

6.76 X 10- 11
12.29 x I0- 13
3.54

*Reference 26.

TABLE 8 Crack Propagation Rate Characteristics of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Alloy Type

Heat
Treatment

ll/2Mn
ll/2Crl /2Mol/4V
ll/2MnMo
11 /2Ni1Crl /3Mo
.54C

A,N
A,N,T,
A,WQ,TI
A,OQ,T
A

l-l/4Mn(A216,WCC)
l-l/4Cr-l/2Mo
0.25C
0.35C
0.35C
1.53C
1.53C

A,N,T
SR,A,N,T,SR
N,T
N,T
N,T
SA
N,T

.2% YS

Ktc

ksi

(MPa)

ksi.in. 112

(MNm- 312 )

62
73
96
123
52

(427)
(503)
(662)
(848)
(359)

126
42
Il4
73
78

(138)
(46)
(125)
(80)
(86)

48

(331)
(276)
(296)
(503)
(607)
(455)
(434)

116
80

(127)
(88)

40

43
73
88
66
63

A**

using MNm - 312

and m

w-' oo

2.07
2.11
_, 10
1.94
10
w-"
1.80
10-6.91
2.09
using ksi in. 112 and in.
10-6.55

2.3x w- 19
3.1 xl0- 24
1.69x 10- 10
1.69x 10- 10
1.69x 10- 10
1.69x 10- 10
1.3x w-lo

3.00
4.10
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
5.0

*A
Annealed
Normalized
N
Tempered, Tf = Double tempered
T
Water quenched, OQ = Oil quenched
WQ
Stress relieved
SR
SA
Spheroidize-anneal
**The values for A and n denote material constants in the expression for crack propagation dajdN=A~K"
R = 0 for References 6 and 8, tests conducted in air, at room temperature, at 20 Hz for Reference 8, and at 600 Hz for Reference 6.
R = 0.1, 0.5, and 0.7 for Reference 27, conducted in air, at room temperature, at 300Hz.

l3

Ref.

No.
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
27
27
27
27
27

....1"'
<I

10

0.1

(\J

60

CAST SAE 1030


MONOTONIC

400

1-

:J

0.01

300:E

:!:

"t
E

a.

-"

40

Cl.

.q:

z
~
a:

(f)
(f)

LLJ
0::

LLJ
0::
200

' ',,

PLASTIC

9/'

CAST SAE 1030

,!(O,'

O~,

0.'

oo~<Q ..

o..
....o,

0001

0 oo __

Cf)

(f)

0.0001
10

'WROUGHT SAE 1020


CYCLIC

20

...

1-

1-

30

/WROOG><T SAE '020

::::>

en

t;

50

',,,

(f)
(f)

.,

lo2

10

106

107

REVERSALS TO FAILURE - 2 Nf
Fig. 29 Low cycle strain-control fatigue behavior of
comparable cast and wrought carbon steel in the normalized and
tempered condition (7).

100

10

0.016

Fig. 28 Monotonic tensile and cyclic stress-strain behavior of


comparable wrought and cast carbon steel in the normalized and
tempered condition (7).

+llK- MPo lfii


flK-MPa 1m

.,..

100

I0- 3

CAST SAE I 030


0 WROUGHT SAE 1020
R:::: 0

CAST SAE 1030

WROUGHT SAE 1020


R= -1

,/
I0- 5

I0- 5

.J

C)

>-

5
0

'C

.J

'C

ti
a:

....c
'C

E
~

~ I0-5

a:
(,!)

.J

~
u
I

tia:

'C

z'C

....c

'C

:::z::

1~ 10-5
0

a:

(,!)

lo-6'E

'C

0
5

....c

'C

I0- 4

.~.

1-

:'

u
>u....

:-.'t

:::z::

I0- 6

....c

....u

u
a:
u

I0- 7

.q:
I0-7

.q:

a:

2
2

I0- 6 '------crs---........__.......__.~..-_,___.___.......L....I

10

20

30

40

50 60

STRESS INTENSITY RANGE,

80

POSITIVE STRESS INTENSITY RANGE t flK


ksi inY2

100

flK-ksi'in~

Fig. 30a Constant amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior


of comparable cast and wrought carbon steel in the normalized
and tempered condition, R "" 0 (7).

Fig. 30b Constant amplitude fatigue crack growth behavior


of comparable cast and wrought carbon steel in the normalized
and tempered condition, R = -1 (7).

14

+
0

TIME

A. T /H 1,708 REVERSALS

+
0

TIME

B. MOD T/H 1,692 REVERSALS


Fig. 31

Variable amplitude load Spectra T /Hand mod T /H (7).


5.5

Fig. 32 Average blocks to


specific crack lengths and
fracture with T /H load history
of comparable cast and wrought
carbon steel in the normalized
and tempered condition (7).

.------r----r---.---.-----;r----,---,---~--..----,

- 0 - CAST SAE 1030

--e--

50

24

WROUGHT SAE 1020

22

Ill

a.

...: 4.5

20

LLJ

LLJ

(.)

(.)

18 0::

0:: 4.0

IL.

16

3.5

lla =0.1 in. (2.5 mm)


14
3.0
0

50

100

150

200

250

AVERAGE BLOCKS

900

600
(/)
~

(.)

..J

Fig. 33 Average blocks to specific crack lengths and fracture


with four load histories of comparable cast and wrought carbon
steel in the normalized and tempered condition, P max = 4 kips
(17.8 kN) (7).

500

ID

0
LIJ

:J

400

Q.
Q.

q:

300

200

.#

100

T/H

MOD. T/H

T/H

MOD. T/H

2 O.L.

2 O.L

15

Section Size, Mass Effects

The section size, or mass effect, is of particular importance to steel castings because the mechanical properties
are typically assessed from test bars machined from
standardized coupons which have fixed dimensions and
are cast separately from or attached to the castings (Figure 38). To remove test bars from the casting is impractical because removal of material for testing would destroy the usefulness of the component or require costly
weld repairs to replace the material removed for testing
purposes.
One cannot routinely expect that test specimens
removed from a casting will exhibit the same properties
as test specimens machined from the standard test coupon designs for which minimum properties are established in specifications. The mass effect discussed above,
i.e. the differences in cooling rate between that of test
coupons and of the part being produced, is the funda-

Mass effects are common to steels, whether rolled,


forged, or cast, because the cooling rate during the heat
treating operation varies with section size, and because
the microstructure components, grain size, and nonmetallic inclusions, increase in size from surface to center.
These changes in microstructure are illustrated in Figures 34 through 36. Mass effects are metallurgical in
nature, distinct from the effect of discontinuities. An
example of how the mass of a component lowers
strength properties for wrought AISI 8630 and for AISI
8650 steel plate is shown in Figures 37a and 37b. Properties are plotted for the 1f 4 T location, halfway between
surface and center of plate. Comparison of Figures 37a
and 37b indicates that toughness is proportional to
strength only in a limited way and that a major loss in
toughness may occur in heavier sections.

Surface

1/4 T

Center

500X

100x
Fig. 34

The ferrite-pearlite structure of a quenched and tempered 4-in. (102 mm) thick, A-216-WCC type, carbon steel plate casting.

16

_)

250x

250x

Fig. 35
A. The martensitic microstructure at the surface of a quenched and tempered Ni-Cr-Mo (cast 8635) 17-in. (432 mm) thick gear
blank. B. The acicular, ferrite-pearlite structure of the casting in A-at the center of the 17-in. (432 mm) thick section.
Representative
Properties:
UTS

A
B

YS

El

RA

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

160
110

1103
758

146

1007

14
2

38
2

100x

345
280

ftlb

30
4

41
5

100x

Cv- Impact Energy at RT

BHN

100x

Fig. 36
A. Ferrite-pearlite structure-representation in a 1.5-in. (38 mm) section of a larger 15-ton, 2% Ni, .20% C steel turbine blade
casting that was normalized and tempered. B. Same as in A, but coarser and acicular Widmanstatten structure in the center of a 7-in. (178
mm) thick portion of the same casting. C. Same as in B, but coarse and blocky in appearance in the center of a 28-in. (711 mm) thick
portion of the same casting.
El

RA

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

80
76
75

552
524
517

49
47
46

338
324
317

26
25
22

55
52
38

Representative

..#

Properties:
A
B

YS

UTS

17

BHN

165
155
!48

Cv- Impact Energy at RT

ftlb

58
56
57

79
76
77

SECTION THICKNESS- mm
40

20

60

SECTION THICKNESS-mm
40

20

100

80

120

8630
WATER QUENCHED
Dl FFERENT SIZES
TEMPERED AT 1000 oF (538C)

(f)
(f)

_jw
_jz
we

Za::
ii:<t

150

.c

400

tOO.:_

100

8650
OIL QUENCHED
DIFFERENT SIZES
'l"ctvs1 TEMPERED AT 1000F
'-c
(538C)

(f)
(f)

CDI

80

60

_jW
_jz
we

120

sr~c

~a::

tvc.,.J.t

a::<r

CDI
100

150

-E.

I-

<t

a..
80

I-

a..

<t

80

100

0~

"'

.X

I
(f)
(f)

60

a::

100

<t
w
<t

a::

.X

ci

(f)
(f)

50

60

a::

RED. AREA

I-

(fi

200

0~

a::

(f)

"'

I-

300

(f)

w
a::
<t
ci
w

50

t!)

<t

a::

z
0
40 _j
w

(fi

40
t!)

0_j

100

oNGAiiON

100

20

20
--~,

'~

./

SECTION THICKNESS-in.
Fig. 37a
Section size effects on water quenched and
tempered wrought AISI 8630 steel in sizes over I in. (25 mm).
The properties reported are those midway between surface and
center (Conversion: I ksi = 6.8948 MPa, I ft lb = 1.356 J) (28).

_j

SECTION THICKNESS-in.
Fig. 37b
Section size effects on oil quenched and tempered
wrought AISI 8650 steel. In sizes over I in. (25 mm), the
properties reported are those midway between surface and center
(Conversion: I ksi = 6.8948 MPa, I ft. lb = 1.356 J) (28).

83t8t2T

~~C~--------~8~3~'~8~------~~~
Fig. 38
Keel block coupon
(ASTM A370-Mechanical testing
of steel products).

BEND BAR
DESIGN FOR MULTIPLE KEEL BLOCK COUPON ( 4 LEGS!

YF
I

L+-2T

T..

T
PADDING I F ' "

~
- - - - - - - - - - ___

__J

.. ,~~~

1 ,=--;NECESSARY~r~~...-------m'?'-,
a
-::>,_./

!':
~

,.

L+-2T
-L(5MIN)

L ( 5 MIN)

SIDE VIEW KEEL BLOCK COUPON

g;

~f-

I 114

\2:

DE~

ALTERNATE
FOR BEND BAR

DESIGN FOR ATTACHED COUPON

18

112 RAD

mental reason for this situation. Several specifications


provide for the mass effect by permitting the testing of
coupons which are larger than the basic keel block in
Figure 38, and whose cooling rate is therefore more
representative ofthat experienced by the part being produced. Among these specifications are ASTM specifications E208, A356, and A757.

higher strength, quenched and tempered cast 8630 steel


up to a 3-in. (76 mm) section thickness. For the 6-in. ( 152
mm) thick 8630 steel a significant loss in toughness
occurs due to insufficient hardenability of the steel. Lack
of hardenabilty of this steel prevents the 6-in. (152 mm)
section from through hardening and forming a sufficient
amount of martensite at distances of I in. (25 mm) or
more below the surface of the 6-in. ( 152 mm) thick
section.
Fatigue strength values are affected by the mass effect
in a manner similar to tensile strength. When the endurance limit is "normalized" for tensile strength by dividing the endurance limit by the tensile strength, the resulting endurance ratio reveals only minor effects of section
size as illustrated in Figure 42.
Early studies of the section size effect (19, 29, 30)
evaluated mechanical properties extensively as a function oflocation in a given casting to determine the rate of
change with distance from the surface to the center of the
casting.
Figure 43 illustrates one example of these studies and
demonstrates the tendency of properties to level off at
distances of approximately l I 4 thickness, I I 4 T, from
the surface. Newer studies, therefore, tend to be limited
to the I I 4 T location. Data of this type in Table 9
illustrate the trends for property changes as a function of
section size. These data do not reflect minimum values to
be expected for the grades listed. Table 10 shows the
compositions of the grades listed in Table 9.

Alloy and Heat Treatment Influence on Section


Size Effects. The tensile properties of normalized and
tempered cast carbon steel with 0.3% C (cast 1030) and
Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel (cast 8635) in Figures 39a and
39b reveal the largest effect of section size to be on
reduction of area. The higher strength of the low alloy
steel is relatively uniform in the 1.25 and 3-in. (32 and 76
mm) sections. For the 6-in. (152 mm) section a distinct
drop in yield and tensile strength is evident. These section size effects on tensile properties are more pronounced upon quenching and tempering to higher
strength values as evident from data illustrated in Figure
40 for Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy cast 8635 steel.
Toughness, because of its sensitivity to the changes in
metallurgical structure, i.e. heat treatment, may reveal
major effects of section size. Figure 41 shows the differences in Charpy V-notch impact energy due to section
size as well as the variation of impact energy with location in a given section. These data shown only minor
effects for the normalized and tempered steels. Comparable and uniform properties are also shown for the

__ 160

...,

...,

...:
I

~ 100

C/)

~ 80

ff}
a:

LLI

a:

t;

t;

60

;;;

0 1.25in.(32mml

140

1100 ~

TENSILE STRENGTH
0 3in.(76mml
A6in.(l52mml

1000

A-A_i-o-otoo.ro.OoJo-o-{_A A

120

800

~-A!A--A~A-~

100

700
600

80

f=

C/)

800 ~
700 ::i
I
600 C/)
500 ~
400
300 C/)

100

C/)

~ 80

900 ~

f=

60
40

I- 40

UJ

30

UJ
ll.

20

u
a:

10

~
a:
~

40

30
20

ELONGATION IN 2in (51 mml

I-

-A-A-r=-fb~(l)~fD,AIL1-A-A
'

30

u
a:

20

UJ
UJ
ll.

10
0

10

I.

1.25 in. (32mml

l------

~---------'3~in__;.(76~m~m~l_ _ _ _ _ _~~~
6 in. ( 152 mml

3 in. 176mml

~-------'6'--~'" (152::.c;cm.;.;.m~l- - - - - . - 1

SECTION SIZE

SECTION SIZE

Fig. 39a
Distribution of tensile properties of cast 1030 steel.
Normalized from 1600"F (871C) and tempered at 1200"F (649C)

Fig. 39b
Distribution of tensile properties of cast 8635 steel.
Normalized from 1600"F (871C) and tempered at l200"F (649C)

(19).

(19).

19

180

'iii

""'

160

(/)
(/)

0 1.25 ini32mml
'A

120

t;

!O-ofO~oo.:..'b1o-o1

140

w
a:

TENSILE STRENGTH
0 3in.(76mmlSECTION A6in.052mml

I
-A

1- A

'

A--A

""'

140

w
a:

120

(/)
(/)

t;

700

w
a:
w

t.li-b ...,~-:)1\_

I
. . . ..~-~-.4o:~-~/).

c1-u~~[Fro

20
10
30

20

900~

800~

15

20

....

700 I600 (/)

10

>(!)

a:
w
z

a:

50

ffi
I

>

40 (..)

20

'":I
I

>(!)

30

30

TEMPERED

5~----~-~~~~~-~---~

40

(..)

NORMALI~{00 ~TEEL

0-;,
I

1000 :::!E

80

15

100

I-

0 1.25 in. (32mml SECTION


0 3in. (76mml
~ -oo[). 6in.(J52mml

20

soot;

A-:

100

u;

1100~
1000~

900~

It"'
A-

'

25~------------------~~~~~

1200~

>

(..)

30

10
, ELOGATION IN 2in.(51mml
I
I
I

I-

w
u
a:
w

i I i
-t.Lo~~:.<D.:~~o-A

20

IY-A

-ll-ll

I.

1.25in.(32mm)
3in.(76mml

.I

6in.(l52mml
SECTION SIZE

I.

Sl.

.I

1.25 in. ( 32 mml

~l

10

3 in.(76mml
j.,.ot----------':6:-:i-n.(l52"'"m-m-,l,--------t.,~
SECTION SIZE

Fig. 41
Distribution of Charpy V-notch impact properties at
74F (23C) for various section sizes of cast steels (19).

Fig. 40
Distribution of tensile properties of cast 8635 steel.
Water quenched from 1500"F (816C} and tempered at llOOOF
(593C} (19).

2100

300

Ill
.>I!
I

::r::

I-

TRUE BREAKING STRENGTH


2000

::E

280

1900

(!)

l-

en 260

:r:

- 0 1.25 in.(32mml SECTION

I- I- 0.55 --0 3 in. (76 mm I SECTION


(!)

--ll

:J

ILl

0.50

ILl
0

t;

0.45

ILl
...J

0.40

a:

ct

a:

6in.(l52mmll

1030 STEEL
NORMALIZED
TEMiERED

240

OJ
if.

I-

0.40

I-

0.35

t3

20

>::J

II

ti

0.30 ~---.1---+=-=~:---~-----t

ILl

0.45

u
z
ct

1800

1700

----o

1600

0.45

a:

~SILE
J
/---o

ENGINEERING TENSILE STRENGTH

ILl

:::::> (i5
0 z

z
ILl

t;

STRENgTH

A--o -o -?ll-,---dl.:o--0- -A
1!.-A---A- ~~..,.. ll-ll--A--A-

::r::

zw

a:

0.60

c
~

:::::>

10

~:~~:
----.:.._

.----.>-~-----
\ELONGATION

a:

0.5 (131

:::::>
0

1.5(38)

2.5(64)

DISTANCE FROM COUPON SURFACE-in(mm)

ILl

.I

16

36

64

APPROXIMATE SOLIDIFICATION TIME MINUTES


Fig. 43
Effect of mass on tensile properties in 8-in. (203-mm)
coupon of cast Ni-Cr-Mo, 4330 steel in the quenched and
tempered condition (29).

Fig. 42
Distribution of endurance ratio for various section
sizes of cast steels (19).

20

Tensile and Low Temperature Toughness Properties of Selected Ferritic Hardenable Cast Steels 8

TABLE 9

ASTM
Spec.
Grade
A217

WCA

WCB

wee

A352

LCB

LCC

A757

Section
Size
in. (rom)

NT

I (25)
3 (51)
(76)
(25)
(51)
(76)
(25)
(51)
5 (76)

NT

NT

QT

QT

QT

LCI

A352

Heat
Treatmente

LC2

QT

LC2-I

QT

LC3

QT

CIQ

NQTA

ANQT

CIQ

NQT

EIQ

ANQT

I
3

QT

5 (76)

FAIT50
"F
("C)

(324)
(310)
(276)
(310)
(338)
46 (317)
53 (365)
54 (372)
52 (359)

20
28
22
29
17
13
20
16
16

46
38
48
25
20
18
18
IS
13

68
116
32
93
134
131
61
39
55

(317)
(296)
(290)
(365)
(352)
(338)
(448)
(445)
(365)
(427)
(407)
(379)
(670)
(634)

35
39
35
18
28
28
28
29
25
26
33
30
24
23
21
19
17
15

73

20
60
60
37
41
36
14
32
57
-78
-47
-22
-60
-55
-25
-121
-19:i
-202

46

95
92
78
82
83
102
102
99
90
91
132
127
117

R.A.

Y.S.
(MPa)

(483)
(448)
(448)
(524)
(531)
(490)
(552)
(545)
(510)
(531)
(503)
(490)
(752)
(731)
(738)
(614)
92 (634)
85 (586)

I
3
5
3

5
3

EL

ksi

47
45
40
45
49

70
65
65
76
77
71
80
79
74
77
73
71
109
106
107
89

(25)
(51)
(76)
(51)
(76)
(25)
(51)
(76)
(51)
(76)
(25)
(51)

(MPa)

75 (517)
75 (517)
72 (496)
73 (503)
74 (510)
71 (490)
75 (517)
75 (517)
74 (510)

I (25)
3 (51)
5 (76)
(25)
(51)
5 (76)
(25)
(51)
5 (76)
I (25)
3 (51)
5 (76)
(25)
(51)
5 (76)
(25)
(51)
5 (76)

s
EIQ

UTS
ksi

(655)
(634)
(738)
(565)
(572)
(703)
(703)
(683)
(621)
(627)
(910)
(816)
(807)

43
42
53
51
49
65
66
53
62
59
55
97
92
93
57
61
60
72'
69
60
68
62
90
88
83
72
71
117
87
95

(641)

(393)
(421)
(413)
(496)
(476)
(413)
(469)
(427)
(621)
(607)
(572)
(496)
(490)
(807)
(600)
(655)

27
31
25
30
28
26
22
25
28
23
17
10

73
60
29
47
49
62
64

44
35
48
54
65
66

53
33
25
18
60
70
54
58

ss
69
53
69
62
61
20
49
14

-IS
-22

TCV-15
"F
("C)

(2~
(46)

27
-4
0
59
32
57
-4
14
23

(0)
(34)

(57)
(55)
(16)
(4)

(13)
(-4)

(16)
(16)

(3)
(5)
(2)

(-10)
(0)

(14)
(-61)
(-44)
(-30)
(-51)
(-49)
(-32)

(-85)
(-125)
(-130)

(-26)
(-30)

-120
(-84)
-100
(-73)
-184 (-120)
-157 (-105)
-94
(-70)

NDTT
{"C)

"F

(-3)

(-20)
(-18)
(IS)

14
32
0

(0)

(14)
(-20)
(-10)
(-5)

-75
-40
-30
-73
-67
-40
-86
-58
0
-160
-166
-144
-140
-95
-110
-166
-157
-148

(-60)
(-40)
(-34)

(-58)
(-55)
(-40)
(-66)
(-50)
(-18)
(-107)
(-110)
(-98)
(-96)
(-71)
(-79)
(-110)
(-105)
(-100)

-130
-120
-105
-110
-85
-145
-120

14
-4
0

Reference

(-15)
(-10)
(0)

(-18)
(-13)
(-10)
(-14)
(-20)
(-18)

(-76)
(-79)
(-65)
(-99)
(-84)

-188 (-122)
-155 (-104)
-256 (-160)
-220 (-140)
-148 (-100)

31

31

32
-40
-40
-40
-22
-13
-40
-22
-121
-112
-94

(-40)
(-40)
(-40)
(-30)
(-25)
(-40)
(-30)
(-15)
(-85)
(-80)
(-70)

31

31

32

32
-140 (-96)
-80
(-62)
-193 (-125)
-175 (-115)
-193 (-125)

31

33

(-90)
(-84)

31

-90 (-68)
-80 (-62)
-85
(-65)
-68
(-56)
-175 (-115)
-140 (-96)
-100 (-73)
-151 (-102)
-144
(-98)
-211 (-135)
-202 (-130)
-202 (-130)

33
33

33
31

Determined at the I /4 Thickness Location of Cast Plates Measuring in excess of 4T x 4T.


See Table 10 for Composition and Heat Treatment.
c N = Normalized, Q = Quenched, A = Aged, T =Tempered
0
Also referred to as CA-6NM, as in ASTM A487.

A
8

TABLE 10

Composition of Selected Ferritic Hardenable Cast Steels


ASTM

Mn

Si

.24
.24
.21

.72

wee

NT
NT
NT

.65
1.12

.53
.42
.51

.021
.012
.034

.013
.023
.035

LCB
LCC
LCI
LC2
LC2-1
LC3

WQTSR
WQT
NQT
NQT
NQTA
WQT

.18
.18
.17
.12
.08
.12

.75
1.11
.78
.63
.58
.82

.38
.36

.40
.41
.35
.36

.007
.02
.02
.Oil
.012
.01

.014
.02
.008
.013
.010
.013

CIQ
CIQ
EIQ
EIQ
E3N

NQTA
ANQT
NQT
ANQT
NT

.18
.21
.07
.10
.05

.89
.87
.61
.75
.51

.34
.39
.30
.34
.57

.01
.014
.022
.018
.025

.006
.014
.003
.013
.009

Grade

216

WCA
WCB

757

Composition-%

Specification

352

Heat
Treatment 8

See Table 9 for tensile and low temperature toughness properties.


NT = Normalized and Tempered.
WQT =Water Quenched and Tempered.
WQTSR = Water Quenched and Tempered and Stress Relieved.
NQTA =Normalized, Quenched, Tempered and Aged.
A

21

Ni

Mo

AI

.15
.10

.09

.07
.047

.044

.09

.06

.03

.015

.051

.06
.05
1.40
.18

.II
2.6
3.00
3.9

.53
.01
.52

.06

.09
.016
.047
.009

.03
.06
1.42
1.83
12.4

1.72
1.67
2.87
2.90
3.25

.22
.28
.39
.42
.63

.034
.041
.017
.054
.03

Cr

GENERAL ENGINEERING TYPES


CLASSIFIED ACCORDINl

STRUCTURAL
Tensile Strength, psi

60,000
Low electric resistivity,
desirable magnetic
properties, carburiz
ing and case hardening grades, excellent
weldability

Indicated
Application

65,000

GRADES-CARBON
70,000

Excellent weldability, medium strength


with good machinability and high
ductility

STEELS
80,000

100,000

85,000

High strength carbon steels with goad


machinability, toughness and excellent
fatigue resistance, readily weldable

Wear resistance,
hardness

All values listed below are specification minimum values and apply only to the typical specification listed
Tensile Strength, psi

60,000

65,000

70,000

80,000

85,000

100,000

Yield Point, psi

30,000

35,000

36,000

40,000

45,000

70,000

Elongation in 2", %

24

24

22

17

16

10

Reduction in Area, %

35

35

30

25

24

15

1633

170"

2073

Brinell Hardness No.

131'

--

Values listed directly below are those normally expected in the production of steel castings for the
tensile strength values given in the upper portion of the chart. The values are only for
general information and are not to be used as design or specification limit values.
Tensile Strength, psi

63,000

68,000

75,000

82,000

90,000

105,000

Yie!d Point, psi

35,000

38,000

42,000

48,000

55,000

75,000

30

28

27

23

20

19

Elongation in 2", %
Reduction of Area, %

54

48

45

40

38

41

131

131

143

163

179

212

70F

12

35

30

35

26

40

-40F

12

12

10

10

12

Brinell Hardness No.


Charpy
-Notched
Impact Ft-lbs
Endurance
limit, psi

Unnotched

30,000

30,000

35,000

37,000

39,000

Notched

19,000

19,000

22,000

26,000

28,000

31,000

30 million

30 million

30 million

30 million

30 million

30 million
psi

Modulus of Elasticity
HSS

Machinability Speed
Index
Carbide
Type of Heat Treatrnent

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

160

135

135

135

120

400

230

230

Annealed

Normalized

Normalized

45,000

80

400

325

310

Normalized

Normalized
and Tampered

Quenched

and Tempered

and Tampered

Summary of Steel Castings Specifications available from Steel Founders' Society of America.

1 Below 8 percent total alloy content.


2 There are commercial cast steels available at tensile strength levels greater than 200,000 psi. Properties must be checked with the producers.
3 SAE Hardness requirement. (Minimum)

22

OF CAST STEEL GRADES


0,0
)

TENSILE STRENGTHS

ENGINEERING
65,000

Excellent weldability, low temperature and


high temperature service

ASTM,

A352
LC1

erau

70,000

80,000

Excellent weldability, medium


strength with high toughness and
good machinability, high temperature service

GRADES-LOW

90,000

105,000

ALLOY
120,000

Certain steels of these classes have excellent high


temperature properties and deep hardening prop
High resistance to impad, excellent low
temperature properties for certain steels, deep
hardening properties, excellent combination of

erties.

strength and toughness, weldable


ASTM,

A217

Class WCC

ASTM
A14

era.. 8().50

ASTM,
A14

era.. -

ASTM
A14
105-15

era..

ASTM
A14

elau 120-95

STEELS

150,000
Deep hardening,
high strength,

175,000

200,000'

wear resistance

High strength, wear resistance,


high hardness, and high fatigue

and fatigue re

resistance

sistance
ASTM,
A14
150-125

era..

ASTM,
A14
175-145

era..

None
specified

All values listed below are specification minimum values and apply only to the typical specification listed
65,000

70,000

80,000

90,000

105,000

120,000

150,000

175,000

35,000

40,000

50,000

60,000

85,000

95,000

125,000

14.5,000

24

20

22

20

17

14

35

35

35

40

35

30

22

12

--

--

1633

1873

2171

2481

311'

3631

Values listed directly below are those normally expected in the production of steel castings for the
tensile strength values given in the upper portion of the chart.' The values are only for
general information and are not to be used as design or specification limit values.
68,000

74,000

86,000

95,000

110,000

128,000

158,000

179,000

205,000

38,000

44,000

54,000

64,000

91,000

112,000

142,000

160,000

170,000

32

28

24

20

21

16

13

11

55

50

46

44

48

38

30

25

21

137

143

170

192

217

262

311

352

401

60

55

48

40

58

45

30

24

14

20

22

1!1

16

40

31

17

12

35,000

39,000

42,000

53,000

62,000

74,000

84,000

88,000

32,000

4
5

20,000

23,000

25,000

31,000

34,000

37,000

44,000

48,000

50,000

30 million

30 million

30 million

30 million

30 illion

30 ntiHion

30 million

30million

30111illion

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

130

120

110

95

90

75

4.5

35

psi

400

230

240

290

310

180

200

180

Normaliz.cl
andTempe...d

Normalized

Nonnolized
and Te111pered

Normalized&

Qvonchod

Queftehed

Quenched

Quenched

Quenched

and Tempered

and Tempered

and Teper.cl

and THiperecf

andt. .perwd

and Tempered

and Temperad

Test values obtained in accordance with ASTM testing procedureso (Relatively large castings show lower ductility valueso)
Machinability speed index for a standard 18-4-1 high-speed steel tool is based on cutting speed which gives one hour tool life.
speed far one hour tool life based an 0.015-inch wearland.
Quench and temper heat treatments may also be employed for this class.

23

For carbide (788) cutting

17. "Materials Selector," Metal Engineering, mid-September, 1972, p. 34.

REFERENCES
I. SFSA Research Results.
2. Nickel Alloy Steel Data Book, Section 3, Bulletin D,
!NCO, 1966, Based upon American Brake Shoe
Company unpublished data.
3. Wieser, P. F., "Carbon and Low Alloy Steels," Machine
Design, February 14, 1974, p. 8.
4. Breznyak, B.S., and Wallace, J. F., "Impact Properties
of Cast Steel Sections with Surface Discontinuities,"
Steel Foundry Research Foundation, September, 1967.
5. Gall, E., Wieser, P. F., "Strength-Toughness Relationships for Cast Steels," Journal of Steel Castings Research, No. 64, September, 1963, p. 3.
6. Wessel, E. T., and Clark, W. T., Jr., "Fracture Prevention Procedure for Heavy Section Components," Westinghouse scientific paper 70-IE7-FMPWR-P2, January
14, 1970.
7. Stephens, R. I., et al., "Fatigue and Fracture Toughness
of SAE 0030 Cast Steel in Comparison with SAE 1020
Wrought Steel," Journal of Steel Castings Research,
No. 83, July, 1978, p. 1.
8. Jackson, W. J., "Fracture Toughness in Relation to
Steel Casting Design and Application," Steel Founders'
Society of America, August, 1978.
9. Groves, M. T., and Wallace, J. F., "Plane Strain
Fracture Toughness of Cast and Wrought Steels,"
Journal of Steel Castings Research, No. 80, September,
1977, p. 1.
10. Venne, L. J., "The Application of Fracture Toughness
Criteria to Steel Castings," Steel Foundry Facts, No.
313, March, 1975, p. 3.
II. Floreen, S., "The Fracture Toughness of Cast High
Strength Steels," Journal of Engineering, MAT, 1976.
12. Bamby, J. T., Al-Daimalani, I. S., "Assessment of the
Fracture Toughness of Cast Steels," Part !-Low Alloy
Steels, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 11, 1976, p.
1979.
13. Barnby, J. T., Al-Daimalani, I. S., "Assessment of the
Fracture Toughness of Cast Steels," Part II-Carbon
and Carbon Manganese Steels, Journal of Materials
Science, Vol. 11, 1976, p. 1989.
14. Steigerwald, E. A., "Plane Strain Fracture Toughness
for Handbook Presentation," AFML TR-67-187, July,
1967.
15. Barsom, J. M., and Rolfe, S. T., "Correlation between
Charpy V-notch Test Results in the Transition Temperature Range," Impact Testing of Metals, ASTM, STP-466,
Philadelphia, 1970, p. 281.
16. Begley, J. A., and Logsdon, W. A., "Correlation of
Fracture Toughness and Charpy Properties for Rotor
Steels," Westinghouse Research Laboratories, Scientific Paper 71-lET-MSRLF-Pl, May, 1971.

18. Ebert, L. J., "A Critical Review of Recent Literature


on the Fatigue Properties of Cast Steel," MPC-2,
ASME, 1976, p. 135.
19. Evans, E. B., Ebert, L. J., and Briggs, C. W., Proc.,
American Society for Testing and Materials, Vol. 56,
1956, p. I.
20. Wallace, J. F., Vishnevsky, C., and Briggs, C. W.,
Journal of Basic Engineering, ASME, March, 1968, p.
51.
21. Vishnevsky, C., Bertolino, M. F., and Wallace, J. F.,
"The Evaluation of Discontinuities in Commercial Steel
Castings by Dynamic Loading to Failure in Fatigue,"
Steel Foundry Research Foundation, February, 1967.
22. Breznyak, E. S., Vishnevsky, C., and Wallace, J. F.,
"The Effect of Internal Shrinkage Discontinuities on
the Fatigue and Impact Properties of Cast Steel Sections," Steel Foundry Research Foundation, May, 1969.
23. Vishnevsky, C., Wallace, J. F., and Mang, J. S.,
"Fatigue of Cast Steels, Part I-A Study of the Notch
Effect and of the Specimen Design and Loading on
the Fatigue Properties of Cast Steel," and "Part IISpectrographic Studies of Fatigue in Cast Steel," Steel
Foundry Research Foundation, April, 1967.
24. Vishnevsky, C., Bertolino, M. F., and Wallace, J. F.,
"The Effects of Surface Discontinuities on the Fatigue
Properties of Cast Steel Sections," Steel Foundry Research Foundation, August, 1966.
25. "Properties and Selection of Metals," Metals Handbook, Vol. 1, ASM, 1961, p. 128.
26. Technical Report on Fatigue Properties, SAE Jl099,
February, 1975.
27. Kapadia, B. M., Imhof, E. J., Jr., "Fatigue Crack
Growth in Cast Irons and Cast Steels," ASME publication Cast Metals for Structural and Pressure Containment Applications, MPC-11, 1979.
28. Nickel Alloy Steel Data Book, Section 2, Bulletin A.
29. Ahearn, P. J., Form, W. G., and Wallace, J. F., "Mass
Effect on Tensile Properties of High Strength Cast Steel
Castings, Modern Castings, February, !959, p. 45.
30. Briggs, C. W., and Gezelius, R. A., "The Effect of
Mass upon the Mechanical Properties of Cast Steel,
Trans., ASM, 1938, Vol. 26, p. 367.
31. MPC research to be published.
32. Private communications, V. Behal, Dominion Foundries
& Steel, Ltd., 1979.
33. SFSA research.

24