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2ND Semester 2014-2015


A. Data and Information Concepts

n Data referred to known facts that could be recorded and stored on computer
n Data are consists of facts, text, graphics, images, sound and video segments
that have meaning in the users environment.
n Information are the data that has been processed in such a way that it can
increase the knowledge of the person who uses it.
B. Data Management
n Numeric Data (Number)
examples: Age, Birthday, SSS Number, Employee Number, Invoice
n Alphabetic/Alphanumeric Data (Character)
examples: Name, Address, Plate Number
n Audio-Visual Data
Images, Sounds, Animation, Video
n Physical Data
Light, Pressure, Temperature
C. Hierarchy of Data Organization
n Bits - Element of 0s and 1s
n Bytes (Character) - Numeric or Alphabetic
n Field - lowest logical level
Examples: Student Number, Student Name, Course, Year Level
n Record- Collection of related Data Item
n File - interchangeably called as Table
n Data Base - Collection of Related Tables
D. Traditional File Processing Systems
n Using File Cabinets to store data.
n File processing systems are still widely used today, especially for backing up
database systems.
n Understanding the the problems and limitations inherent in file processing
systems can help us avoid problems when designing database systems.
Disadvantages of File Processing Systems
n Program-Data Dependence
n Duplication of Data
n Limited Data Sharing
n Lengthy Development Times
n Excessive Program Maintenance
E. Database Approach
n Program-Data Independence
n Minimal Data Redundancy
n Improved Data Consistency
n Improved Data Sharing
n Increased Productivity of Application Development
n Enforcement of Standards
n Improved Data Quality
n Improved Data Accessibility and Responsiveness
n Reduced Program Maintenance

2ND Semester 2014-2015


F. Range of Database Application

Database Applications:
Banking: all transactions
Airlines: reservations, schedules
Universities: registration, grades
Sales: customers, products, purchases
Online retailers: order tracking, customized recommendations
Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain
Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions
G. Importance & Application of DBMS
Database Inquiry and Reporting.
Users can use DBMS by asking for information from a database using a
simple English -like query language or a report generator.
Application Development
A DBMS facilitates the job of programmers since they do not have to
develop detailed data-handling procedures using conventional
programming language every time they write a program.
Programmers can include Data Manipulation Language (DML)
statements in their application programs and let the DBMS perform
necessary data-handling activities.
Programmers can also use the internal programming language provided
by many DBMS packages or a built-in applications generator to
develop complete application programs.
Data Base Creation, Control and Maintenance.
A DBMS uses a Data Definition Language (DDL) to develop and
specify the data contents, relationships and structure of each database.
It also uses the DDL to modify these database specifications when
necessary. The databases can be updated to reflect new transactions
and other events and assure the accuracy of the data in the data
Examples of DBMS
n Dbase from Borland International
n FoxBase from Fox Software
n Foxpro for DOS/Windows
n Paradox
n Magic