16 tayangan

Diunggah oleh khajarasool_sk

- Zha06
- Project Thesis
- OFDM Impairments
- 22-05-0005-01-0000-ofdma-tutorial-ieee802-22-jan-05
- aq
- Ref 5
- Presentation(WiMax)
- b 033206014
- PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems
- Naiyoukougai Eng RianR4
- Phase Plane
- Matrix
- Improved Channel Estimation Using Wavelet Denoising for OFDM and OFDMA Systems
- ICC 2014 Lahetkangas Etal LowLatencyAndEnergyConsumptionBy5GTDD
- Cover Pages Me
- LTE Interview Question and Answer
- ULB_60GHz_April2016
- Suo
- CMTS_Features_Guide_R7.2.4_02_03_2017.pdf
- Chapter 8 - Solving Linear Systems of Equations

Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Dept. of Electronic Engineering Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The Chinese University of Hong Kong University of Delaware

Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong Newark, De, 19716, USA

system with multiple CFOs. By fully exploiting the structure of the

A cooperative system may have both timing errors and carrier fre- SF codes in [5] and [1], we propose a novel ICI mitigation method

quency oﬀsets (CFOs) from relay nodes. To combat timing errors, called the multiple FFT (M-FFT) method which can be realized by

space-frequency (SF) coded OFDM system has been recently pro- simply rearranging the SF code with little loss in system perfor-

posed for cooperative communications to achieve both full cooper- mance. Both analysis and simulation results show that for the same

ative and multipath diversities without the time synchronization re- SER level, the M-FFT based methods require less computations than

quirement among relay nodes. In this paper, we consider the signal other classic approaches, e.g., the well-known Q taps (Q-T) MMSE

detection problem in an SF coded OFDM system for cooperative ﬁltering method [6]. This paper is organized as follows. In Section

communications where multiple CFOs may occur from relay nodes. 2 the structure of the SF codes described in [5] is reviewed. The

By exploiting the structure of the SF codes that are rotational based system and the received signal models are introduced in Sections

in this paper, we propose a novel inter-carrier interference (ICI) mit- 3 and 4, respectively. The proposed ICI mitigation method is de-

igation method called the multiple fast Fourier transform (M-FFT) scribed in Section 5. Finally, simulation results are shown in Section

method. Simulation results illustrate that for the same symbol error 6. Throughout this paper, full channel knowledge including CFOs at

rate (SER) level, the M-FFT based detection methods require less the receiver is assumed.

computations than other classic approaches.

Notation: We use A(l, k) to denote the (l, k)th entry of A, and

Index Terms— CFO, cooperative communication, SF code, ICI. x(k) to denote the kth entry of vector x. Superscripts T , ∗ , and H

stand for transpose, conjugate, and Hermitian, respectively. E [x]

1. INTRODUCTION represents the expectation of variable x. The notation ||C||F stands

for the Frobenius norm of C. Integer ceiling and ﬂoor are denoted

Due to the fact that OFDM systems are robust to timing errors, the by · and ·, respectively. IN represents the identity matrix of size

SF coded cooperative system has been proposed to achieve full asyn- N × N. diag(d0 · · · dN−1 ) denotes an N × N diagonal matrix with di-

chronous cooperative diversity [1]. However, it is well-known that agonal scalar entries d0 , · · · , dN−1 , and an N M × N M block diagonal

OFDM is sensitive to CFO which often leads to inter-carrier inter- matrix with diagonal M × M matrix entries D0 , · · · , DN−1 is denoted

ference (ICI). In a SF coded cooperative communication system, be- by diag(D0 · · · DN−1 ). FN is the N × N normalized FFT matrix. The

cause SF codes are transmitted from various distributed nodes, there Kronecker product is denoted by ⊗. The notation ()N means modular

may exist multiple CFOs at the destination node, which makes it dif- operation.

ﬁcult for the receiver to synchronize the signals from multiple relays

at the same time. Therefore, ICI exists and ICI mitigation is needed

2. STRUCTURE OF SPACE-FREQUENCY CODES

to improve the system performance.

The ICI mitigation problem due to multiple CFOs in cooperative

In this section we brieﬂy review the structure and properties of the

communication systems has been studied recently in [2], [3], [4].

SF codes in [5], [1], which we will utilize. Here we adopt the code

In [2], a subcarrier-wise Alamouti coded OFDM system is consid-

structure proposed in [5]. For the coding strategy proposed in [5],

ered and a simpliﬁed zero-forcing (ZF) equalizer is applied to sup-

each SF codeword C is a concatenation of some matrices G P

press the ICI. In [3], delay diversity is considered and a minimum

mean squared error (MMSE) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) is T

employed at the receiver. In [4], rotational based SF codes [5], [1] C = GT1 GT2 ··· GTP 0T(N−N )×Mt , (1)

are considered. Compared with codes used in [2] and [3], these SF

codes are powerful in the sense that they can achieve both the full where N is equal to the number of subcarriers in one OFDM symbol,

cooperative diversity and the full multipath diversities, and their rate Mt is equal to the number of transmit antennas, P = N/(ΓMt ), and

is always equal to one regardless of the number of transmit antennas. N = PΓMt . The zero padding matrix 0(N−N )×Mt is an (N − N ) × Mt

However, in [4] the SF code structure is not utilized. all zero matrix which is used if the number of subcarriers N is not

an integer multiple of ΓMt . In the remainder of this paper, unless

∗ Their work was partially supported by a research grant awarded by the

otherwise speciﬁed, we always assume that N is an integer multiple

Hong Kong Research Grants Council. of ΓMt . Each matrix G p , 1 ≤ p ≤ P, has the same structure given by

† His work was supported in part by the Air Force Oﬃce of Scientiﬁc

Research (AFOSR) under Grant No. FA9550-05-1-0161 and the National

Science Foundation under Grant CCR-0325180. Gp = Mt diag(X1p , X2p , · · · , X Mp t ), (2)

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

p p p T

where XmP = [x(m−1)Γ+1 x(m−1)Γ+2 · · · xmΓ ] , m = 1, 2, · · · , Mt , and all signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination node. εm =

fm T is

p

xk , k = 1, 2, · · · , ΓMt , are complex symbols and are mapped from an the normalized CFO where

fm is the CFO between the mth relay

information subvector S p = [s1p , s2p , · · · , sΓM p

t

]T by a rotation opera- and the destination node, and T is the OFDM symbol duration. In

tion (6), θεbm = 2πεm (bN + bLcp + Lcp )/N + θ0,m where Lcp is the length

T T T

[X1p , X2p , · · · , X Mp t ]T = ΘS p , (3) of cyclic preﬁx, and θ0,m is the phase rotation between the phase of

the destination node local oscillator and the carrier phase of the mth

where slp is ((p − 1)ΓMt + l − 1)th entry

of S for 1 ≤ l ≤ ΓMt and relay at the start of the received signal. Uεm is the ICI matrix induced

satisﬁes the energy constraint E |slp |2 = 1. Θ is an Mt Γ × Mt Γ by εm and is given by

rotation matrix.

One property of the SF code is that each subcarrier is only used Uεm = FN Ωεm FH

N, (7)

by one transmit antenna. From (2), the mth column of C, denoted as where Ωεm = diag[1, e j2πεm /N

,··· ,e j2πεm (N−1)/N

]. From the deﬁnition

Cm , can be written as of Uεm , clearly Uεm is a unitary matrix and the element at its lth row

and kth column is

Cm = Mt Pm (IP ⊗ Θ) S = Mt Pm X, (4)

sin[π((k − l)N + εm )]e jπ((k−l)N +εm )(N−1)/N

where X = (IP ⊗ Θ) S and Pm is a diagonal matrix corresponding to Uεm (l, k) = uεm ,(k−l)N = , (8)

Nsin[π((k − l)N + εm )/N]

the mth column of C. For the SF code in [5], Pm has the following

form where 0 ≤ l, k ≤ N − 1.

From (7) and (8) we can see that if εm 0, the matrix Uεm is no

1, if l = l = (t − 1)ΓMt + (m − 1)Γ + i longer diagonal and that (8) shows the eﬀect of ICI. Furthermore, if

Pm (l, l ) = , (5)

0, else more than one CFO exists, which is possible in a cooperative com-

munication system, it is diﬃcult for the receiver to compensate all

where 0 ≤ i ≤ Γ − 1 and 1 ≤ t ≤ P. the CFOs at the same time.

Furthermore, if the signal constellations are QAM and PAM, it

can be shown that the optimum rotation matrix Θ is a unitary ma-

5. ICI MITIGATION AND SIGNAL DETECTION IN THE

trix [5]. Based on this property, it is not diﬃcult to verify that the

PRESENCE OF MULTIPLE CFOS

elements of X are uncorrelated.

At the receiver, each SF submatrix G p is decoded by ML or

It is shown in [7] that CFO may not decrease the diversity order of SF

sphere decoding independently and the maximum diversity order

codes and the performance degradation can be regarded as that due

ΓMt Mr can be achieved. Here Mr is the number of receive anten-

to the loss of equivalent SNR, i.e., signal-to-interference-plus-noise

nas.

ratio (SINR). Based on this observation, we propose to deal with ICI

mitigation due to multiple CFOs by ﬁrst increasing the SINR , and

3. COOPERATIVE PROTOCOL then decoding the SF code by ML or sphere decoding.

Substituting (4) into (6), we get the following signal model:

The cooperative communication system we use in this work includes √

one source node, one destination node, and a number of relay nodes. Zb = ρDb Xb + Wb , (9)

Here, the decode-and-forward cooperative protocol is adopted. In Mt jθεb

where D = m=1 e m Dm Pm for Dm = Uεm Hm and the elements

b

the ﬁrst phase, the source node broadcasts the information while the

of Xb are uncorrelated from one another. For (9), the linear MMSE

relays receive the same information. In the second phase, the Mt

ﬁlter can maximize the output SINR [8]. Thus we can ﬁrst maximize

relays, which have detected the received information symbols cor-

the SINR by a linear ﬁltering operation, and then decode the SF

rectly, will help the source to transmit. The detected symbols are

code by ML or sphere decoding. We call this detection method the

parsed into blocks of size N and the bth block, b = 0, 1, · · · , is en-

MMSE-F method. Note that when we decode the SF codes, we use

coded to an N × Mt SF codeword matrix C b in a distributed fash-

two approximations. The ﬁrst is that the ﬁltered Gaussian noise is

ion [1]. Here N is equal to the number of subcarriers in one OFDM

treated as if it were white. The second is that the residual ICI terms

symbol. Finally, the mth relay transmits Cmb , the mth column of C b ,

are regarded as additional Gaussian noise.

by the standard OFDM technology. At the destination node, the re-

The major drawback of the MMSE-F method is its computa-

ceived OFDM symbols are used to decode. Although in a coopera-

tional complexity since calculating MMSE ﬁlter coeﬃcient is of the

tive communication system, each column of an SF code corresponds

order of O(N 3 ). It could be a burden when N is large. The Q taps

to one relay, to be consistent with the notation used in the SF coding

(Q-T) method is a common way to reduce computational complexity

literature we will use the term antenna in place of relay.

for the OFDM system, e.g., [6], where for the concerned subcarrier

only its L circular left and right subcarriers are considered. That

4. RECEIVE SIGNAL MODEL means we use Q (Q = 2L + 1) taps ﬁlter instead of the full N-taps

ﬁlter. Roughly speaking, if NQ3 ≤ N 3 , the computational complex-

At the destination node, after standard steps, the bth received OFDM ity can be reduced at the expense of a certain performance loss. To

symbol Zb in the frequency domain is given by partially tackle the above problem, in the remainder of this section,

we propose a simple and eﬃcient ICI mitigation method, the M-FFT

ρ t jθεb

M

Zb = e m Uεm Hm Cmb + Wb , (6) method.

Mt m=1 First, at the transmitter, we re-arrange the SF code C in (1)-(2)

by some row permutations and denote this row-wisely permuted SF

where Hm is an N × N diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements code by C which has the following structure:

are the channel frequency response from the mth relay to destina- T

T T 1 T 2 T P T T

tion, Wb is an N × 1 vector with each entry being a zero mean unit C = diag [X11 , X12 , · · · , X1P ]T , · · · , [X M t

, XM t

, · · · , XMt

] ,

variance complex Gaussian random variable, and ρ stands for the (10)

3254

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

where Xmp is deﬁned in (2). From (10) we can see that after row per- Method Number of multiplications

mutations, the non-zero entries of the mth column of C are grouped.

Note that the subcarriers from PΓ(m − 1) to PΓm − 1 are used by the MMSE-F O(14N 3 )

mth transmit antenna. We call these subcarriers the mth group. As- Q-T O(13NQ3 )

sume that after permutations the ((m − 1)Γ + i)th row, 0 ≤ i ≤ Γ − 1,

p

of G p , is located at the n(m−1)Γ+i p

th row, 0 ≤ n(m−1)Γ+i ≤ N − 1, of M-FFT Mt N + (Mt − 1) N2 log2 N

p p

C , i.e., x(m−1)Γ+i+1 will be transmitted at the n(m−1)Γ+i th subcarrier

p Table 1. Comparison of computational complexity.

by the mth transmit antenna. Then, for (10) we have n(m−1)Γ+i =

(m − 1)ΓP + (p − 1)Γ + i.

In [5], it has been shown that the diversity order and coding ad- b

time domain by −εl is equivalent to multiplying Z b by (e jθεl Uεl )H .

vantage of this kind of SF codes depends only on the relative posi- Mt jθεb

tions of the permuted rows corresponding to the entries of Xmp with Let Ub = l=1 e l Uεl Pl . Then, Z̄b can be expressed as

p

respect to the position n(m−1)Γ . Since we do not change the relative √ bH b b H

positions for the entries of Xmp , i.e., n(m−1)Γ+i

p p

− n(m−1)Γ = i for each Z̄b = ρU D X + Ub Wb (14)

⎛ Mt ⎞ ⎛ Mt ⎞

pair of m and p, C should have the same diversity order and coding ⎜

√ b H ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟

⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎟

⎟

ρU ⎜⎝ e jθεl Uεl Pl ⎟⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎜⎝ Pl Hl ⎟⎟⎟⎠ X b + Ub Wb ,

b H

advantage as that of C. When we use C , we can get the following =

frequency domain SISO-OFDM model from (9) as l=1 l=1

P

m has the

same

Z b = ρD b X b + Wb , (11) Mt

property as that of Pm described in (5). Because l=1 Pl Hl is a di-

where X

b = TXb , T is a permutation matrix whose element at its agonal matrix, Z̄b is actually the matched ﬁlter output of Z b . Then,

p

n(m−1)Γ+i th row and ((p − 1)Mt Γ + (m − 1)Γ + i)th column is equal based on (14) we can directly decode X b by ML or sphere decoding

Mt jθεb by using the same approximations as we do for the MMSE-F or the

to 1, D b = m=1 e m Dm Pm , and Pm is deﬁned as

Q-T methods. Furthermore, for this M-FFT method, we have the

following observations:

1, if l = l and (m − 1)PΓ ≤ l ≤ mPΓ − 1

Pm (l, l ) = . (12) • Referring to [9], the computational complexities of diﬀerent

0, else

methods are evaluated in Table 1. We can see that the com-

At the receiver in the time domain we apply frequency shift (FS) putation complexity of the M-FFT method is much less than

and FFT operations Mt times. Each time CFO εl , 1 ≤ l ≤ Mt , is that of other two methods for reasonable value of N and Mt .

completely compensated by the FS. Then, after the FFT operation • If we combine M-FFT with the successive interference can-

we can get signal vector Zlb in the frequency domain as cellation (SIC), the decoding order of G p should depend on

√ the subcarriers where G p are located. For example, consider-

Z bl = ρD bl X b + Wbl , (13) ing the structure of C , GP/2 or GP/2 should ﬁrst be decoded.

Mt j(θεbm −θεb ) Although this is not the optimal decoding order, we do not

where D bl = m=1 e l Dm,l P , Dm,l = Uε Hm and εm,l = εm −εl .

m m,l need additional operations to decide the decoding order.

Since εl is compensated, we have D bl P l = Hl Pl . This means that • Since the boundary subcarriers of each group have the worst

the subcarriers of the lth group do not leak their power to all other quality/SINR, we may not use them to improve the SER per-

subcarriers whether they are in the same group or not. Unfortunately, formance at the cost of even small eﬃciency loss. On the

due to the eﬀect of multiple CFOs, the ICI power arriving from other other hand, if zero padding exists, we can use them to sep-

groups may be increased by this FS operation. However, it is also arate groups. We call this scheme the M-FFT-Zn method,

highly probable that the SINR of the subcarriers in the lth group can where n is the number of unused subcarriers.

be signiﬁcantly increased.

From (7)-(8) for the ICI coeﬃcients, one can see that for the de- • M-FFT can also be used for the preprocessing of the Q-T

sired kth subcarrier in the lth group, most of the ICI power comes method to improve their performance. We call this two-stage

from a few of its neighbors and most of which are in the same group. scheme the M-FFT-Q-T method.

Considering another subcarrier, say the ith subcarrier, as the distance

|k − i| increases, the ICI power coming from the ith subcarrier dras- 6. SIMULATION RESULTS

tically decreases. Therefore, although the ICI power arriving from

other groups may be increased by this FS, its eﬀect is insigniﬁcant An Mt = 2 system with 64 OFDM tones is simulated. The band-

compared with the canceled ICI power of the same group. Fur- width is 20 MHz and the cyclic preﬁx is ﬁxed to 16. The channels

thermore, the subcarriers in the middle of the lth group should suf- from relays to destination are all frequency-selective fading with two

fer from smaller ICI power than those subcarriers which are at the equal power rays [τm (0), τm (1)] = [0, 0.5]μs for 1 ≤ m ≤ Mt . We

boundaries of lth group do. Because both sides of the middle subcar- also assume that the receiver only has one receive antenna. For each

rier are separated from other groups and as the position of subcarrier channel realization, each εm , is uniformly selected from [−ε Max , ε Max ].

shifts from the middleto left or right boundary, the ICI power com- The SF code proposed in [5] is applied.

ing from (l − 2) Mt + 1 th or (l) Mt + 1 th group will rapidly increase. As shown in Fig.1, as SNR increases, the OFDM system will

Therefore, after the lth FS and FFT operation, we may only want quickly suﬀer from an error ﬂoor if we directly decode (referred to as

to preserve the signals of the lth group denoted by z bl which is a PΓ× DD). On the other hand, in the simulated SNR range, the MMSE-F

1 vector. Finally, we collect all of z bl for 1 ≤ l ≤ Mt and construct an method works well. Compared with the MMSE-F method, the per-

T T T

equivalent received signal vector Z̄b = [z b1 , z b2 , · · · , z bMt ]T . It is formance loss of the Q-T method is obvious when Q is small. The

easy to show that shifting the frequency of the received signal in the M-FFT method outperforms the Q-T method with Q = 5. Finally, to

3255

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

demonstrate that the grouping operation of subcarriers plays an im- −2

10

portant role in the M-FFT method, we also simulate a scheme that we

directly apply multiple FS and FFT operations without the grouping

operation and it is denoted by M-FFT-WG . From Fig.1 we can see

that the performance of the M-FFT-WG method is worse than that of −3

10

the directly decoding. This is because without the grouping step, in

the FS operation, the increased ICI power from other antennas can

SER

even exceed the canceled ICI power.

MMSE−F

Fig.2 shows some extensions of the M-FFT method. For M-FFT- −4

10 M−FFT−Z4

Z4, the 0th to 29th subcarriers are used by the ﬁrst transmit antenna, M−FFT−Q−T, Q=4

the 32nd to 61th subcarriers are used by the second transmit antenna M−FFT−Z4 with SIC

and all the other subcarriers are not used. We can see that the perfor- M−FFT−Q−T−Z4, Q=7

mance of the M-FFT method is greatly increased and is comparable Q−T, Q=15

with that of the Q-T method with Q = 15. The cost is that the fre- −5

10

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

quency eﬃciency is decreased by 6.25%. The eﬀect of zero padding SNR(dB)

four subcarriers, no power leaks from them. More importantly, for Fig. 2. Extensions of the M-FFT method when ε Max = 0.2.

each group, a large part of the ICI power from the other groups falls

on these 4 unused subcarriers. Note that for the Q-T method, zero

padding can also increase SER performance. However, the improve-

ment is small because only the subcarriers near these zero pads can 8. REFERENCES

signiﬁcantly beneﬁt from them. For the M-FFT-Q-T method, when

Q = 4, it outperforms the M-FFT-Z4 method. Finally, we com- [1] Y. Li, W. Zhang, and X.-G. Xia, “Distributive high-rate full-

bine the M-FFT-Z4 method with SIC. For our simulated system, diversity space-frequency codes for asynchronous cooperative

the decoding order is G8 , G9 , G7 , · · · , G15 , G1 according to the aver- communications,” in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on

age SINR of subcarriers. We also plot the curve of the M-FFT-Q-T Information Theory (ISIT), Seattle, USA, July 9-14 2006, pp.

method with Q = 7. For a fair comparison, four zero paddings are 2612–2616.

used at the same subcarriers as that of the M-FFT-Z4 method. There-

[2] Z. Li, D. Qu, and G. Zhu, “An equalization technique for dis-

fore, it is denoted by M-FFT-Q-T-Z4. We can see that both these two

tributed STBC-OFDM system with multiple carrier frequency

schemes have a comparable performance with the MMSE-F method.

oﬀsets,” in Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications Networking

Note that for the Q-T method, 15 is the maximum value of Q when

Conf. (WCNC), Las Vegas, USA, Apr. 2006, vol. 5, pp. 2130–

N = 64 since if Q > 15, the Q-T methods would lose their computa-

2134.

tional eﬃciency compared with the MMSE-F method.

[3] D. Veronesi and D. L. Goeckel, “Multiple frequency oﬀset

compensation in cooperative wireless systems,” in Proc. IEEE

7. CONCLUSION

Global Telecommun. Conf., San Francisco, California, USA,

In this paper, we have proposed a novel ICI mitigation method, M- Nov. 2006.

FFT, for the multiple CFOs problem in an SF coded cooperative [4] F. Tian, X.-G. Xia, and P. C. Ching, “Signal detection for space-

communication system. Our proposed M-FFT method takes the SF frequency coded cooperative communication system with mul-

code into account and has a low computational complexity. Simula- tiple carrier frequency oﬀsets,” in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commu-

tion results have illustrated the eﬀectiveness of the method. nications Networking Conf. (WCNC), Hong Kong, Mar. 2007,

pp. 1221–1225.

0

10 [5] W. Su, Z. Safar, and K. J. R. Liu, “Full-rate full-diversity space-

frequency codes with optimum coding advantage,” IEEE Trans.

−1

Information Theory, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 229–249, Jan. 2005.

10

[6] S. D. Zhou H.-M. Wang, X. Chen and Y. Yao, “A low-

−2

complexity ICI cancellation scheme in frequency domain for

10

OFDM in time-varying multipath channels,” in Proc. IEEE 16th

No CFO Intermational Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Ra-

M−FFT−WG, εMax=0.2

10

−3

dio Communications, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2005, pp. 1234–

DD, εMax=0.2

1237.

M−FFT, εMax=0.2

10

−4 Q−T, Q=5, εMax=0.2 [7] D. N. Dao and C. Tellambura, “Intercarrier interference self-

MMSE−F, εMax=0.2 cancellation space-frequency codes for MIMO-OFDM,” IEEE

Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 54, pp. 1729–1738, Sep. 2005.

−5

10

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 [8] D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communi-

cation, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[9] J. Benesty, Y. A. Huang, and J. Chen, “A fast recursive algorithm

Fig. 1. SER performance of the MMSE-F, Q-T, and M-FFT meth- for optimum sequential signal detection in a BLAST system,”

ods. IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, pp. 1722–1730, July

2003.

3256

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

- Zha06Diunggah olehbavar88
- Project ThesisDiunggah olehJaya Sree
- OFDM ImpairmentsDiunggah olehdaisyfield88
- 22-05-0005-01-0000-ofdma-tutorial-ieee802-22-jan-05Diunggah olehEravill
- aqDiunggah olehMathew George
- Ref 5Diunggah olehSandeep Sunkari
- Presentation(WiMax)Diunggah olehSachida Meher
- b 033206014Diunggah olehinventionjournals
- PAPR Reduction in OFDM SystemsDiunggah olehibwe
- Naiyoukougai Eng RianR4Diunggah olehRian Fer
- Phase PlaneDiunggah olehDhanaSelvam
- MatrixDiunggah olehChristine Joyce Bunyi
- Improved Channel Estimation Using Wavelet Denoising for OFDM and OFDMA SystemsDiunggah olehsulemankhan
- ICC 2014 Lahetkangas Etal LowLatencyAndEnergyConsumptionBy5GTDDDiunggah olehoszem
- Cover Pages MeDiunggah olehvishwanathbrungi
- LTE Interview Question and AnswerDiunggah olehVikash Jha
- ULB_60GHz_April2016Diunggah olehHuongNguyen
- SuoDiunggah olehIsidora Popescu
- CMTS_Features_Guide_R7.2.4_02_03_2017.pdfDiunggah olehAn An
- Chapter 8 - Solving Linear Systems of EquationsDiunggah olehPrizt Mey Ginting
- Transmit Diversity in LTE NetworkDiunggah olehSarsij Mishra
- Final LTE ReportDiunggah olehpunith
- Ben Salem Aymen 2014 ThesisDiunggah olehsmbokhari
- Jg Hg j Hhgh 76765776Diunggah olehGlobalStrategy
- Machine Learning [Matzinger].pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Rizwan
- learning_a_level_maths_with_hp_prime_or_hp39gii.pdfDiunggah olehTanzid Sultan
- Optimisation of Bit Loading in Broadband Power Line Communication NetworkDiunggah olehIOSRjournal
- mat210-LectureNotes-1Diunggah olehFranch Maverick Arellano Lorilla
- LTE Air InterfaceDiunggah olehShalabh
- Design of an Optimized FBMC Transmitter by using Clock Gating Technique based QAM for Low Area, Power and High Speed ApplicationsDiunggah olehscsvmvsivakumar

- Window Design for SISO and MIMO OFDMWindow Design for SISO and MIMO OFDM SystemsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Wireless Networked Security System Based on ZigbeeDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Throughput Evaluation of the the Nonorthogonal CSKCDMA ALOHA With InterferenceDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Turbo MIMO Equalization and Decoding in FastDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Utility-Based Adaptive Radio Resource Allocation InDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Two-Layer Spreading CDMA an Improved MethodDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Training Symbol Based Coarse TimingDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Wireless Device Identification in MIMO ChannelsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Vertical Handover Criteria and Algorithm in IEEE 802.11 and 802.16 Hybrid NetworksDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Three-Dimensional Modeling and Simulation OfDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Turbo Coded OFDM for Reducing PAPR and Error RatesDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- User Set Estimation for Adaptive Resource Allocation in a Multiuser OFDM SystemDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- User Set Estimation for Adaptive Resource Allocation in a Multiuser OFDM SystemDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Uneven Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation Method for Mobile OFDM SystemsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Video Ads Dissemination Through WiFi-Cellular Hybrid NetworksDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Study of a Novel Zoom Spectrum Analysis Approach for Wireless Communication AnalyzerDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Sequence Hopping Cell Search Scheme for OFDM Cellular SystemsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Smooth Beamforming for OFDMDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Theoretical Studies and Efficient Algorithm OfDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Synchronization, Channel Estimation, AndDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Robust Video Broadcasting Over 802.11 in Time Correlated Fading ChannelsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Space Shift Keying Modulation for MIMO ChannelsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Single-Symbol ML Decoding for Orthogonal and Quasi-Orthogonal STBC in Clipped MIMO-OfDM Systems Using a Clipping Noise Model With Gaussian ApproximationDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Stochastic Differential Equations ForDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Simple MMSE Interference Suppression for Real and Rate Half Complex Orthogonal Space Time Block CodesDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Selective Level MappingDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- The Continuous-Time Peak-To-Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Using Complex Modulation SchemesDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Space Time Frequency Code ImplementationDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- Selective Mapping With Symbol Re-Mapping for OFDM or TDM Using MMSE FDEDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk
- IMP Selected Mapping Without Side Information for OFDM Selective ChannelsDiunggah olehkhajarasool_sk

- The R Software_ Fundamentals of Programming and Statistical Analysis.pdfDiunggah oleherrttty
- Standard Akademik f5Diunggah olehRisma Robin
- Linear Algebra Cambridge Mathematical Tripos Part IBDiunggah olehharry
- Analysis of Stripline-Fed Slot-Coupled Patch Antennas With Vias for Parallel-Plate Mode SuppressionDiunggah olehnaranjito
- Directional CouplersDiunggah olehAhmed Ali
- Gas Cap BlowdownDiunggah olehkavanayen
- Heip, C. & Al. (1998). Indices of Diversity and Evenness.Diunggah olehCarlos Enrique Sánchez Ocharan
- B Stat CoursesDiunggah olehMirza Ahad Baig
- Axiomatic o EjemploDiunggah olehedvillal
- MIT18_06S10_pset1_s10_solnDiunggah olehAkshay Goyal
- Report DSPDiunggah olehNpt Thien Phuc
- JEE-Advanced-2014-Question-paper.pdfDiunggah olehiitforum
- Stochastic Modeling of Uncertainties in Computational Structural Dynamics - SoizeDiunggah olehBernardofn
- SyllabusDiunggah olehSayyam Sharma
- Linear Algebra, Jim HefferonDiunggah olehJuanmagonza
- Rhapsody in FractionalDiunggah olehnrobastos1451
- 9.docxDiunggah olehdicko
- (Strategies for Social Inquiry) Carsten Q Schneider_ Claudius Wagemann-Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences _ a Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis-Cambridge University Press (20Diunggah olehJoana Pina
- Paperpdf 1325 NagDiunggah olehjacs127
- Pinkall, Springborn, Weißmann - 2007 - A New Doubly Discrete Analogue of Smoke Ring Flow and the Real Time Simulation of Fluid FlowDiunggah olehpinkall
- 9780387221953-c1Diunggah olehAdrianaRosalía
- Tabla de contenidos- El sistema de la moda de Roland BarthesDiunggah olehlisistrata64
- Excel FunctionsDiunggah olehAnil Tadikonda
- Algorithm 1Diunggah olehKhalid Saleh
- Aeronautical Syllabus-Shivaji University- R.H.B. RamamurthyDiunggah olehZachary Guerra
- Sem I SyllabusSchema DEEDiunggah olehAkshat Srivastava
- Modal Analysis - Notes for StudentsDiunggah olehShyam Radsun
- Algorithms and Data StructuresDiunggah olehnzscr
- 2013 Aero ArrangedDiunggah olehHarish Mathiazhahan
- diploma syllabusDiunggah olehT Hari Prasad