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Bahan Diskusi Kelas

Kluster 2. Stoikiometri dan Larutan


Bab IV. Stoikiometri
1. Jelaskan dan berikan contoh dari istilah-istilah berikut: konsep mol, hukum Avogadro
dan reaksi redoks ?
2. Berapa liter air yang Sdr. minum tiap hari ? Jika massa jenis air adalah 1 g/mL, berapa
berat air yang Sdr. minum tersebut ? Berapa jumlah molekul yang terdapat dalam air
yang Sdr. minum ? Bisakah juga Sdr. menghitung berapa jumlah molekul air yang
Sdr. gunakan untuk mandi ? Mencuci ? Menyiram tanaman ? Hitung juga persentase
oksigen dan hidrogen dalam molekul air, H2O.
3. Gas CO hasil pembakaran mesin kendaraan bermotor yang tidak sempurna,
merupakan salah satu gas yang sangat berbahaya bagi tubuh, hitunglah jumlah
partikel dan volume gas CO pada keadaan standar (STP) untuk 3,5 mol bensin (C8H10)
yang terbakar mengikuti reaksi berikut:
2 C8H10(l) + a O2(g) b CO(g) + c H2O(g).
Tentukan massa CO yang dihasilkan (Ar C = 12 dan O =16).
4. Selesaikanlah reaksi berikut dalam suasana asam dan basa dari reaksi berikut:
I- + MnO4- Mn2+ + I2
Jika pada reaksi tersebut digunakaan 9 g KMnO4, berapakah massa iod yang
dihasilkan agar tercapai ekivalensi reaksi ?
5. Contoh tanah seberat 1,35 kg diambil dari tambang emas PT. INCO Soroako telah
diteliti kandungan nikelnya dan ditemukan sebanyak 1,275 mg. Hitung berapa banyak
kandungan Ni dalam 1 ton contoh tanah tersebut dalam satuan mol dan atom.
6. Suatu senyawa mengandung Pb, 90.6% dan O, 9.4% (persen berat). Tentukan rumus
empirik senyawa tersebut.
7. Gas oksigen dibuat dengan memanaskan KClO3. (a) Berapa berat oksigen (O2) yang
diperoleh dari pemanasan 3.00 g KC1O3? (b) Berapa volume O2, jika diukur pada
keadaan STP ? (c) Berapa volume gas O2 yang ada dalam air pada tekanan 730 torr
dan 25C ?

Jawaban Bab IV.

1. Lihat defenisi di buku.


2. Massa jenis air 1 g/mL untuk 1 L air massanya 1000 g
Mol = g /Mr Mr air 18 g/mol
Mol = 1000 g/ 18g/mol = 1000/18 mol air
1 mol air mengandung air sebanyak bilangan Avogadro (6,02x1023) molekul air
Kalau 1000/18 mol 1000/18 mol x 6,02x1023 molekul/mol = molekul
3. 2 C8H10(l) + 13 O2(g) 16 CO(g) + 10 H2O(g).
2 mol bensin sebanding dengan 16 mol CO
3,5 mol bensin ~ 16/2x3,5 mol CO
Mol bisa dikonversi ke jumlah volum, jumlah gram, dan jumlah molekul CO
(silahkan lihat di buku)
4.
Suasana asam (ada H+) 16H++10I- + 2MnO4- 2Mn2+ +5 I2 + 8H2O
Suasana basa (ada OH-) 8H2O +10I- + 2MnO4- 2Mn2+ +5 I2 + 16OHUntuk menghitung berapa massa iod yang dihasilkan, silahkan gunakan jumlah mol
sesuai dengan persamaan reaksi di atas.
5. Kandungan Ni 1,275 mg/1,35 kg contoh. Silahkan dihitung jika contohnya 1 ton
(1000 kg)
6. Gunakan rumus empiric
7. Ada di buku.

Bahan Diskusi Kelas

Kluster 2. Stoikiometri dan Larutan


Bab V. LARUTAN
1. Jelaskan dan berikan contoh serta aplikasi dari istilah-istilah berikut:
a. Larutan.
f. Larutan ideal.
b. Konsentrasi.
g. Larutan pekat.
c. Larutan jenuh.
h. System Koloid.
d. Larutan elektrolit
i. Elektroforesis.
e. Sifat koligatif.
j. Dialisis.
k.
2. Buatlah larutan berikut dari bahan yang disebutkan:
a. 250 ml AgNO3 0,125 M dari padatan AgNO3.
b. 100 ml CuSO4 0,2 M dari padatan CuSO4.5H2O.
c. Larutan 0,2 m naftalena (C10H8) menggunakan 50 g CCl4 sebagai pelarut.
d. Larutan sukrosa (C12H22O11) dng fraksi mol 0,0348 menggunakan 100 g air ( = 1
g/ml)
l.
3. Suatu larutan aseton dalam air mengandung 8,6 mg aseton dalam 21,4 liter larutan. Jika
kerapatan larutan adalah 0,997 g/cm3, hitung konsentrasi larutan dalam:
a. ppm.
b. ppb.

4.

5.

6.

7.

c.
Selesaikan perhitungan berikut yang terkait dengan garam yang ada di dapur rumah Sdr. :
a. Hitung berapa %berat NaCl yang dibuat denga melarutkan 20g NaCl dalam 55g air.
b. Hitung berapa gram NaCl yang terdapat dalam 500g NaCl 16% berat.
c. Hitung fraksi mol NaCl dan fraksi mol H2O dalam larutan 117 g NaCl dan 3 kg H2O.
d. Seorang mahasiswa mencampurkan 3,5 L NaCl 0,15 M dengan 5,5 L NaCl 0,175 M
dan memperoleh larutan sebanyak 9 liter. Hitung konsentrasi akhir larutan tersebut.
e. Suatu larutan dibuat dengan melarutkan 15,2 g NaCl dalam 197 g air. Larutan ini
mempunyai berat jenis 1,012 g/ml. Hitung fraksi mol, molalitas dan molaritas NaCl.
f. Bagaimana cara membuat membuat larutan 1,2 molar dan 1,2 molal larutan NaCl
dalam air. Coba lakukan di dapur Sdr. Bisa tidak ? Apa yang perlu diasumsikan ?
d.
Kasus berikut terkait dengan satuan konsentrasi yang sering digunakan di lapangan:
a. Berapa gram pupuk natrium fosfat yang diperlukan untuk membuat 20 mL larutan
pupuk 9% mg (9% mg coba search di google.).
b. Hitung konsentrasi Na+ dalam %mg, jika 5 mL darah mengandung 0,14mg Na+.
c. Hitung jumlah miliekivalen ion Ca2+ yg terdapat dlm 100mL darah 0,1% (W/V) Ca2+.
d. Hitung berapa mg ion K+ yg terdapat dalam cuplikan darah yang mengandung 2,5 m
ekuivalen ion K+.
e.
Tekanan uap eter (Mr 74) adalah 442 mmHg pada 293 K. Jika 3 g senyawa A dilarutkan ke
dalam 50 g eter pada temperature ini, tekanan uap menjadi 426 mmHg. Hitung massa
molekul relative (Mr) senyawa A.
f.
Kalau Sdr. pernah tinggal di daerah yang mengalami musim dingin atau musim salju, anda
akan melihat jalanan ditaburi dengan garam. Apa gunanya tindakan tersebut ? Teori apa,
terutama yang ada dalam bab ini, yang bisa membenarkan tindakan tersebut ? Kalau Sdr.
belum pernah tinggal di daerah demikian, coba taburkan garam di freezer kulkas Sdr. Apa
yang terjadi ?
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.

s. Jawaban bab 5
t.
1. Defenisi ada di buku
u.
v. 2.A.
w.
x. Solution

y. From the given volume and concentration you can calculate how many
grams of
z. AgNO3 to weigh out :
aa.Wt. Of AgNO3 needed = (0.2500 liter) (0. 1250 moles AgNO3) A (169.9
g AgNO3)
ab.

1 liter

ac.

mole AgNO3

= 5.039 g AgNO3

ad.Transfer the 5.039 g AgNO3 to a 250.0 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve it in


some distilled water. Then dilute to the mark (see p 86). Shake vigorously
to get a uniform solution. Dont add 250.0 ml of water to the weighed
sample. Because the resulting solution may actually be larger or smaller
than 250.0 ml due to interaction of solute and solvent.

ae. 2.b

af. Solution
ag.From the given volume and concentration of CuSO4 , you can calculate the
moles of CuSO4 required. Furthermore. The formula shows that 1 mole of
CuSO4 - 5H2O is required per mole of CuSO4. Thus the weigh(W) of CuSO4
5H2O needed is
ah. W=(0.100 liter) V=(0.2000 moles CuSO4) V=( mole CuSO4 5H2O) V=( g
CuSO4 5H2O)
ai.

1 liter

mole CuSO4

mole

CuSO4 5H2O
aj.

= 4.992 g CuSO4 5H2O needed

ak. Transfer the 4.992 g to a 100 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve it in some


distilled water. Then dilute to the mark. The fact that some of the water in
the solution
al. Comes from the weighed sample is irrelevan. The source of the water is
never a matter of concern.

am.2.c
an.Solution

ao. You are given the molality of the solution adn the weight of the solvent.
From which you can find x, the number of moles of C10H8 needed.
ap.

Molality = m = X moles C10H8

aq.

= 2.00

ar.

0.0500 kg CCl4

as.
at.

X = 0.100 moles C10H8 needed


Weigh of C10H8 needed = (0.100 moles C10H8)
C10H8)

au.

(128

mole C10H8

av.

= 12.8 g C10H8

aw.
To prepare the solution, dissolve 12.8 g C10H8 in 50.0 g CCl4. If you
knew that the density of CCl4 is 1.59 g/ml. You could measure out.
ax.

50.0 g

ay.

= 31.4 ml CCl4
1.59

az.

ml

ba. 2.d
bb.Solution
bc. You are given the mole fraction of sucrose and the moles of water
bd.

100 g

be.

18

bf.

= 5 55 moles

Mole

bg.What you dont know is X the moles of sucrose needed By definition ,


bh.
bi.

mole fraction = 0 0348 =

X moles sucrose

(5 55 moles H20 ) + (X mole sucrose)

bj. Therefore,
bk.

X = 95 55) (0 0348) = 0 200 mole sucrose

bl. Weight of sucrose needed = (0 200 mole sucrose ) ( 342 g sucrose )

bm.
bn.

mole sucrose
= 68 4 g sucrose

bo.Prepare the solution by dissolving 68 4 g sucrose in 100 g water


bp.

bq.
Cluster 3 : Equilibrium (Kesetimbangan)
br.
bs.Soal bahan diskusi kelas
bt. Bab VI. Kesetimbangan
bu.
bv.
1. Berikan contoh reaksi yang memenuhi hubungan berikut: Kp = Kc ; Kp = Kc
(RT) ; Kp = Kc (RT)-3; Kp = Kc (RT)5 .
bw.
bx.
2. (Prinsip umum) Suatu campuran gas H2 dan N2 pada suhu 450 C memiliki
ratio 3:1. Pada keadaan kesetimbangan campuran gas menjadi NH 3 9,6%, N2
22,6% dan H2 67,8% volume. Tekanan total adalah 50 atm. Hitung nilai Kp
dan Kc. Reaksi yang berlangsung adalah N 2 + 3H2 2 NH3.
by.
bz.
3. (Pengarus perubahan tekanan total pada Kp dan posisi kesetimbangan)
Nilai Kp untuk reaksi H2 + I2 2 HI adalah 54,4 pada 355 C. Berapa persen I 2
yang akan berubah menjadi HI, jika 0,2 mol H 2 dan I2 dicampurkan dan
dibiarkan mencapai kesetimbangan pada suhu 355 C dengan tekanan total
0,5 atm?
ca.
cb.
4. Dengan kasus yang sama dengan soal No. 3, berapa persen I 2 yang akan
berubah menjadi HI, jika 2 mol H2 dan 0,2 mol I2 dicampurkan dan dibiarkan
mencapai kesetimbangan pada suhu 355 C dengan tekanan total 0,5 atm?
cc.
cd.
5. (Persen dekomposisi gas) Nilai Kp pada suhu 250 C untuk reaksi PCl5
PCl3 + Cl2 adalah 1,78. Hitung persen PCl5 yang terdisosiasi jika 0,5 mol gas
tersebut dimasukkan dalam wadah tertutup pada suhu 250 C dan tekanan
total 2 atm.
ce.
cf.
cg.
ch.
ci.

cj.
ck.
cl.
cm.

cn.Jawaban no 2:
co.
cp. According to Daltons law of partial pressure, the partial pressure of a gas in a
mixture is given by the product of its volume fraction and the total pressure.
Therefore the equilibrium pressure of each gas is
cq.
cr. PNH3 = (0.096) (50.0 atm) = 4.8 atm
cs. PX
= (0.226) (50.0 atm) = 11.3 atm
ct. PHz = (0.678) (50.0 atm) = 33.9 atm
cu. Total pressure = 50.0 atm
cv. By subsitution in
cw.
cx. Use Equation below to calculate Kc, noting that An = (2 - 4) = -2.
cy. Note that the starting composition does not enter into the calculations, only the
cz. equilibrium composition.
da.

db.
Jawaban No 3
dc. Assume that X moles each of H2 and I2 are used up in reaching equilibrium
dd. to give 2X moles of HI, in accordance with the chemical equation, leaving
de. 0.20 - X moles each of H2 and I2. The partial pressure of each gas is given by the
df. product of its mole fraction and the total pressure (see p 163).
dg. Moles of H2 at equilibrium = 0.20 - X
dh. Moles of I2 at equilibrium = 0.20 X
di. Moles of HI at equilibrium = 2X
dj. Total moles at equilibrium = 0.40 - 2X + 2X = 0.4
dk.
dl. Taking the square root of each side, we obtain
dm.
dn.
X = 1.48 = 0. 157 = moles of H2 and I2 used up
do.
9.4
dp. Percentage conversion (yield) = 0.157 = 78.5%
dq.
0.200
dr. Jawaban No 4
ds. In this problem, it is advantageous first to assume that the large excess of H2 will
dt. use almost the entire amount of I2, leaving only A' moles of it unused. In general, it
du. is always advantageous to let X represent the smallest unknown entity because it
dv. often simplifies the mathematical solution. If A' moles of I2 are not used, then 0.20
dw.- X moles are used. For every mole of I2 used up, one of H2 is used up, and two of
dx. HI are formed. Proceeding as in the last problem, the number of moles of each
dy. component at equilibrium is
dz. moles of H2 = 2.00 - (0.20 - X) = 1.80 + X
ea. moles of I2 = X = X
eb. moles of HI = 2(0.20 - X) = 0.40 - 2X

ec. Total moles = 2.20


ed.
ee. The partial pressure of each component will be the mole fraction of each times the
ef. total pressure, as follows.
eg.
eh.
ei.
ej. When we substitute these partial pressures into the expression for Kp, we get an
ek. expression that will be tedious to solve unless we make a reasonable approximation:
el. we assume that X is negligible in comparison with 0.20 and 1.80.
em.
en. Percentage of I2 used = 0 x 100 = 99.2%
eo.
0
ep. Note that the wise decision to let X = the amount of I2 not used instead of the
amount of I2 that was used really did simplify the solution by making it
possible to neglect X when added to or subtracted from larger numbers. If we
had solved the quadratic equation instead, we would have found that
99,197% of the I2 had been used up. This is a common method of simplifying
a math problem, and at the end you can always check to see whether you
answer really is negligible compared to what you said it was. Many chemists
say that if X is less than 10.0% of what it is added to or subtracted from, it is
okay to neglect it.
eq.
er. Jawaban soal No 5.
es.
et. Solution
eu. Although you are told that you are starting with 0.0500 mole PCl5, this piece
of information is not needed to find the percentage dissociation at the given
pressure and temperature. If you were asked for the volume of the reaction
vessel, then you would need to know the actual number of moles, otherwise
not. To answer the question that is asked, it is simpler to just start with one
mole (dont worry about the volume) and assume that X moles of PCl5
dissociate to give X moles each of PCl3 and Cl2 and 1 X moles of PCl5 at
equilibrium.
ev.
ew.
Moles of PCl5 = 1.00 X
ex.
Moles of PCl3 =
X
ey.
Moles of Cl2 =
X
ez.
fa.
Total moles = 1.00 + X
fb.
fc. The partial pressures are given by the mole fractions times the total pressure,
and are substituted into the Kp expression, to give
fd.
fe.
X = 0.686 moles PCl5 dissociate
ff.
Percentage of PCl5 dissociated
fg.
fh. This was not a difficult quadratic equation to solve but, even if it had been, it
would not be possible to neglect X compared to 1.00; it is too large. If we had
neglected X, we would have obtained the extremely erroneous answer of

94.3% dissociated. If Kp is very large (or very small), it means that the
equilibrium position lies far to the right (or to the left). In either of these cases
it is possible to choose X so that it will be very small and amenable to a
simplified mathsolution. The value of Kp for the PCl5 equilibrium is neither
very large nor very small, and hence it never will be possible to neglect X.
fi.
fj.
fk.
fl.

fm.
Cluster 3 : Equilibrium
fn.
fo.Soal bahan diskusi kelas
fp.Bab VII. Kesetimbangan Asam Basa
fq.

fr. Petunjuk: Kerja dari no 9 dulu, kemudian no 1 s.d 8, agar


lebih mudah.
fs.

1. (Soal-soal pendahuluan) (a) Jelaskan pengertian


kesetimbangan asam-basa. (b) Berikan defenisi tentang:
[H+], [OH-], pH, pOH. (c) Tuliskan hubungan [H+] dengan
pOH. (d) Tuliskan hubungan [OH-] dengan pH.
ft.
2. (pH asam lemah) Hitung nilai pH untuk larutan asam
asetat 0,05 Molar.
fu.
3. (pH asam poliprotik) Hitung nilai pH untuk larutan H2S
0,1 M.
fv.
4. (pH basa lemah) Hitung nilai pH untuk larutan NH3 0,1
Molar.
fw.
5. (Efek ion senama) Hitung pH akhir setelah penambahan
1 g NaC2H3O2 ke dalam 150 ml HC2H3O2 0,05 M.
fx.
6. (Larutan penyanggah (buffer) (a) Suatu larutan
mengandung asam asetat dan natrium asetat masingmasing dengan konsentrasi 1 mol/L. Hitung pH larutan
tersebut. (b) Berapa pH akhir larutan, jika 0,1 mol HCl
ditambahkan ke dalam 1 liter larutan 5(a).
fy.
7. (Campuran) (a)Berapa pH larutan campuran, jika 20 mL
NaOH 0,2 M ditambahkan ke dalam 50 mL HC2H3O2 0,1 M?
(b) Berapa nilai pH, jika 25 mL NaOH 0,2 M ditambahkan
ke dalam 50 mL HC2H3O2 0,1 M?

fz.
8. (Buffer-lanjutan) Berapa gram natrium asetat yang
mesti ditambahkan ke dalam 250 mL asam asetat 0,2 M
untuk membuat larutan penyanggah dengan pH = 5 ?
ga.
9. (Hidrolisis) (a) Hitung pH larutan garam natrium asetat
0,05 M ? Mengapa ada pH, padahal larutan garam ? Dari
mana ion H+ muncul di larutan tersebut ? (b) Berapa nilai
pH untuk larutan 0,1 M KHCO3 ?
gb.
gc.
gd.
ge.
gf.
gg.

gh.
gi.

Jawaban soal No. 1

gj. Solution
gk. Write the chemical equation, and above each term of the equation write the
equilibnum molar concertration. Because we are not given the H+ and C2H3O2gl.
gm.
Concertrations, and because the two are the same, we represent
this value by X This gives a concentration of (0 0500 X) mole/liter of
undissociated HC2H3O2 molecules, because 0 0500 mole of acid is put
into solution and v moles dissociate
gn.Substitute the molar concertrations into the K equation
go.To solve an equation of this type, we usually first assume v to be so small
that 0 0500 X may be considered as 0 0500 does not appreciably change
the value) This gives, as the simplified equation.
gp.You can see that X is much smaller than the original concertration of 0
0500 M, and that we were justified in neglecting it compared to 0 0500 In
general, we shall say that, if the calculated value of X is less than 10 0% of
the number from Which it is subtracted or to which it is added, it is
permissible to make the approximation as we did in this problem

gq.

Jawaban soal No. 2

gr. Solution
gs. For the reasons just given, the proper chemical equilibrium to consider is
gt. With equal small unknown concentration of H+ and HS- of X moles/liter.
Leaving (0.100 X) moles/liter of undissociated H2S. Substituting these
values into the K1 expression. We obtain

gu.Neglecting X compared to 0.100, we have

gv.
gw.

Jawaban soal No. 3

gx. solution
gy.
gz. first, write the chemical equation
ha. secound, write the K, expression based on the chemical equation, obtaining the
needed value of K1, from table 23-1
hb.
hc. Third, write what you know and do not know. You are asked for the pH of a basic
solution, so you will first have to find the [OH-] . Let [OH-] = X . Because NH4+ and
OH- ions are formed in equal amounts, [NH4+] also equals X. Of the original 0.100
mole/liter will dissociate and leave (0.100 X) mole/liter at equilibrium. Associate
these concertrations with the chemical equation, and substitute them into the K,
expression.
hd.
he. We try to simplify the solution by neglecting X compared to 0.100, obtaining
hf. We see that the assumption about neglecting X was sound
hg.
hh.

hi. Jawaban soal No. 4


hj.
hk. Solution
hl.
hm.
First, find the concentrations of the substances put into solution. NaC2H3O2 is
a soluble salt that is completely dissociated in solution; for every mole of NaC2H3O2
put into solutio. We get one mole of C2H3O2-. So from NaC2H3O2.
hn.
ho. If we let * = moles/liter of HC2H3O2 that dissociate, then at equilibrium [HC2H302]
= 0.500 X. For every mole/liter of HC2H3O2 that dissociates. There will be formed
* moles/liter of H+ and * mole/liter of C2H3O2-. These * mole/liter of C2H3O2
will be added to the 0.0813 mole/liter of C2H3O2 that come from NaC3H3O2 to give
a total equilibrium concentration of [C2H3O2-] = 0.0813 + *. Writing the chemical
equation and placing the equilibrium concentration above each substance. We have
hp.
hq. The K1 expression is
hr. Assuming that X is negligible compared to 0.0500 and 0.0813. we have
hs. We see that the assumption about neglecting X was sound.
ht.

hu.

Jawaban soal No. 5 (a)

hv.
hw.Solution
hx.
hy. K1 [acid]
hz.
[salt]
ia.

ib. Jawaban soal No. 5(b)


ic.

id. Solution
ie.
if. The 0.10 mole of HCl (strong acid) reacts with the salt
ig.
ih. To give 0.10 mole more HC2H3O2 for a total of 1.10 mole/liter. And 0.10 mole less
C2H3O2- for a total of 0.90 mole/liter. If we substitute these new acid and salt
concentrations into our expression for [H=], we get
ii.
ij. You see that the pH changes only 0.90 units. Whereas 0.10 mole HCl added to one
liter of water would have given a solution whose pH = 1.00 an enormous change in
pH without the buffer.
ik.

il. Jawaban soal No 6


im.
in. Solution
io.
ip. Some of the HC2H3O2 is converted to NaC2H3O2. And all of the NaOH is used up
in the process. The resulting solution is a buffer, and we need to find the
concentrations of HC2H3O2 and NaC2H3O2 in solution in order to find the pH.
iq.
ir.
is. Original moles
it. Moles of HC2H302 left
iu. Moles of C2H3o2- formed
iv. These moles are present in 70.0 ml = 0.0700 liter. So
iw.
ix.
iy. This problem shows that one way to make a buffer is to partially neutralize a weak
acid with a strong base Partial neutralization of a weak base with a strong acid also
will work
iz.

ja. Jawaban soal no 7


jb.
jc. Solution
jd.
je. The pH is given as 5 00, therefore, [H+] = 1 00 x 10-5 M We are also told that [acid]
= 0 200 M Substitution of these values into the expression for [H+] gives
jf.
jg. We find that the sodium acetate concentration must be 0 348 mole/liter. But we want
only 0 250 liter Therefore
jh.
ji. Wt of NaC2H3O2 needed
jj.
jk. Addition of the 7 13 g NaC2H3O2 to the 250 ml will give a solution that is 0 348 M
in salt and 0 200 M in acid, and that has a pH of 5 00
jl.
jm.

jn. Jawaban soal No. 8


jo.

jp. Solution
jq.
jr. Write the chemical equation, showing the equilibrium concentration above the
symbols
js.
jt. As in previous problems. We represent the small unknown concentration of OH- by
X. Because HC2H3O2 is formed simultaneously wiyh OH- and in equimolar
amounts. Its concentration also is X. The unhydrolyzed concentration of C2H3O2- is
0.500 X. Substitution of these values into the Kh expression gives
ju.
jv. Neglecting X compared to 0.0500. we have
jw.
jx.

jy.Jawaban soal no 6(b)


jz.
ka. Solution
kb.
kc. We must first the number of moles of acid and and base used. In order to determine
whether there is an excess of either one.
kd.
ke. Moles of NaOH added
kf.
kg. Because equal numbers of moles of acid and base are added, only the salt is present :
0.00500 mole of NaC2H3O2 in 0.0750 liter to give
kh.
ki. Because only a salt is present in solution, the problem involves the hydrolysis
equilibrium
kj.
kk. Just as in the last problem. Solving in the same manner gives
kl.
km.
This problem emphasizes the point that, at the endpoint in a titration, there is
only the salt present (no excess acid or base) and the pH of the solution will be
determined entirely by the hydrolysis of that salt.
kn.
ko.
kp.

kq.

Jawaban soal 8(b)

kr. Solution
ks.The two possible reactions of the HCO3- ion and the associated
equilibrium constants are the following
kt. Because Kh K1, the hydrolysis reaction predominates, and the
solution will be basic. Letting X = [OH-] = [H2CO3], and [HCO3-] =
0.100 X = 0.100 M. We have
ku.

kv.
kw.

kx. THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT


BLANK.
ky.

kz.
la.
lb.
lc.
ld.
le.
lf.