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Takako Kobayashi v MATESOL

Component 4: Revised Project

Curriculum Proposal:
The Middlebury-Monterey Summer Intensive College English Program
The Middlebury-Monterey Summer Intensive College English (MMSICE) program was
designed to provide intensive summer English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instruction for
secondary-level learners. The targeted participants are adolescent English language learners
(ELLs), with heterogeneous linguistic, sociolinguistic, geographical, and cultural backgrounds,
who intend to pursue a college education in the U.S. Inaugurated in 2012 at Salve-Regina
University in Newport, RI, MMSICE aims to enhance students academic success as well as their
familiarity with U.S. history and culture. The curriculum consists of core language development
courses, as well as electives, and college life seminars. Students attend classes 23.5 hours per
week as the following scheduling grid indicates (see Figure 1).
8:30 10:00 am
10:00 11:30
11:30 12:30
12:30 1:30
1:30 3:00 pm
3:00 6:00 pm
6:00 7:00 pm
7:00 8:00 pm

Strategies &

Writing for the College Classroom
Listening &
Note Taking

Strategies &


Listening &
Note Taking

Elective Course
Academic Discussion & Presentation
Free Time
Evening Programs

College Life
(8:30 10:30)

Free Time


Figure 1. Weekly schedule in the MMSICE program

The core curriculum coursework attempts to provide academic skills and strategies for
the four fundamental competencies: listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Elective courses
run every two weeks. College life seminars consist of two-hour sessions offered every Friday.

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After class, evening programs are offered in order to help students practice English through fun
activities such as game nights.
Summary of Needs Assessment
Instrument and Procedures
Needs assessment (NA) was defined as the activities involved in gathering information
that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the learning needs of a
particular group of students (J. D. Brown, 1995, p. 35). Nation and Macalister (2010) suggested
that two categories of information be collected in NA: environment analysis and needs analysis.
Environment analysis investigates situational and demographic factors about the learners,
teachers, and classrooms (Nation & Macalister, 2010, Richards, 2001), whereas needs analysis
examines what learners know already and what they need to know (Nation & Macalister,
2010, p. 24). The first NA was conducted at the beginning of March in 2013 as a Curriculum
Design (CD) project. In order to conduct an environment analysis, my CD group sought to
understand the overview of the MMSICE program and the expectation of the collaborative
project from the program stakeholders. We contacted stakeholders listed on the program site,
namely the program director, instructors, and staff members:

Natasha Isadora Ala (Program Director/Class Instructor/Curriculum Co-Designer)

Laurie Nesbitt (Class Instructor/Curriculum Co-Designer)

Karen Wong (Administrative Associate)

Jeff Fowler (Program Assistant)

At the beginning of the environment analysis, my CD group had a semi-structured Skype

interview with the MMSICE program director. Before the interview, my CD group prepared
several interview questions in order to obtain more detailed information about MMSICE

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Component 4: Revised Project

(Appendix A). After this Skype interview, each CD member was in charge of contacting one of
the program stakeholders above to complete the environment analysis. For the sake of the
convenience, the main instrument for collecting information from the remaining stakeholders
was email. At this point, the program was still accepting the applications from candidates;
therefore, conducting a NA with incoming students was not possible. Instead, we reviewed
program evaluations completed by students in the 2012 cohort (Appendix B). To revise this
project, I supplemented these 2012 program evaluations with my own observations of the 2013
cohort based on my personal experience as an instructor in the 2013 MMSICE program.
Environment analysis. The environment analysis based on the interview, the 2012
program evaluation, and email exchanges with the stakeholders from the program site revealed
the general structure of MMSICE and the needs to be addressed. The stakeholders indicated in
2012 that they hoped to increase enrollment during the summer 2013 session. In the first year,
only seven students attended; the target for 2013 was 25. To achieve this goal, the program
decided to offer two simultaneous sessions, one lasting six weeks and the other four weeks. This
increased enrollment because, with two sessions, it was easier to meet the scheduling and learner
needs of the student groups.
Both sessions had their own distinct core curriculum to follow, taught by different
instructors, whereas the students from both sessions were mixed in elective courses. Core course
content had to remain intact to preserve eligibility for credit transfer. Therefore, the program
director emphasized the necessity of designing elective courses instead of designing the core
curriculum due to the increasing number of students for the coming summer in 2013. The
subjects of elective courses suggested by the program director were: Pronunciation, Grammar

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Component 4: Revised Project

Clinic, TOEFL Practice, Gender and Ethnicity, Music, Film, Environment, and Visual Images.
Regarding the elective course content, the program director expected elective courses to be
meaningful but with a relatively lower workload, as the core curriculum should be the main
focus for students.
Needs analysis. Regarding learners needs, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) drew a
distinction between target needs (i.e., what the learner needs to do in the target situation) and
learning needs (i.e., what the learner needs to do in order to learn) (p. 54). Nation and
Macalister (2010) further categorized target needs into three types: necessities, lacks, and wants.
Necessities refer to what is necessary in learners use of language (p. 25). Lacks are defined as
gaps between required knowledge and students present knowledge, whereas wants are identified
as the things a learner says he or she wishes to learn. The diverse student population in 2013,
whom I observed in order to collect data, consisted of 20 adolescent ELLs from Afghanistan,
Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Georgia, and Germany. Students participating in the six-week session
identified necessities, lacks, and wants different from those identified by students in the fourweek session. In terms of necessities, most students in the six-week session would study in
undergraduate programs in the U.S. or English-medium institutions in the future, whereas the
four-week session students were mostly going to boarding schools in the U.S. after completing
the MMSICE program. Regarding lacks, the overall English proficiency level of the students in
the six-week session seemed to be higher than that of the four-week session students. Notably,
the six-week cohort expressed confidence in their oral competence. Generally, students were
willing to study at English-medium institutions in the U.S. in the future, but most were not sure
exactly what they wished to learn. Thus, learner wants from both sessions were strongly
associated with their necessities, but were not very specific. Because elective courses included

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students from both sessions, their needs tended to be more diverse than the needs of students in
the same core courses.
Students necessities, lacks, and wants in the MMSICE program are influenced by a
variety of factors. H. D. Brown (2007) emphasized the special attention to adolescent ELLs
because they are identified as an age of transition, confusion, self-consciousness, growth, and
changing bodies and minds (p. 106). In addition, students in the elective class may not know
each other well because they are enrolled in different core sessions. The 2013 MMSICE program
offered the following elective courses: Creative Writing, TOEFL Practice, Grammar Clinic,
Environment, Music, Pronunciation, and American Art History. During the orientation, students
were asked to choose three subjects for electives. Three elective courses were offered
simultaneously per two-week period. Each course consisted of approximately six students from
both sessions. According to my firsthand experience as an instructor in 2013, elective courses
can be important opportunities for students to explore different academic disciplines while they
are in a low-stakes environment. By providing a variety of academic disciplines, elective courses
contribute to achieving the curriculum goals.
Curriculum Proposal
Curriculum Goals
NA serves as the foundation for curriculum design. J. D. Brown (1995) defined
curriculum goals as statements of the desirable and attainable curriculum purposes and aims
based on the needs of the participants in a program (pp. 74-73). Moreover, the use of the
student will be able to (SWBAT) phrase in goal statements has been useful (J. D. Brown,
1995; Ferris & Hedgcock, 2014). As the largest framework of the MMSICE curriculum proposal,
the overall curriculum goals are formulated based on the findings from the NA (see Figure 2).

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MMSICE Curriculum Goals

As a result of participating in this program, students will be able to
Enhance four skills (listening, reading, speaking, and writing) in English to succeed in
U.S. academic or English-medium educational institutions.
Compare and contrast the life in students home countries to the U.S. to gain an
appreciation of U.S. history and culture.
Solve cultural differences to make the adjustment to life in the U.S.
Figure 2. The MMSICE curriculum goals
Course Design
Unlike the core curriculum, the structure of elective courses has been very flexible. The
only concrete expectation from the program stakeholders is a more modest workload in order to
prioritize the core curriculum. As described above, elective courses can be opportunities for
students to identify their academic interests.
Despite the flexibility in the structure of elective courses, the contents in elective courses
should support EAP instruction, which the MMSICE program provides. EAP has been derived
from English for Specific Purpose (ESP) movement, which proposed that all language teaching
should be tailored to the specific learning and language use needs of identified groups of
studentsand also sensitive to the sociocultural contexts in which these students will be using
English (Johns & Price-Machado, 2001, p. 43). Based on the proposition of the ESP movement
and the MMSICE student population described above, elective course contents should be
associated with academic subjects.
The most prominent element of the proposed course design is content-based instruction
(CBI), which integrates extended practice with coherent content coupled with relevant language
learning activities (Snow, 2001, p. 304). According to Snow, Met, and Genesee (1989),
language is learned most effectively for communication in meaningful, purposeful social and
academic contexts (p. 202). In L2 secondary contexts, the CBI approach has been commonly
operated (Grabe and Stoller, 1997).

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In addition, a theme-based model based on the idea of CBI has been widely implemented
for ESL students (Grabe & Stoller, 1997; Snow, 2001). The theme-based model refers to a type
of content-based instruction in which selected topics or themes provide the content from which
teachers extract language activities (Snow, 2001, p. 306). In the theme-based model, a language
instructor and the students can decide the content. Therefore, the use of selected topics or themes
is appropriate in a short-term course like the MMSICE elective courses that consists of total
eight lessons per course and the flexible structure. Thus, the theme-based model derived from the
CBI approach is the proposed course design.
Syllabus Design
Goals are identified as the long-range intents or purpose for a unit of study and often
described in a course syllabus or a unit (Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition
[CARLA], 2013, Introduction to Objectives, para. 3). Therefore, the proposed course syllabus
includes goals. CARLA further suggested the four categories in goals and objectives: content,
language, learning strategies/skills, and culture. These categories are complementary to the
proposed course framework and the overall curriculum goals. The content goals listed on the
syllabus below aim at increasing the knowledge of environmental problems and sustainable
development, whereas the language goals focus on linguistic accuracy and fluency in English,
which support the ideas of the CBI approach. Furthermore, integrating learning strategies/skills
in instruction has been proposed as a part of CBI (Chamot & OMalley, 1987). Practicing
learning strategies/skills enables learners to apply them to their actual learning environments
autonomously. Thus, learning strategies/skills are included as a part of the course goals because
the MMSICE program provides EAP instruction that prepares students for future academic
success in English-medium educational institutions. In addition, those goals of learning

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Component 4: Revised Project

strategies/skills described on the syllabus consist of the qualifications that enable learners to
succeed in future academic contexts. The idea of cultural goals also supports the MMSICE
curriculum goals. The cultural goal on the syllabus attempts to raise learners awareness of the
current environmental issues.
Elective courses are recorded as pass/fail. Within this low-stakes context, formative
assessment that refers to a means to improving teaching and learning and to being responsive
to learner needs is optimal (Rea-Dickins & Gardner, 2000, p. 217). Therefore, students
performance such as daily assignments and the final project are assessed formatively for both
students learning and the instructors teaching development.
Unit Design
Each elective course consists of eight lessons. The proposed unit design divides eight
lessons into four units, as in Figure 3.
Unit Days
1 2 Reading about Deforestation:
Stories about deforestation
3 4 Logging and Cattle Launching in Amazon:
Reading research articles; annual environmental economy
5 6 3 Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle):
Recycling technology
7 8 Final Project:
Group-work; student presentations
Figure 3. The units of the elective course

Literature, Economy,
and Technology

The first three units delivered and facilitated by an instructor focus on deforestation as the main
theme. According to Stoller and Grabe (1997), a theme can comprise several topics defined as
the subunits of content which explore more specific aspects of the theme (p. 83). Thus, each
unit is designed based on different academic disciplines as focal topics: literature, economy, and
technology. These focal topics and its order in the course are determined based on the findings of
NA and my firsthand experience of teaching the elective course over the summer in 2013. As

Takako Kobayashi v MATESOL

Component 4: Revised Project

identified above, elective courses can enhance students interests and help them identify
appropriate academic disciplines. Therefore, the proposed units consist of three popular
academic subjects available in the U.S. and English-medium educational institutions. The first
topic (literature) introduces the overview of deforestation. Economy addresses the causal factors
of deforestation to raise students awareness of the complexity associated with deforestation. The
first two topics focus on the environmental problem itself, whereas technology as the last topic
discusses sustainable development. The last unit is different from the previous three units
because of its two main purposes: assessment and student-centeredness. This unit is designed to
work for the final project. The final project gives students an opportunity to research different
environmental issues and sustainable development and report their findings by giving
presentations. First, students are divided into pairs, and each pair must choose one of the
environmental problems. Each dyad is required to investigate how the targeted environmental
problem and sustainable development are addressed in each academic discipline. The previous
three units facilitated by the instructor aim at demonstrating the content of the final project.
Lesson Design
According to CARLA (2013), objectives help transform unit-level goals into do-able
stages or steps (Introduction to Objectives, para. 4). Therefore, objectives are generated for
the lesson level based on the four categories described above (i.e., content, language, learner
strategies/skills, and culture). Snow et al. (1989) further divided language category into two
types: content-obligatory language and content-compatible language. Content-obligatory
language refers to language essential to an understanding of content material, whereas contentcompatible language is defined as language that can be taught naturally within the context of a
particular subject matter (p. 201).

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Component 4: Revised Project 10

The CBI approach of the entire course is realized through specific, content-based lessons
that use the Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach. Ellis (2010) summarized the main
criteria for tasks:
1. There is a primary focus on meaning.
2. The students choose the linguistic and nonlinguistic resources needed to complete the
3. The task should lead to real-world processes of language use.
4. Successful performance of the task is determined by whether the students have achieved
the intended communicative outcome. (p. 35)
The proposed lesson outlines (Day 1 and Day 5) consist of three phases: pre-task, during-task,
and post-task (Ellis, 2006). The tasks at the beginning in both lesson plans (Prepare to Read and
Interview Activity respectively) are identified as a pre-task phase that aims at activating learners
content schemata. The during-task phase aims at engaging learners in tasks. The Reading
Activity in the Day 1 lesson plan compels students to increase reading accuracy, whereas the
Recycling Game in the Day 5 lesson plan focuses on fluency in L2 communication among
learners by setting a time limit. As a way to formatively assess student performance, the teacher
is to note student progress during these tasks and use his or her observations as a way to both
provide specific assistance to the class based on the incidental problems observed and to inform
the teachers lessons in the future. The purpose of the post-task phase is to involve learners in
reflection on their performance. Thus, peer discussions in both lesson outlines function as posttasks.

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MMSICE has served as a short-term EAP program since summer 2012. The 2013 cohort
formed the foundation of the curricular development for the future. Notably, the demand to redesign the elective courses has been raised. The flexibility and low-stakes context featured in the
elective courses allow the course to be an opportunity for learners to identify their academic
interests. In addition, CBI as the largest framework is effective under the time constraints per
elective course, whereas TBLT as a systematic operation affords well-structured lesson outlines.
The following sections present the course syllabus and lesson plans. The course syllabus is
comprised of the course goals, assessments, academic policies, and course schedule of the four
units. The two lesson outlines with details (Day 1 and Day 5) are also included.

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Component 4: Revised Project 12

Environmental Issues and Sustainable Development

Hours & Days:
Office Hours

Takako Kobayashi
Monday Thursday/ 12:30 1:30 p.m.
By appointment

Environmental problems are common in todays world. The solution, though, is not simple. It is
important to create a balance between nature and humanity: sustainable development. The
purpose of this course is to raise students awareness about the complicated environmental issues
and explore more meaningful resolutions to those issues. In this course, we will examine some
critical aspects of environmental problems. Additionally, the course facilitates researching and
presenting in English.

Students will be able to
Describe the interconnectedness of humanity, their values and the environment.
Identify some of the current solutions to environmental issues.
Critique environmental problems and sustainable development.
Students will be able to
Use accurate order of English questions to ask inquiries about environmental contexts.
Practice using present and past tenses in both oral and written tasks.
Learning Strategies/Skills:
Students will be able to
Use reading strategies to increase comprehension of authentic texts.
Research an environmental issue including different area of knowledge to give the oral
Recognize cognates and use context clues to find the meaning of unknown words.
Work cooperatively in pairs to perform given tasks.
Students will be able to
Compare and contrast current environmental issues in the United States to students home

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This class is a pass/fail class, which means that all coursework must be completed, and students
must maintain a 70% or better on all class work and homework. Students grades will be based
on the following:
Final Project


Homework: In order to make the most of the course, you will need to complete the homework
assignments, which will mostly consist of reading and reflective questions.
Participation: Students need to participate in class discussions, activities, and exercises. This is
a way for the teacher to understand the progress you are making and help you to continue to
Final Project: In accordance with the different perspectives of the specific environmental
problem being presented in class, students will choose an environmental issue as a group,
conduct research, and give a 10-minute presentation.

Since these classes are designed to build skills, please make every effort to come to class, and to
come prepared and on time. However, if you need to be absent you should let your instructor
know before class, if possible, and explain the reason for your absence. Missing more than three
classes will result in a failing grade.
Late Work
Late work will only be accepted if you have asked for permission in advance or if you have an
excused absence. You are responsible for finding out what work you miss when you are
absentask another student, or contact your teacher. You must complete the class work and
homework you miss by the next class. Because this course is very intense and very short, there is
no time for make-up work, and it will be very difficult to catch up if you fall behind. Please
communicate with your instructors if you are worried about completing your coursework. They
will be happy to work with you and help you to be successful.
Academic Integrity
Under no circumstances is it acceptable to use the work of others as your own.

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Component 4: Revised Project 14

Unit Days
1 2 Reading about Deforestation:
Stories about deforestation
3 4 Logging and Cattle Launching in Amazon:
Reading research articles; annual environmental economy
5 6 3 Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle):
Recycling technology
7 8 Final Project:
Group-work; student presentations

Literature, Economy,
and Technology

As a student, you are responsible for meeting class requirements and effectively managing
your own learning process. Your teacher is here to help. Please ask your teacher if you
have any questions about assignments, course content, or class requirements.

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Component 4: Revised Project 15

FINAL PROJECT (Instructions & Guidelines)

As a part of the assigned work for this course, you are required to complete the final project. The
premise of the final project must be to research un-addressed environmental problems by
applying the academic disciplines learned in previous lessons. The final project aims to help you
understand other environmental issues more deeply while giving you the opportunity to practice
your presentation and collaborative work skills.

40 % of total grades
Day 8 (Last lesson)
You are required to form groups of 2 for this project.
The last class will be dedicated to project presentations. Each presentation
should be 10 15 minutes. The details of the research should be presented
during the class presentation.
Step 1: Select an Environmental Problem
Choose one of the environmental issues below. If your group wants to choose a different
environmental issue that is not on the list, please contact the course instructor
Air pollution
Climate change
Water issues
Animal distinction
Fossil fuel problem
Soil erosion
Step 2: Research and Presentation Procedures
After Step 1, you and your partner are required to work collaboratively to research the selected
environmental problem. Your research will be based on all academic disciplines examined in
previous lessons (literature, business, and technology).
Your presentation must
Use PowerPoint slides
Explain the selected environmental issue based on the academic disciplines (literature,
business, and technology)
Include at least one task to engage your audience in learning about your topic; for example,
o A mini-quiz
o Discussion questions
Include your reference list in the last slide.
The format of your reference list
Name of Author/Organization. (Year of Publication). Title. Retrieved from: website URL.

A sample structure of the presentation

Introduce deforestation from The Lorax
Showing a short video clip of The Lorax from YouTube
Explain causal factors of deforestation
Giving a mini-quiz to the audience
Explain sustainable development
Introducing a new technology to produce paper from different plants

Takako Kobayashi v MATESOL

Learner Background
Academic Discipline
Time Frame


Component 4: Revised Project 16

Day 1 Lesson Plan

MMSICE program
Mixed level adolescent ELLs with various L1s
60 minutes
Mind map (Appendix C)
A picture of deforestation (Appendix D)
The LORAX (Appendix E)
Guide-o-Rama Questions (Appendix F)
Whiteboard and markers
Students will be able to
Identify the reasons why deforestation occurs
Explain the processes of deforestation
Content-obligatory language objective:
Use interrogative words to ask questions
Content-compatible language objective:
Use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions to state their
Learning Strategies/Skills:
Use context clues to find the meaning of unknown words
Recognize the features in English picture books by completing
Guide-o-Rama handout

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5 10

10 15

10 15

10 15

Component 4: Revised Project 17

Lesson Outline
Procedures/Teacher Action
Greet students (Ss).
Take attendance.
Hand the course syllabus to Ss.
Review the course syllabus together.
Pre-Task: Prepare to Read
Put a picture of deforestation on the whiteboard,
writing Deforestation over the picture.
Ask Ss to share orally what they know about
Create a mind map on the whiteboard based on Ss
opinions (e.g., an environmental problem)
Have Ss work in pairs.
Write the following question on the whiteboard.
o How do you know about deforestation?
o Does deforestation happen in your home
country? If so, why?
o How has deforestation been treated in your
home country?
Have each pair discuss answers to the questions.
Monitor and assist Ss if needed.
Ask each pair to briefly state what they discuss.
During-Task: Reading Activity
Distribute the story of The LORAX and Guide-oRama Questions.
Review questions in the Guide-o-Rama Questions
Tell Ss to individually read each paragraph and
write the response to the question pertaining to that
paragraph in Guide-o-Rama Questions, reminding
them to check if their predictions in the pre-task are
T monitor and assist if needed.
Post-Task: Peer-Discussion
Number off Ss from 1 to 4.
Have Ss to form new groups according to their
numbers (i.e., groups of 1s, 2s).
Tell groups to share their answers of Guide-o-Rama

Course syllabus

Mind map
(Appendix C)
Whiteboard and
A picture of
(Appendix D)

(Appendix E)
(Appendix F)

(Appendix F)

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Component 4: Revised Project 18

Questions with group members, encouraging them

to compare their results to discuss.
T monitors and assist groups if needed.
Have groups briefly report their results to class.
Assign homework: Ss are required to choose one
real world parallel from their answers in Guide-oRama Questions as a topic of free writing.
Remind Ss to complete the free writing by next

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Learner Background
Academic Discipline
Time Frame


Component 4: Revised Project 19

Day 5 Lesson Plan

MMSICE program
Mixed level adolescent ELLs with various L1s
60 minutes
Mind map (Appendix G)
Recycling Interview Worksheet (Appendix H)
Whiteboard and markers
Recycling bins
Trash bins
Bags of trash
Students will be able to
Identify the ways of sustainable development
Content-obligatory language objective:
Use appropriate verb tenses and aspects to answer the interview
Content-compatible language objective:
Use subordinating and coordinating conjunction to describe the
recycling practice
Learning Strategies/Skills:
Work cooperatively in pairs and groups to complete assigned tasks
Compare and contrast different recycling practices in students
home countries to the U.S.

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5 10

10 15

10 15

10 15


Lesson Outline
Procedures/Teacher Actions
Greet Ss./Take attendance.
Ask Ss to recall the key ideas from the previous lessons.
Create a mind map on the whiteboard based on Ss ideas
(e.g., literature).
Inform Ss that they are going to learn about technology
for sustainable development.
Pre-Task: Interview Activity
Have Ss pair up.
Hand Recycling Interview Worksheet to Ss.
Review questions in the Recycling Interview Worksheet
Ask Ss to interview their partners, reminding them to
complete the worksheet.
During-Task: Recycling Game
Inform Ss that they are going to play a game.
Have Ss divide into teams of three.
Hand out 1 recycling bin and 1 trash bin to each team,
along with 1 bag of trash and gloves.
Give teams 5 minutes to sort the trash into the two bins,
reminding them that the team with the most items placed
in the correct bins wins.
Check the answers together, reminding them to correct
their answers.
Post-Task: Peer-Discussion
Write the following questions on the whiteboard:
o How did your team play the game?
o What did you discover in the recycling game?
Have each team discuss answers to the questions.
Have each team give a quick report back to the class about
their ideas.
Have each S choose two items from their trash bin.
Assign homework: Ss must write ways to reuse them
instead of throwing them away as a topic of free writing.
Remind Ss to complete the free writing by next class.

Word Count: 4,723

Component 4: Revised Project 20

Mind map
(Appendix G)

(Appendix H)

Recycling bins
Trash bins
Bags of trash

Whiteboard and

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Component 4: Revised Project 21


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approach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

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students needsand to the outside world. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as
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Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press.
Snow, M. A. (2001). Content-based and immersion models for second and foreign language
teaching. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language
(3rd ed., pp. 303-318). Boston, MA: Heinle.
Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F. (1989). A conceptual framework for the integration of
language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 201217.
Stoller, F. L., & Grabe, W. (1997). A six-T's approach to content-based instruction. In M. A.
Snow & D. M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating
language and content (pp. 78-94). White Plains, NY: Longman.

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Appendix A

Questions for the Interview with the MMSICE Program Director

Interview Questions with Natasha:
(1) Four-week vs. six-week program, Whats the deal?
Are students typically grouped based on the placement exam, age, or a combination?
How are students placed? Is there a placement test or a TOEFL score that is used for placement?

(2) Student demographics:

How many students are expected?
What language backgrounds do students have?
What is the typical economic background?
Whats the student living situation like?
What ages are the typical students?
Have students lived in an English speaking environment before?
Are they returnees to the program or have they been involved in a similar program?
What is the expected gender makeup?
In regards to the Brazilian students who are going on to study nursing after ICE - how many are
they expecting?
What are the other students educational goals?
Are students allowed to speak their L1 during breaks?
(3) Teachers
How many teachers are there?
How many classes do teachers teach?
Do teachers teach alone or with co-teachers?

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Who are the teachers? Already hired?

Can we have their info?
Where do teachers live?
(4) Classroom and Resources
What is the access to technology?
Should we expect students to have personal computers with them?
How many students in the typical class?
How many classes do students have in a typical day?
How long are the classes?
(5) Other
What type of extracurricular activities are typically involved?
Did students from last year fill out a feedback form?
Do we have access to them? Teachers? Program?
Are there particular content areas that need to be covered?

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Appendix B
2012 Program Evaluations

Participant Feedback
Toward the end of the program, we administered a questionnaire to the students. We
adapted a Monterey Institute form that is used for the ESL program. The questionnaire contained
thirteen statements. For the first nine statement, the students were asked to select one of the
following options:
Strongly disagree
Not sure
Strongly agree
After each question there was also a section for the students to write comments. The last section
of the questionnaire contained open-ended questions for the students to answer.
The results of this program evaluation are summarized in the table below.
I am satisfied with the classes offered in the program.
Class activities and projects have helped me improve my
The program assistants were available when I need
them, and their explanations were clear and helpful.
The evening programs have been helpful and fun.
I felt comfortable talking to my teachers both in and
outside of class.
I had a good relationship with the Director (Natasha
Frank) and Administrative Associate (Karen Wong).
The classrooms, computer labs, and other facilities
provided a good learning environment.
I was satisfied with the trip to Boston.
I was satisfied with the trip to New York City.

Student Comments for questions 1-9 (reproduced verbatim)

1. I am satisfied with the classes offered in the

Everything was well make. Was interesting

and challenging.

I learned a lot and it will help for my

coming school.
2. Class activities and projects have helped me
improve my English.

It was helpful from every side. Everything

was amazingly.








Takako Kobayashi v MATESOL

I learn a lot this summer.

I improved my speaking and writing

I learned a lot and it will help for my

coming school.
3. The program assistants were available when I need
them, and their explanations were clear and

I felt like the teachers were there all the


The classes were understandable.

4. The evening programs have been helpful and fun.

They were pointless.

Was funny talking, sharing each others

view. Was interesting.

The time be in 8-9 it will be much better.

The extra help could quiet helpful, other

activities wasted of times

It was wonderful and helpful to complete

my H.W.
5. I felt comfortable talking to my teachers both in and
outside of class.

Teachers were kind and open, which makes

us close with teachers and could show if we
problems or anything

Teachers were so friendly.

They were very friendly

I was talking easily

6. I had a good relationship with the Director
(Natasha Frank) and Administrative Associate
(Karen Wong).

I enjoyed my summer a lot.

Both Natasha and Karen are adorable and

there for us all the time. They are amazingly. Had a
good relationship with them.

They were very friendly

They are friendly with all the students

7. The classrooms, computer labs, and other facilities
provided a good learning environment.

It was perfect. Education environment was

like it should be. Well organize.

We did on computer a lots of interesting and

Component 4: Revised Project 26

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helpful things

8. I was satisfied with the trip to Boston.

Not enough free time

More time

Trip was very interesting but if this program

could arrange food, then it would be even better.

N/A many pictures

9. I was satisfied with the trip to New York City.

Not enough time

More time

This was the best trip. Had so much fun.

We saw all that we could see!

N/A love it
Open Ended Questions 10-13 (Reproduced verbatim)
10. What was your favorite activity (in class or outside of class) this session?

Talking with my classmates.

In class gender and Ethnicity, out class visiting breakery house

Final project, trip to New York City

I liked our trips and our evening program

Evening session was very interesting. That time I learn a lot from other students

My favorite activity is free time and sleeping/ Boston/ New York/ 4th of July/
beaches/ BBQ/ trips to town

The lectures and the mansion tour

11. Did the food and housing accommodations fit your needs?

I was good with it.

Yes it did

Not sure

It was perfect. We had a lot of food.

Weekdays was good since we eat in dining hall. But weekend food are not bad,
except during that Muslim day.

The food in weekends are bad

They were OK. Room was hot and uncomfortable (too much light). The food was
tasty and it was too early.

Better windows, food and dorm

12. What suggestions would you make for improving the program next year?

It is very good



You are perfect, no need J.

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Everything was well planned and was very interesting.

Less time studying, less homework, sleeping in until 10 am.

13. Would you recommend Middlebury-Monterey Summer Intensive College English to a

friend? Why or why not?

I dont know.

Yes, because its good start if you never been in the U.S.

Of course. But I think this better if next year the class will be as small as this of
this year.

I learned so many things. My English improved. I would suggest my SOLA

sisters and my Afghan sisters to join the program.

Yes, I dont have to give big examples. It was very helpful for me and it would be
great for others, who need like I did.

Of course, it is very helpful.

Yes, the program helped me a lot on improving my English.

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Appendix C
Mind Map

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Appendix D
A picture of deforestation

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Appendix E

At the far end of town
where the Grickle-grass grows
and the wind smells slow-and-sour when it blows
and no birds ever sing excepting old crows...
is the Street of the Lifted Lorax.
And deep in the Grickle-grass, some people say,
if you look deep enough you can still see, today,
where the Lorax once stood
just as long as it could
before somebody lifted the Lorax away.
What was the Lorax?
And why was it there?
And why was it lifted and taken somewhere
from the far end of town where the Grickle-grass grows?
The old Once-ler still lives here.
Ask him. He knows.
You won't see the Once-ler.
Don't knock at his door.
He stays in his Lerkim on top of his store.
He lurks in his Lerkim, cold under the roof,
where he makes his own clothes
out of miff-muffered moof.
And on special dank midnights in August,
he peeks
out of the shutters
and sometimes he speaks
and tells how the Lorax was lifted away.
He'll tell you, perhaps...
if you're willing to pay.
On the end of a rope
he lets down a tin pail
and you have to toss in fifteen cents
and a nail
and the shell of a great-great-great

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grandfather snail.
Then he pulls up the pail,
makes a most careful count
to see if you've paid him
the proper amount.
Then he hides what you paid him
away in his Snuvv,
his secret strange hole
in his gruvvulous glove.
Then he grunts, "I will call you by Whisper-ma-Phone,
for the secrets I tell you are for your ears alone."
Down slupps the Whisper-ma-Phone to your ear
and the old Once-ler's whispers are not very clear,
since they have to come down
through a snergelly hose,
and he sounds
as if he had
smallish bees up his nose.
"Now I'll tell you,"he says, with his teeth sounding gray,
"how the Lorax got lifted and taken away...
It all started way back...
such a long, long time back...
Way back in the days when the grass was still green
and the pond was still wet
and the clouds were still clean,
and the song of the Swomee-Swans rang out in space...
one morning, I came to this glorious place.
And I first saw the trees!
The Truffula Trees!
The bright-colored tufts of the Truffula Trees!
Mile after mile in the fresh morning breeze.
And, under the trees, I saw Brown Bar-ba-loots
frisking about in their Bar-ba-loot suits
as they played in the shade and ate Truffula fruits.
From the rippulous pond

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came the comfortable sound

of the Humming-Fish humming
while splashing around.
But those trees! Those trees!
Those Truffula Trees!
All my life I'd been searching
for trees such as these.
The touch of their tufts
was much softer than silk.
And they had the sweet smell
of fresh butterfly milk.
I felt a great leaping
of joy in my heart.
I knew just what I'd do!
I unloaded my cart.
In no time at all, I had built a small shop.
Then I chopped down a Truffula Tree with one chop.
And with great skillful skill and with great speedy speed,
I took the soft tuft, and I knitted a Thneed!
The instant I'd finished, I heard a ga-Zump!
I looked.
I saw something pop out of the stump
of the tree I'd chopped down. It was sort of a man.
Describe him?... That's hard. I don't know if I can.
He was shortish. And oldish.
And brownish. And mossy.
And he spoke with a voice
that was sharpish and bossy.
"Mister!" he said with a sawdusty sneeze,
"I am the Lorax. I speak for the trees.
I speak for the trees, for the trees have no tongues.
And I'm asking you, sir, at the top if my lungs"he was very upset as he shouted and puffed"What's that THING you've made out of my Truffula tuft?"
"Look, Lorax," I said."There's no cause for alarm.
I chopped just one tree. I am doing no harm.

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I'm being quite useful. This thing is a Thneed.

A Thneed's a Fine-Something-That-All-People-Need!
It's a shirt. It's a sock. It's a glove, It's a hat.
But it has other uses. Yes, far beyond that.
You can use it for carpets. For pillows! For sheets!
Or curtains! Or covers for bicycle seats!"
The Lorax said,
"Sir! You are crazy with greed.
There is no one on earth
who would buy that fool Thneed!"
But the very next minute I proved he was wrong.
For, just at that minute, a chap came along,
and he thought the Thneed I had knitted was great.
He happily bought it for three ninety-eight
I laughed at the Lorax, "You poor stupid guy!
You never can tell what some people will buy."
"I repeat," cried the Lorax,
"I speak for the trees!"
"I'm busy," I told him.
"Shut up, if you please."
I rushed 'cross the room, and in no time at all,
built a radio-phone. I put in a quick call.
I called all my brothers and uncles and aunts
and I said, "Listen here! Here's a wonderful chance
for the whole Once-ler Family to get mighty rich!
Get over here fast! Take the road to North Nitch.
Turn left at Weehawken. Sharp right at South Stitch."
And, in no time at all,
in the factory I built,
the whole Once-ler Family
was working full tilt.
We were all knitting Thneeds
just as busy as bees,
to the sound of the chopping
of Truffula Trees.

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Oh! Baby! Oh!
How my business did grow!
Now, chopping one tree
at a time
was too slow.
So I quickly invented my Super-Axe-Hacker
which whacked off four Truffula Trees at one smacker.
We were making Thneeds
four times as fast as before!
And that Lorax?...
He didn't show up any more.
But the next week
he knocked
on my new office door.
He snapped, "I am the Lorax who speaks for the trees
which you seem to be chopping as fast as you please.
But I'm also in charge of the Brown Bar-ba-loots
who played in the shade in their Bar-ba-loot suits
and happily lived, eating Truffula Fruits.
"NOW... thanks to your hacking my trees to the ground,
there's not enought Truffula Fruit to go 'round.
And my poor Bar-ba-loots are all getting the crummies
because they have gas, and no food, in their tummies!
"They loved living here. But I can't let them stay.
They'll have to find food. And I hope that they may.
Good luck, boys," he cried. And he sent them away.
I, the old Once-ler, felt sad
as I watched them all go.
business is business!
And business must grow
regardless of crummies in tummies, you know.
I meant no harm. I most truly did not.
But I had to grow bigger.So bigger I got.
I biggered my factory. I biggered my roads.

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I biggered my wagons. I biggered the loads

of the Thneeds I shipped out. I was shipping them forth
to the South! To the East! To the West! To the North!
I went right on biggering... selling more Thneeds.
And I biggered my money, which everyone needs.
Then again he came back! I was fixing some pipes
when that old-nuisance Lorax came back with more gripes.
"I am the Lorax," he coughed and he whiffed.
He sneezed and he snuffled. He snarggled. He sniffed.
"Once-ler!" he cried with a cruffulous croak.
"Once-ler! You're making such smogulous smoke!
My poor Swomee-Swans... why, they can't sing a note!
No one can sing who has smog in his throat.
"And so," said the Lorax,
"-please pardon my coughthey cannot live here.
So I'm sending them off.
"Where will they go?...
I don't hopefully know.
They may have to fly for a month... or a year...
To escape from the smog you've smogged up around here.
"What's more," snapped the Lorax. (His dander was up.)
"Let me say a few words about Gluppity-Glupp.
Your machine chugs on, day and night without stop
making Gluppity-Glupp. Also Schloppity-Schlopp.
And what do you do with this leftover goo?...
I'll show you. You dirty old Once-ler man, you!
"You're glumping the pond where the Humming-Fish hummed!
No more can they hum, for their gills are all gummed.
So I'm sending them off. Oh, their future is dreary.
They'll walk on their fins and get woefully weary
in search of some water that isn't so smeary."
And then I got mad.
I got terribly mad.
I yelled at the Lorax, "Now listen here, Dad!
All you do is yap-yap and say, 'Bad! Bad! Bad! Bad!'
Well, I have my rights, sir, and I'm telling you

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I intend to go on doing just what I do!

And, for your information, you Lorax, I'm figgering
On biggering
turning MORE Truffula Trees into Thneeds
which everyone, EVERYONE, EVERYONE needs!"
And at that very moment, we heard a loud whack!
From outside in the fields came a sickening smack
of an axe on a tree. Then we heard the tree fall.
The very last Truffula Tree of them all!
No more trees. No more Thneeds. No more work to be done.
So, in no time, my uncles and aunts, every one,
all waved me good-bye. They jumped into my cars
and drove away under the smoke-smuggered stars.
Now all that was left 'neath the bad smelling-sky
was my big empty factory...
the Lorax...
and I.
The Lorax said nothing. Just gave me a glance...
just gave me a very sad, sad backward glance...
as he lifted himself by the seat of his pants.
And I'll never forget the grim look on his face
when he heisted himself and took leave of this place,
through a hole in the smog, without leaving a trace.
And all that the Lorax left here in this mess
was a small pile of rocks, with one word...
Whatever that meant, well, I just couldn't guess.
That was long, long ago.
But each day since that day
I've sat here and worried
and worried away.
Through the years, while my buildings
have fallen apart,

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I've worried about it

with all of my heart.
"But now," says the Once-ler,
"Now that you're here,
the word of the Lorax seems perfectly clear.
UNLESS someone like you
cares a whole awful lot,
nothing is going to get better.
It's not.
Catch!" calls the Once-ler.
He lets something fall.
"It's a Truffula Seed.
It's the last one of all!
You're in charge of the last of the Truffula Seeds.
And Truffula Trees are what everyone needs.
Plant a new Truffula.Treat it with care.
Give it clean water. And feed it fresh air.
Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack.
Then the Lorax
and all of his friends
may come back."
Readability Statistics
Flesch Readability Ease
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level


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Appendix F

Guide-o-Rama Questions
Directions: Read the story of The LORAX and answer the questions below.
Paragraph 1: Where does the Once-ler live? What does the place look like?

Paragraphs 2 and 3: What kind of person is the Once-ler?

Paragraph 4: What are four living things in the glorious place that the Once-ler
Paragraph 5: How does the Once-ler describe Truffula Trees?

Paragraph 6: Line 20, "You are crazy with greed." Why does the Lorax say this?

Paragraph 7 and 8: What does Once-ler do to increase production?

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Paragraphs 8 to 10:
How does the Thneed production affect the environment? Fill out the left columns. Then,
come up with examples in reality corresponding to the situations in the story. Fill out the
right columns of Real world parallels.
From the story

Real world parallels

The air

The water

The earth

The animals

The people

The Once-ler

Paragraph 11: Line 1, No more trees. What happens to the Once-ler after this?

Paragraph 12: Line 12, "UNLESS someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is
going to get better. It's not." What does it mean?

Paragraph 13: If you were the boy hearing the story from the Once-ler, what would you
do with the last Truffula seed?

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Appendix G
Mind Map

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Appendix H

Recycling Interview Worksheet

Ask your partner the following questions. Write your partners answers in the space provided.
Is recycling practiced in your home country?

If so, what kinds of materials can be recycled there?

Do you recycle in your home country?

If recycling is practiced in your home country, do you participate in recycling?

Do you think recycling is important? Why? Why not?