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Name: ______________________

Student ID no.: _______________

ME4413 Heat and Mass Transfer Homework 3


Due date: 2 April 2015
1. The radiation view factor from the sphere (r1 = 30 cm) to the disk (r2 = 120 cm) as
decipted in Fig. 1 is given as
2 2 0.5
12 = 0.5 {1 [1 + ( ) ]
}

where h = 60 cm is the center-to-center distance between the sphere and the disk.
Surface temperatures of the sphere and the disk are 600C and 200C, respectively;
and their emissivities are 0.9 and 0.5, respectively.
(a) Calculate the view factors F12 and F21.
(5 marks)
(b) Calculate the net rate of radiation heat exchanger between the sphere and the
disk.
(10 marks)
(c) The net rate of radiation heat exchange between these two bodies can be
improved by altering their emissivities through painting their surfaces and also
by adjusting their distance. Calculate the maximum net rate of radiation heat
exchange between these two bodies that can be achieved through the above
improvement methods.
(10 marks)
Solution:
(a)

2 0.5

12 = 0.5 {1 [1 + ( 2 ) ]

0.5
1.2 2

} = 0.5 {1 [1 + (0.6) ]

} = 0.2764

A1 = 4r12 = 4(0.3)2 = 1.131 m2


A2 = r22 = (1.2)2 = 4.524 m2
From the reciprocity relation
F21 = (A1/A2)F12 = (1.131/4.524)0.2764 = 0.0691
(b)
F13 = 1 F11 F12 = 1 0 0.2764 = 0.7236
F23 = 1 F21 F22 = 1 0.0691 0 = 0.9309
At node 1: T14 = J1 + [(1 1)/1] [F12(J1 J2) + F13(J1 J3)]
(5.6710-8)(600 + 273)4 = J1 + [(1 0.9)/0.9][0.2764(J1 J2) + 0.7236(J1 J3)] (1)
At node 2: T24 = J2 + [(1 2)/2] [F21(J2 J1) + F23(J2 J3)]
(5.6710-8)(200 + 273)4 = J2 + [(1 0.5)/0.5][0.0691(J2 J1) + 0.9309(J2 J3)] (2)
At node 3: since the surrounding is vacuum, J3 = 0
Solving equations (1), (2) and (3) gives
J1 = 29708 W/m2, J2 = 2445 W/m2, J3 = 0 W/m2
Q12 = A1F12(J1 J2) = 1.131(0.2764)(29708 - 2445) = 8522 W

(3)

Or find the expressions for J1 and J2


(1) T14 = J1/1 [(1 1)/1]F12J2
(2) T24 = [(1 2)/2]F21J1 + J2/2
J1 = [1T14 + (1 1)2F12T24]/[1 (1 1)(1 2)F12F21] = 29708 W/m2
and J2 = [2T24 + (1 2)1F21T14]/[1 (1 1)(1 2)F12F21] = 2445 W/m2
Q12 = A1F12(J1 J2)
= A1F12{1T14[1 (1 2)F21] - 2T24[1 (1 1)F12]}/[1 (1 1)(1 2)F12F21]
= 8522 W
(c)
Q12 = A1F12(J1 J2)
= A1F12{1T14[1 (1 2)F21] - 2T24[1 (1 1)F12]}/[1 (1 1)(1 2)F12F21]
To achieve maximum Q12, F12 needs to be maximum, 1 = 1, 2 = 1
when h = r1 = 0.3 m, F12 is maximum

2 0.5

12 = 0.5 {1 [1 + ( 2 ) ]

0.5
1.2 2

} = 0.5 {1 [1 + (0.3) ]

} = 0.3787

Q12_max = A1F12(T14 T24)


= 1.131(0.3787)(5.6710-8)[(600 + 273)4 - (200 + 273)4] = 12890 W

Name: ____________________________
Student ID no.: _____________________
2. Two co-axial parallel circular disks of equal diameter of 0.5 m are separated by 0.25
m apart. The top disk is maintained at 900 K and has an emissivity of 0.9 while the
bottom disk is maintained at 400 K and has an emissivity of 0.6. The disks are
exposed through the opening between them into a very large room area which is
maintained at 290 K and has an emissivity of 0.95.
(a) Sketch the corresponding radiation network with appropriate physical
parameters
(5 marks)
(b) Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two disks.
(15 marks)
(c) Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer to the room.
(5 marks)
Solution:
Assume the top disk is Surface 1, the bottom disk Surface 2, and the room Surface 3
(a) The sketch of the network is on the right
(b)
r1/L = r2/L = 0.25/0.25 = 1 = R
F12 = 1 + [1 (4R2 + 1)0.5]/2R2 = 0.38 = F21
Flat plate F11 = F22 = 0
F13 = 1 F11 F12 = 0.62 = F23
A1 = r12 = (0.25)2 = 0.196 m2 = A2
Assume a cylindrical surface covering the edges of the two disks
A3 = 2r1L = 2(0.25)(0.25) = 0.393 m2
F31 = A1F13/A3 = 0.31 = F32
At node 1: T14 = J1 + [(1 1)/1] [F12(J1 J2) + F13(J1 J3)]
(5.6710-8)9004 = J1 + [(1 0.9)/0.9][0.38(J1 J2) + 0.62(J1 J3)]

(1)

At node 2: T24 = J2 + [(1 2)/2] [F21(J2 J1) + F23(J2 J3)]


(5.6710-8)4004 = J2 + [(1 0.6)/0.6][0.38(J2 J1) + 0.62(J2 J3)]

(2)

At node 3: T34 = J3 + [(1 3)/3] [F31(J3 J1) + F32(J3 J2)]


(5.6710-8)2904 = J3 + [(1 0.95)/0.95][0.31(J3 J1) + 0.31(J3 J2)]

(3)

Solving equations (1), (2) and (3) gives


J1 = 33782 W/m2, J2 = 6258 W/m2, J3 = 1020 W/m2
Q12 = A1F12(J1 J2) = 0.196(0.38)(33782 6258) = 2050 W
(c)
Q3 = [A33/(1 3)](T34 J3)
= [0.393(0.95)/(1 0.95)][(5.6710-8)2904 1020] = 4621 W