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Seismic Design of Multi-storey Buildings:

IS-1893 vs. Eurocode-8

Structural Analysis Methods


Abdelghani Meslem, PhD & Dominik Lang, PhD
Department of Earthquakes and the Environment
NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway

IS-1893-1:2002 - NE 1998-1:2004
IS 1893-1:
2002

IS-1893 Provisions
Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures
Part 1: General provisions and buildings

EN 1998-1:
2004

Eurocode-8 Provisions
Design of structures for earthquake resistance
Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Table of contents
IS 1893-1:2002 vs. EN 1998-1:2004
IS 1893-1:
2002

Dynamic Characteristics
Seismic Masses
Fundamental Natural Period

Methods of analysis
Design Lateral Force Method
Modal Response Spectrum Method
Linear Time History Method
EN 1998-1:
2004

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Components of seismic action


Accidental/Torsional Effects
Second-order Effects (P- effects)
Select and Scale Earthquake Records
Contribution of Joint Regions
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Dynamic Characteristics: Seismic Masses


IS 1893-1:2002

the seismic weight of each floor (k) is its full Dead Load (DL) plus appropriate amount of
Imposed Load (IL).

IS 1893-1: 2002, 7.4

DLk + ILk

the seismic weight of the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of all the floors.

k (DLk + ILk )

Percentage of imposed load (IL) to be considered in seismic


weight calculation (IS-1893-1:2002, Table 8)
Imposed Uniformity Distributed
Floor Loads (kN/m2)

Percentage of
Load

Up to and icluding 3,0

25

Above 3,0

50

the imposed load shall also be considered for roof.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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DL + IL

Dynamic Characteristics: Seismic Masses


EN 1998-1:2004

composed of permanent and participating live loads

Gk + i (Ei QKi)

EN 1998-1:2004, 3.2.4

with: Ei - combination coefficient for variable action


2i - occupancy type coefficient
- load type coefficient

Ei = 2i
Storey

Occupancy type

Roof

1.00

Residential, office

0.30

storeys with correlated occupancies

0.80

Public, commercial (shops), parking

0.60

Interdependently occupied storeys

0.50

Roof with snow

0.20

Archives

1.00

Archives, libraries, staircases

0.80

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Dynamic Characteristics: Fundamental Natural Period


IS 1893-1:2002

for moment-resisting frame building without brick infill panels:

Ta 0 ,075 H 0.75
0 ,085 H 0.75

for RC frame building


for steel frame building

H: Height of building, in m. This excludes the basement stories, where basement walls are
connected with the ground floor deck or fitted between the building columns. But it
includes the basement stories, when they are not so connected.

Approximate Ta, in seconds, of all other buildings, including moment-resisting frame


buildings with brick infill panels, may be estimated by the empirical expression:

Ta

0,09
H
d

d: Base dimension of the building at the plinth level, in m, along the considered direction
of the lateral force.
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

IS 1893-1: 2002, 7.6

Dynamic Characteristics: Fundamental Natural Period


EN 1998-1:2004

based on any equation coming from structural mechanics (e.g. Rayleigh method)

for building heights H 40 m :

T1 C t H0.75

Ct =

Ct =

0.085
0.075
0.050
0.075 / Ac

with: Ct - structural coefficient


H - building height (in [m]) from foundation or
top of a rigid basement

for moment-resistant steel frames


for moment-resistant concrete frames and eccentrically braced steel frames
for all other structures
for building with concrete or masonry shear walls
with Ac:

Ac Ai (0.2 (lwi /H)2 )

with: Ac - total effective area of the shear walls in the first storey (in [m2])
Ai - effective cross-sectional area of shear wall i (in [m2])
lwi - length of shear wall i parallel to applied forces
EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Modeling Specifications: Planar (2D) & Spatial (3D)


if regular in plan, planar (2D) models may be used for each direction X and Y

Regularity
Plan

Elevation

Model type
planar (2D)
spatial (3D)

Ideally, the building should be modelled as three-dimensional. In some cases the


analyst may wish to use two-dimensional (planar) in order to reduce the calculation
effort. However, this later may be acceptable for buildings with regular geometries
where the response in each orthogonal direction is independent and torsional
response is not significant.

Regular/Irregular Configurations

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.1
EN 1998-1:2004, 4.2.3

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Modeling Specifications: Masses Lumped System

if floor diaphrams are rigid in plane, masses and moments of inertia may be lumped at the
centre of gravity
EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.1

A floor diaphragm shall be considered rigid if horizontal displacements at


any point do not exceed more than 10 % of the rigid diaphragm
assumption. EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.1

A floor diaphragm shall be considered to be flexible, if it deforms such that


the maximum lateral displacement measured from the chord of the deformed
shape at any point of the diaphragm is more than 1,5 times the average
displacement of the entire diaphragm. IS 1893-1:2002, 7.7.2

m4
m3

m2
m1
A. Meslem & D. Lang

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m4

m3

k
k

m2
m1

k
k*

Modeling Specifications: Masses Lumped System

Buildings with regular, or nominally irregular plan configurations may be modeled as a


system of masses lumped at the floor levels. IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4.5

m4
m3

m2
m1
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

m4

m3

k
k

m2
m1

k
k*

Methods of Analysis
Analysis methods specified in IS 1893-1:2002 and EN 1998-1:2004
low complexity
of computation

(1) Design Lateral Force Method

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.7

(2) Response Spectrum Method

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

(3) Linear Time History Method

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.3

high complexity
of computation

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2
EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

(1) Design Lateral Force Method

Buildings shall be deisgned and constructed to resist the effects of design lateral force
as a MINIMUM IS 1893-1:2002, 7.5

This approach defines a series of forces acting on a building to represent the effect of
earthquake ground motion, typically defined by a seismic design response spectrum.

Criteria :

shall be applied to buildings whose response is principally dominated by the 1st mode:

4 TC
T1
2,0 sec

and that are regular in elevation

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

(1) Design Lateral Force Method

Buildings shall be deisgned and constructed to resist the effects of design lateral force
as a MINIMUM IS 1893-1:2002, 7.5

This approach defines a series of forces acting on a building to represent the effect of
earthquake ground motion, typically defined by a seismic design response spectrum.

Criteria (cont'd):

and that are regular in elevation

Regularity

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Plan

Elevation

Allowed simplification
in modeling

planar

spatial

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(1) Design Lateral Force Method


Steps:
Step 1: the design lateral force shall first be computed for the building as a whole
Step 2: this deisgn lateral force shall then be distributed to the various floor levels

Step 3: the overall design seismic force thus obtained at each floor level, shall
then be distributed to individual lateral load resisting elements depending on
the floor diaphgram action

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


IS 1893-1:2002
Design base shear VB :

Total design lateral force shall be determined for each horizontal


direction by the following expresssion:

VB Ah W
with: Ah W-

VB

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.5

design horizontal seismic coefficient for the structure, using the fundamental period Ta
seismic weight of the building.

Ah

Z I Sa

2 R g

IS 1893-1:2002, 6.4.2

Z = seismic zone factor (given in Table 2 Clause 6.4.2);


I = importance factor depending upon the functional use of the structure (given in Table 6 Clause 6.4.2 );
R = response reduction factor depending on the perceived seismic damage performance of the structure
(given in Table 7 Clause 6.4.2);
Sa/g = average response acceleration coefficient.
A. Meslem & D. Lang

IS 1893-1: 2002, 6.4.1

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(1) Design Lateral Force Method


IS 1893-1:2002
Calculation of average acceleration coefficient at T=Ta:

Horizontal components of the seismic action:

IS 1893-1: 2002, 6.4.1

For rocky, or hard soil sites


1 15 T
Sa
2 ,50
g
1,00 T

0,00 T 0,10
0,10 T 0,40
0,40 T 4,00

For medium soil sites


1 15 T
Sa
2 ,50
g
1,36 T

0,00 T 0,10
0,10 T 0,55

0,55 T 4,00

For soft soil sites


1 15 T
Sa
2 ,50
g
1,67 T
A. Meslem & D. Lang

0,00 T 0,10
0,10 T 0,67
0,67 T 4,00

For the purpose of determining seismic forces,


the country is classified into four seismic zones
The design acceleration spectrum for vertical
motions, when required, may be taken as twothirds of the design horizontal acceleration
spectrum.

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


IS 1893-1:2002
Calculation of average acceleration coefficient at T=Ta:

IS 1893-1: 2002, 6.4.1

For rocky, or hard soil sites


1 15 Ta 0,00 Ta 0,10
Sa
0,10 Ta 0,40
2,50
g
1,00 Ta 0,40 Ta 4,00

For medium soil sites


1 15 Ta 0,00 Ta 0,10
Sa
0,10 Ta 0,55
2,50
g
1,36 Ta 0,55 Ta 4,00

For soft soil sites

Example: 4-story building

1 15 Ta 0,00 Ta 0,10
Sa
0,10 Ta 0,67
2,50
g
1,67 Ta 0,67 Ta 4,00
A. Meslem & D. Lang

Ta

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For medium soil site (Soil Type II)


Ta = 0,4 sec
Sa/g = 2,5

0,10 Ta 0,55

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


IS 1893-1:2002
Vertical distribution of base shear to different floor levels:

calculation of horizontal design forces Qi to all storey levels can be done as per the
following expression
h3

Qi VB

Wi hi2
n

W j h j 2

h2
IS 1893-1:2002, 7.7

Q3

W3

Q2

W2

h1 Q1

W1

j 1

Qi = design lateral force at floor i;


Wi = seismic weight of floor i;
hi = height of floor i measured from base; and
n = number of storeys in the building (the number of levels ayt which the masses are located).
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


EN 1998-1:2004
Base shear force Fb :

shall be calculated for each horizontal direction

Fb Sd (T1 ) m

with:
Sd (T1) =
M=
=

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

Fb

ordinate of the design spectrum at T1


total mass of the building
correction factor = 0.85 if T1 2TC and the building has more than 2 storeys.
Otherwise = 1.0

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


EN 1998-1:2004
Calculation of design spectral acceleration Sa,d :

dependent on soil class and behavior factor q

for 0 T1 TB :

2 T 2.5 2
S a ,d ( T1 ) a g S 1 (
)
q 3
3 TB

for TB T1 TC : S a ,d ( T1 ) a g S
for TC T1 TD : S a ,d ( T1 ) a g S

for TD T1 4 s : S a ,d ( T1 ) a g S

A. Meslem & D. Lang

2.5
q

2.5 TC

q T1

2.5 TC TD
2
q T1

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Spectral acceleration Sa,d

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

q=1
q=2
q=4

TB

TC

T1

Period T [sec]

TD

(1) Design Lateral Force Method


EN 1998-1:2004
Distribution of horizontal seismic forces:

calculation of horizontal forces Fi to all storey levels can be done by two ways

Type A (dependent on height of masses):

z m
Fi Fb i i
z j mj

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

F3

z3
z2

m3

F2

m2

z1 F1

m1

with: zi height of the respective mass i

Type B (dependent on absolute horizontal displacement of masses):

s m
Fi Fb i i
s j mj

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2

with: si lateral displacement of mass i in the 1st mode


A. Meslem & D. Lang

m3

F3

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F2
F1

m2
m1

s3
s2

s1

(1) Design Lateral force Nethod: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 1

m3

3-story RC frame building (residential use)

m2

3 x 3.5 m

m1

1. Seismic masses:

Gk + i (Ei QKi)
residential use

Ground type C

Ei = 2i = 0.8 0.3 = 0.24

Level

G [kN]

Q [kN]

G+ Q [kN]

Mass mi [tons]

260

120

289

29.44

350

140

384

39.10

750

300

822

83.79

1kN 1000N

152.33

1N 1

Total seismic mass m

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Units:
kg m
s2

(1) Design Lateral force Method: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 1
2. Base shear force Fb :
- fundamental period:
(with Ct = 0.075 for RC frames)

ag = agR I = 2.943 m/s2


Sa,d = ag S 2.5/q = 2.12 m/s2
Spectral acceleration Sa

- design spectral acceleration:


residential use I = 1.0
ground motion agR = 0.3 g
behavior factor q = 4.0

T1 = Ct H 0.75 = 0.075 10.5 0.75 = 0.44 s

- base shear force Fb:


(since T1 < 2 TC = 0.85)

A. Meslem & D. Lang

TB T1 TC
TD
Period T [sec]

Fb = Sa,d (T1) m = 2.12 152.33 0.85 = 274 kN

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(1) Design Lateral force Method: EN 1998-1:2004


3. Load distribution and moment calculation:

F3

m3

z m
Fi Fb i i
z j mj

F2

m2

F1

m1

Tutorial 1

Level

Height z [m]

Mass mk [tons]

zk mk [mtons]

Force Fk [kN]

Moment = Fk zk [kNm]

10.5

29.44

309.12

96.68

1015.1

7.0

39.10

273.70

85.60

599.2

3.5

83.79

293.27

91.72

321.0

152.33

876.09

274.0

1935.3

Totals

m3

4. Effective height of the resultant lateral force:


Fres

heff

A. Meslem & D. Lang

M res 1935.3

7.06 m
Fres
274.0

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m2

heff
Mres

m1

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


This approach permits the multiple modes of response of a building to be taken into
account.

the Response spectrum method shall be performed using the design spectum, or by a sitespecific design spectrum mentioned.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Criteria:

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

shall be performed for the following buildings:

Regular buildings those greater than 40 m in height in Zone IV and V, and those
greater than 90 m in height in Zones II and III.

Irregular buildings all framed buildings heigher than 12 m in Zones IV and V, and
those greater than 40 m in height in Zones II and III.

the resulted design base shear (VB) shall be compared with a base shear () calculated
using a fundamental period TB.

Where VB is less than , all the response quantities (e.g. Member forces,
displacements, story forces, story shears and base reactions) shall be multiplied by
/VB.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Criteria (cont'd):

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

the number of modes to be used in the analysis should be such that:


The sum total of modal masses
of all modes considered

A. Meslem & D. Lang

90 % of the total seismic mass and


missing mass correction beyond 33 %

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(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Criteria:

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

Regularity

Allowed simplification

Plan

Elevation

Model

planar

spatial

shall be applied if the criteria for analysis method (1) are not
fulfilled, this means if:

4 TC
T1
2,0 sec

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Fb

1st mode

(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Criteria (cont'd):

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

response of all modes shall be considered that contribute significantly to the global
building response (i.e., important for buildings of a certain height)

those modes shall be considered for which:

(1) the sum of the modal masses is at least 90% of the total
building mass
or
(2) the modal mass is larger than 5% of the total building mass

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mi 0.9 mtot

mi 0.05 mtot

(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Criteria (cont'd):

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

if the '90%' and the '5%' criteria is not fulfilled (e.g. for buildings prone to torsional
effects), those modes shall be considered for which:
k 3 n
and

Tk 0.20 s
with:

n=4

k - number of modes taken into account


n - story number (from above foundation to top)
Tk - period of vibration of mode k

Mode shape: 1

4
Example: 4-story building
k 3 4 = 6
and
T12 = 0.002 s 0.20 s
six modes shall be
considered !!

Period Tk :

A. Meslem & D. Lang

0.27 s

0.23 s

0.16 s

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0.02 s

(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Obtain natural periods, mode shapes & modal participating factors:
undamped free vibration analysis of the entire building to obtain natural periods
and mode shapes for the modes of vibration that need to be considered;

Differential equation:

with:

M u C u K u 0

0
0
m1 0

0
0 m2 0
M
0
0 m3 0

0
0
m
i

c11

..
C
..

c
n1

..

..

c22
..

..
c 33

..

..

Assumption: [C] = zero matrix ! Undamped system

K 2 M 0

c1n

..
..

cnn

M u C u K u 0

modal segmentation:

derive circular frequencies i / periods Ti and mode shapes i

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.. k 1n
k 11 ..

..
.. k 22 ..
K
..
.. k 33 ..

..
..
k
nn
n1

=>

km

(2) Modal Response Spectrum method


Obtain natural periods, mode shapes & modal participating factors:
Given: - circular frequencies i / periods Ti
- mode shapes i

n,1

j,1

1 j1,1

n,1

j+1,1

j,1

T1

Modal participation factor of mode k:


n

Pi

W
j 1

j ,i

W j j ,i
n

j 1

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

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j ,i

j2,i

j 1
n
j 1

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

(2) Response Spectrum analysis


Tutorial 2.1

Example 1.1 - Modal analysis results:


Effective masses

building response
purely translational

first eigenmode is
translational

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode.
[-]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T
[s]
0.398
0.316
0.264
0.19
0.17
0.137
0.136
0.134
0.129
0.124
0.118
0.116
0.113
0.11
0.105
0.104
0.103
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.095
0
0.092
0.092
0.09
0.088
0.086
0.084
0.081
0.08

mx'
[%]
0
52
8
0
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14.1
5.5
8.5
0
0.6
0
0
1
3.5
2.6
0
0
0
0
0
0

my'
[%]
52.1
0.7
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0.6
0
3.7
28.5
3.8
0
0
0
1.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
0
0
39.2
1.4
2.6
6
0
7
0
4.7
0
2.8
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
2.5
0
0
0
0
0
4.4
0
1

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.1

Example 1.1 - Modal analysis results:


Effective masses

response of all modes


shall be considered
that contribute
significantly to the
global building
response

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode.
[-]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T
[s]
0.398
0.316
0.264
0.19
0.17
0.137
0.136
0.134
0.129
0.124
0.118
0.116
0.113
0.11
0.105
0.104
0.103
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.095
0
0.092
0.092
0.09
0.088
0.086
0.084
0.081
0.08

mx'
[%]
0
52
8
0
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14.1
5.5
8.5
0
0.6
0
0
1
3.5
2.6
0
0
0
0
0
0

my'
[%]
52.1
0.7
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0.6
0
3.7
28.5
3.8
0
0
0
1.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

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mz'
[%]
0
0
0
39.2
1.4
2.6
6
0
7
0
4.7
0
2.8
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
2.5
0
0
0
0
0
4.4
0
1

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.1

Example 1.1 - Modal analysis results:


Effective masses

those modes shall be


considered for which:
mi 0.9 mtot

or
mi 0.05 mtot

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode.
T
[-]
[s]
1
0.398
2
0.316
3
0.264
4
0.19
5
0.17
6
0.137
7
0.136
8
0.134
9
0.129
10
0.124
11
0.118
12
0.116
13
0.113
14
0.11
15
0.105
16
0.104
17
0.103
18
0.098
19
0.096
20
0.096
21
0.095
22
0
23
0.092
24
0.092
25
0.09
26
0.088
27
0.086
28
0.084
29
0.081
30
0.08
Sum

mx'
[%]
0
52
8
0
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14.1
5.5
8.5
0
0.6
0
0
1
3.5
2.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
91.6

my'
[%]
52.1
0.7
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0.6
0
3.7
28.5
3.8
0
0
0
1.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
90.0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
0
0
39.2
1.4
2.6
6
0
7
0
4.7
0
2.8
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
2.5
0
0
0
0
0
4.4
0
1

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.2

Example 1.2 - Modal analysis results:

Effective masses

building strongly prone


to torsional response

first eigenmode is
torsional:

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode
[-]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T
[s]
0.302
0.183
0.15
0.144
0.142
0.14
0.138
0.131
0.123
0.122
0.118
0.117
0.114
0.111
0.11
0.109
0.106
0.1
0.096
0.095
0.094
0.093
0.092
0.087
0.084
0.083
0.082
0.078
0.077
0.077

mx'
[%]
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
4.3
53.2
0.8
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

my'
[%]
2
0.5
55.3
2.6
11.6
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
12.6
0.9
0
3.2
0
13.1
0
0
0
0
1.2
10.7
1.7
0
0.8
0
0
0
0.5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.9
1.8

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.2

Example 1.2 - Modal analysis results:

Effective masses

response of all modes shall be


considered that contribute
significantly to the global
building response

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode
[-]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T
[s]
0.302
0.183
0.15
0.144
0.142
0.14
0.138
0.131
0.123
0.122
0.118
0.117
0.114
0.111
0.11
0.109
0.106
0.1
0.096
0.095
0.094
0.093
0.092
0.087
0.084
0.083
0.082
0.078
0.077
0.077

mx'
[%]
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
4.3
53.2
0.8
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

my'
[%]
2
0.5
55.3
2.6
11.6
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
12.6
0.9
0
3.2
0
13.1
0
0
0
0
1.2
10.7
1.7
0
0.8
0
0
0
0.5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.9
1.8

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.2

Example 1.2 - Modal analysis results:

Effective masses

those modes shall be


considered for which:
mi 0.9 mtot

or
mi 0.05 mtot

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode
T
[-]
[s]
1
0.302
2
0.183
3
0.15
4
0.144
5
0.142
6
0.14
7
0.138
8
0.131
9
0.123
10
0.122
11
0.118
12
0.117
13
0.114
14
0.111
15
0.11
16
0.109
17
0.106
18
0.1
19
0.096
20
0.095
21
0.094
22
0.093
23
0.092
24
0.087
25
0.084
26
0.083
27
0.082
28
0.078
29
0.077
30
0.077

Sum

mx'
[%]
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
4.3
53.2
0.8
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

77.2

my'
[%]
2
0.5
55.3
2.6
11.6
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

76.5

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
12.6
0.9
0
3.2
0
13.1
0
0
0
0
1.2
10.7
1.7
0
0.8
0
0
0
0.5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.9
1.8

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.2

Example 1.2 - Modal analysis results:

Effective masses

since both criteria are


not fulfilled, those
modes shall be
considered for which:
k 3 n

and
Tk 0.20 sec

k 3 4 = 6 modes

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode
[-]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T
[s]
0.302
0.183
0.15
0.144
0.142
0.14
0.138
0.131
0.123
0.122
0.118
0.117
0.114
0.111
0.11
0.109
0.106
0.1
0.096
0.095
0.094
0.093
0.092
0.087
0.084
0.083
0.082
0.078
0.077
0.077

mx'
[%]
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
4.3
53.2
0.8
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

my'
[%]
2
0.5
55.3
2.6
11.6
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

mz'
[%]
0
12.6
0.9
0
3.2
0
13.1
0
0
0
0
1.2
10.7
1.7
0
0.8
0
0
0
0.5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.9
1.8

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Example 2.1 3-Story RC Frame System
Define Masses Seismic...G + 0.3 Q

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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SAP2000

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Example 2.1 3-Story RC Frame System
Define Number of Modes

select the number of


modes to be considered
A. Meslem & D. Lang

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SAP2000

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Example 2.1 3-Story RC Frame System
Run Model Analysis

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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SAP2000

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Example 2.1 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Deformed shape....

Mode 1

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Mode 2

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Mode 3

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


SAP2000

Example 2.1 3-Story RC Frame System


Modal Information....

first torsional
mode is 3rd

= 0,90

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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0,98

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Example 2.2 3-Story RC Dual System

first eigenmode
is torsional

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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SAP2000

(2) Response Spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


SAP2000

Example 2.2 3-Story RC Dual System

first eigenmode is
torsional

= 0,83
A. Meslem & D. Lang

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0,74

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


Steps:
Step 1: for each mode of vibration, a response is read from the design spectrum,
based on the modal frequency and the modal mass, for each floor;
Step 3: modal combination of the resulted peak response quantities (e.g.
displacements, story forces, story shears and base reactions) to obtain the
total response of the structure (total response at each floor).

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

Procedure:
Mode shape i:

n,1

j+1,1

Design seismic coefficient for each mode i:

Ai

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Z I S a Ti

2 R
g

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n,3

j,3

j,2

Spectral acceleration Sa

Design spectral accelerations Sa(Ti )/g for each mode i :

j+1,3

j+1,2

j,1

n,2

Sa,d (T1)
Sa,d (T2)
Sa.d (T3)

T1

T2
T3
Period T [sec]

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
Procedure:

Design lateral force at each floor in each mode the peak lateral force (Q j,i) at floor j in
mode i is given by:

Q j ,i Ai j ,i Pi W j

Qn,2

Qn,1
Q j+1,1
Q j,1

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

Qn,3
Q j+1,2

Q j+1,3

Q j,2 Q j,3

where
A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Pk

i 1
n

ik

Wi ik
i 1

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
Procedure:

Story shear forces in each mode the peak shear force (Vj,i) acting in story j in mode i is
given by:

V j ,i

j i 1

j ,i

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

Story shear forces due to all modes considered the peak story shear force (Vj) in story j
due to all modes considered is obtained by combining those due to each mode

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
Procedure:
Modal Combination

the peak response quantities (e.g. Member forces, displacements, story forces,
story shears and base reactions) shall be combined as per Complete Quadratic
Combination (CQC) method (here the modes are assumed to be closely-spaced):


i 1 j 1

ij
i
j

ij

Number of modes being considered,


Cross-modal coefficient,
Response quantity in mode i (including sign),
Response quantity in mode j (including sing),

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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IS 1893-1:2002, 7.7

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
Procedure:
Modal Combination

the If the buildings does not have closely-spaced modes, then the peak response
quantities due to all modes considered shall be combined using the following
expresssion:


k 1

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.7

Lateral Forces at each Story due to all modes considered

Lateral forces at each story due to all modes considered the design lateral forces, Froof
and Fj, at roof and at floor j:

Froof Vroof
F j V j V j 1
A. Meslem & D. Lang

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IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


IS 1893-1:2002
Procedure:

Story shear forces in each mode the peak shear force (Vj,i) acting in story j in mode i is
given by:

V j ,i

j i 1

j ,i

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

Story shear forces due to all modes considered the peak story shear force (Vj) in story j
due to all modes considered is obtained by combining those due to each mode

Lateral forces at each story due to all modes considered the design lateral forces, Froof
and Fj, at roof and at floor j:

Froof Vroof
F j V j V j 1

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


EN 1998-1:2004

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

Procedure:
Mode shape i:

n,1

j+1,1

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j,3

Sa,d (T1)
Sa,d (T2)
Sa.d (T3)

T1

A. Meslem & D. Lang

n,3

j,2

Spectral acceleration Sa

Design spectral accelerations Sa(Ti )/g for each mode i :

j+1,3

j+1,2

j,1

n,2

T2
T3
Period T [sec]

(2) Modal Response spectrum method


EN 1998-1:2004
Procedure:

Fj,i m j j,i i S a,d (Ti )


Mode shape i:

n,1

j+1,1
j,1

A. Meslem & D. Lang

j,3

j,2
Fn,3
Fj+1,2
Fj,2

Fj,1

resulting shear forces Fb,m :

Fb ,m

n,3

j+1,3

j+1,2

Fj+1,1

n,2

Fn,2

Fn,1

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.3

i1

Fb2,m ,i

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Fj+1,3
Fj,3

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
3-story RC frame building (residential use)
behavior factor q = 4
ground motion: agR = 0.3 g
residential use: I = 1.0
structural parameters:
E = 2.1 108 kN/m2
I = 2.679 10-5 m4
h = 3.0 m
k = 12 EI/h3
m = 50 tons = 50 kNs2/m

m3 = m

m2 = 1.5m

m1 = 2m

k3 = k
k2 = 2k
k1 = 3k

1. Setting up the differential equation of motion:

M u C u K u 0
0
m1 0
2 0 0

M 0 m2 0 m 0 1.5 0
0
0 0 1
0 m3

A. Meslem & D. Lang

if [C] = 0 :

M u K u 0

k2
k1 k2

K k 2 k 2 k 3
0
k3

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

0
5 2 0

k3 k 2 3 1
0 1 1
k 3

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
2. Modal segmentation:

K 2 M 0

5k 2m 2
2k
0

2k

3k 1.5m 2
k 0
k
k m 2

3. Modal circular frequencies i and periods Ti :

1 = 4.19 s-1
2 = 8.97 s-1
3 = 13.3 s-1

T1 = 1.50 sec
T2 = 0.70 sec
T3 = 0.47 sec

4. Eigenmodes:
0.30

1 0.644
1.00

A. Meslem & D. Lang

0.676

2 0.601
1.00

2.47

3 2.57
1.00

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
5. Modal participation factors i :
n

j ,i

2
j ,i

j1
n
j1

i
Mi*

1 = 100 0.3 + 75 0.644 + 50 1.0 = 128.3 kNs2/m


2 = 100 0.676 75 0.601 + 50 1.0 = -62.7 kNs2/m
3 = 100 2.47 75 2.57 + 50 1.0 = 104.3 kNs2/m
M1* = 100 0.32 + 75 0.6442 + 50 1.02 = 90.0 kNs2/m
M2* = 100 0.6762 + 75 0.6012 + 50 1.02 = 122.8 kNs2/m
M3* = 100 2.472 + 75 2.572 + 50 1.02 = 1155.0 kNs2/m
1 = 128.3 / 90.0 = 1.426
2 = -62.7 / 122.8 = 0.511
3 = 104.3 / 1155.0 = 0.090
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
6. Design spectral accelerations Sa(Ti ) for each mode i :

T1 = 1.50 sec :

Sa,d (T) ag S

2.5 TC
2.5 0.6
2
(2.943 1.0) 1.15

0
.
846
m
/
s
q T1
4.0 1.50

Check: Sa,d (T) = 0.846 m/s2 ag = 0.20 2.943 = 0.5886 m/s2

T2 = 0.70 sec :

Sa,d (T) ag S

2.5 TC
2.5 0.6
(2.943 1.0) 1.15
1.813 m / s2
q T1
4.0 0.7

Check: Sa,d (T) = 1.813 m/s2 ag = 0.20 2.943 = 0.5886 m/s2

T3 = 0.47 sec :

A. Meslem & D. Lang

Sa,d (T) ag S

2.5
2.5
(2.943 1.0) 1.15
2.115 m / s2
q
4.0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
5. Lateral story loads Fj,i :

Fj,i m j j,i i S a,d (Ti )


F3,1= 60.3

F1,1 = 100 0.30 1.426 0.846 = 36.2 kN


F2,1 = 75 0.644 1.426 0.846 = 58.3 kN
F3,1 = 50 1.00 1.426 0.846 = 60.3 kN

F2,1 = 58.3
F1,1 = 36.2

F3,2 = 46.3

F1,2 = 100 (0.676) (0.511) 1.813 = 62.6 kN


F2,2 = 75 (0.601) (0.511) 1.813 = 41.8 kN
F3,2 = 50 1.00 (0.511) 1.813 = 46.3 kN

F2,2 = 41.8
F1,2 = 62.6

F3,3 = 9.5

F1,3 = 100 2.47 0.090 2.115 = 47.0 kN


F2,3 = 75 (2.57) 0.090 2.115 = 36.7 kN
F3,3 = 50 1.00 0.090 2.115 = 9.5 kN
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

F2,3 = 36.7
F1,3 = 47.0

(2) Response spectrum analysis: EN 1998-1:2004


Tutorial 2.3
5. Maximum shear forces Fb :

9.5

-46.3

60.3

154.8

-27.2

-4.5

118.6

58.1

76.6

121.7

19.8

166.5

Fb ,m

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

F
i1

2
b ,m ,i

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System
Define Response Spectrum to be used

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

SAP2000

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Define Response Spectrum to be used

Acceleration is in g unit
we can move the cursor on
the grave to obtain the
coordinartes at any point

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System
Define Load case to include the Response Spectrum Analysis

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

SAP2000

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Define Load case to include the Response Spectrum Analysis

A number of ways to combine modes given direction including CQC, SRSS,..and others...
Response spectrum will be applied as an acceleration in U1 (UX) direction using the
previously defined curve EC-8-B
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System
Run Analysis

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

SAP2000

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System
Display Base Reactions for the Response Spectrum (RS) case

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

SAP2000

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Moments, Shear Forces, Axial Forces...for the Response Spectrum (RS) case

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(2) Modal Response spectrum analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Moments, Shear Forces, Axial Forces...for the Response Spectrum (RS) case

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(3) Linear time history analysis

Linear time history method of analysis, when used, shall be based on an appropriate
ground motion and shall be performed using accepted principles of dynamics.

The result of a response spectrum analysis using the response spectrum from a ground
motion is typically different from that which would be calculated directly from a linear
dynamic analysis using that ground motion directly, since phase information is lost in
the process of generating the response spectrum.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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(3) Linear time history analysis


IS 1893-1:2002

shall be performed for the following buildings:

Regular buildings those greater than 40 m in height in Zone IV and V, and those
greater than 90 m in height in Zones II and III.

Irregular buildings all framed buildings heigher than 12 m in Zones IV and V, and
those greater than 40 m in height in Zones II and III.

the resulted design base shear (VB) shall be compared with a base shear () calculated
using a fundamental period TB.

Where VB is less than , all the response quantities (e.g. Member forces,
displacements, story forces, story shears and base reactions) shall be multiplied by
/VB.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.8.4

(3) Linear time history analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Define ground motion to be used Linear Time History analysis in UX direction (LTH_UX)

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(3) Linear time history analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Define ground motion to be used Linear Time History analysis in UX direction (LTH_UX)

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

(3) Linear time history analysis


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System

SAP2000

Define ground motion to be used Linear Time History analysis in UX direction (LTH_UX)

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Combination of effects of seismic action


When the analysis is conducted the actions of the orthogonal components of
ground motions shall be combined using approximate equations.
a) Horizontal components:
Step 1: Compute the structural response of the structure under each
component separately

- Analysis in Y direction Compute Ey


A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Analysis in X direction
Compute Ex

Combination of effects of seismic action: ISN 1893-1:2002


Load factors for design of steel structures:
The following combination shall be accounted for:

IS 1893-1:2002, 6.3

1) 1,7 DL IL

2) 1,7 DL EL
3) 1,3 DL IL EL

Load factors for design of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures:
The following combination shall be accounted for:
1) 1,5 DL IL

2) 1,2 DL IL EL

3) 1,5 DL EL

4) 0,9 DL 1,5 EL

The terms DL, IL, and EL stand for the response quantities due to Dead Load,
Imposed Load and Earthquake Load.
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Combination of effects of seismic action: ISN 1893-1:2002


IS 1893-1:2002, 6.3

Design horizontal earthquake load :

When the lateral load resisting elements are oriented along orthogonal horizontal
direction, the structure shall be designed for the effects due to full design earthquake
load in one horizontal direction at time.

Example:
Case of steel building, and where
lateral load resisting elements are
oriented along UX direction. The
building should be deisgned for:
1) 1,7 DL IL

2) 1,7 DL EL x

3) 1,3 DL IL EL x

A. Meslem & D. Lang

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Combination of effects of seismic action: ISN 1893-1:2002


IS 1893-1:2002, 6.3

Design horizontal earthquake load :

When the lateral load resisting elements are not oriented along orthogonal horizontal
direction, the structure shall be designed for the effects due to full design earthquake
load in one horizontal direction PLUS 30% of the design earthquake load in the other
direction

Example:
Case of steel building, and where
lateral load resisting elements are not
oriented along UX direction. The
building should be deisgned for:
1) 1,7 DL IL

3) 1,3 DL IL EL x 0,3 EL y
2) 1,7 DL EL x 0,3 EL y

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Combination of effects of seismic action: ISN 1893-1:2002


Combination for two or three component motion:

When responses from the three earthquake components are to be considered, the
responses due to each component may be combined using the assumption that when
response from one component are 30% of their maximum.

The response due earthquake force (EL) is the maximum of the following three cases:
1) ELx 0.3EL y 0.3ELz
2) 0.3ELx EL y 0.3ELz
3) 0.3ELx 0.3EL y ELz

Alternatively, the response (EL) due to the combined effect of the three components
can be obtained on the basis of Square Root of the sum of the Square (SRSS):
EL

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ELx 2 ELy 2 ELz 2

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

IS 1893-1:2002, 6.3

Combination of effects of seismic action: EN 1998-1:2004


EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.5

a) Horizontal components:

Step 2: Combine the response quantities using SRSS method:


E E2x E2y

Alternatively, the response quantities can be combined as:


E Ex 0.3E y
E E y 0.3Ex

Exception:
For buildings satisfying the regularity criteria in plan and in which walls
or independent bracing systems in the two main horizontal directions
are the only primary seismic elements, the seismic action may be
assumed to act separately and without combinations.
A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Combination of effects of seismic action: EN 1998-1:2004


EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.5

b) Vertical components:

If avg is greater than 0.25g, the vertical of the seismic action should be taken
into account for the following cases:
for horizontal or nearly horizontal structural members spanning 20 m or more.
for horizontal or nearly horizontal cantilever components longer than 5 m.
for horizontal or nearly horizontal pre-stressed components
for beams supporting columns
in base-isolated structures

The analysis for determining the effects of the vertical component of the
seismic action may be based on a partial model of the structure, which
includes the aforementioned elements.
The effects of 2 horizontal and vertical components will be combined by:
E Ex 0.3E y 0.3Ez
E 0.3Ex E y 0.3Ez
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E 0.3Ex 0.3E y Ez

Accidental/Torsional Effects

Torsional effects created in a simple building configuration: Torsion is occuring


because a uniformly distributed force is not resisted by a uniformly distributed lateral
resistant.
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Accidental/Torsional Effects
SAP2000 3-Story RC Dual System
Modal Participating Mass Ratios

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Mode 1
UX = 0,08906
UY = 0,15627
RZ = 0,54874

Mode 1
UX = 0,144
UY = 0
RZ = 0,61726

Mode 1
UX = 0
UY = 0
RZ = 0,7735

Mode 1
UX = 0,73509
UY = 0
RZ = 0

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Accidental/Torsional Effects
IS 1893-1:2002

the design eccentricity, edi to be used at floor i shall be taken as:

1,5 esi 0,05 bi


edi
or esi 0,05 bi

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.9

bi - Floor plan dimension of floor i, perpendicular to seismic action;


esi Static eccentricity at floor i defined as the distance between centre of mass and centre of
y
rigidity.

M di edi Qi , j
Qi,j - lateral force acting on story i in direction j
Mdi - torsional moment applied at story i about
its vertical axis z

edi

direction of
seismic action x

z
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bi

Accidental/Torsional Effects
IS 1893-1:2002

Irregular Buildings

IS 1893-1:2002, 7.9

m4

In case of highly irregular buildings modeled as a system of


lumped masses at the floor levels (with each mass having
one degree of freedom), additive shears will be
superimposed for a statically applied eccentricity of 0,05bi,
with respect to the centre of rigidity.

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m3
m2
m1

Accidental/Torsional Effects
EN 1998-1:2004

to account for torsional effects predominantly depends on the model type (planar or spatial)
EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.2

(1) Spatial models (3D):

displace the theoretical center of mass M at story i by an accidental eccentricity eai


for both directions of seismic motion/general building axes j of the structural
model
y

eai,j = 0.05 Li
Li - floor dimension (length, width)
perpendicular to seismic action

eai, y

direction of
seismic action x

Ly

Mai = eai,j Fi,j


z
Fi,j - lateral force acting on story i in direction j

Mai - torsional moment applied at story i about its vertical axis z


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NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Accidental/Torsional Effects
EN 1998-1:2004

to account for torsional effects predominantly depends on the model type (planar or spatial)
(2) Planar models (2D):

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.3.3.2.4

theoretically, torsion cannot be considered in planar models


to overcome this, action effects for each individual lateral force-resisting element are
increased by a factor d :
x

Fi d Fi (1 0.6

x
) Fi
Le

direction of
seismic action

Ly
M

if two planar models are used:


(1) increase accidental eccentricity eai by a factor of 2 or
(2) double the factor d, so that:

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NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Fi d Fi (1 1.2

x
) Fi
Le

Second-order Effects (P- effects)

Structures in real life are flexible and can exhibit large


lateral displacements in unusual circumstances. The lateral
displacements can be caused by wind or seismically
induced inertial forces.

Gravity loading will influence structural response under


significant lateral displacement.

P- may contribute to loss of lateral resistance, ratcheting


of residual deformations, and dynamic instability.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Second-order Effects (P- effects)


EN 1998-1:2004

Second-order effects (P- effects) need not be taken into account if the following
condition is fulfilled in all storeys:

Ptot d r
0,10
Vtot h

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.4.2.2

= is the interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient;

Ptot

= is the total gravity load at and above the storey considered in the seismic design
situation;

dr

= is the design interstorey drift, evaluated as the difference of the average lateral
displacements ds at the top and bottom of the storey under consideration and
calculated in accordance with Chapter 4.3.4;

Vtot

= is the total seismic storey shear; and

= is the interstorey height.

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Second-order Effects (P- effects)


EN 1998-1:2004

Second-order effects (P- effects) need not be taken into account if the following
condition is fulfilled in all storeys:

Ptot d r
0,10
Vtot h

EN 1998-1:2004, 4.4.2.2

If 0,1 < 0,2, the second-order effects may approximately be taken into account by
multiplying the relevant seismic action effects by a factor equal to 1/(1 - ).

value of the coefficient shall not exceed 0,3

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NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Second-order Effects (P- effects)


Use P-Delta in SAP2000

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Second-order Effects (P- effects)

To mitigate second-order effects:


two-story X-bracing or zipper columns are recommended

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Select and Scale Earthquake Records


EN 1998-1:2004
The suite of recorded or simulated/artificial accelerograms should observe the
following rules:
A minimum of 3 accelerograms should be used;
The duration of the accelerograms shall be consistent with the magnitude
and the other relevant features of the seismic event underlying the
establishment of ag;
The values are scaled to the value of ag.S for the zone under consideration;

in the range of periods between 0,2T1 and 2T1, where T1 is the fundamental
period of the structure in the direction where the accelerogram will be
applied;
no value of the mean 5% damping elastic spectrum, calculated from all time
histories, should be less than 90% of the corresponding value of the 5%
damping elastic response spectrum;

A. Meslem & D. Lang

NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Select and Scale Earthquake Records


EN 1998-1:2004
The parameters (that have the most influence on ground motion spectral shape)
that need to be considered in selecting records :

Magnitude range of anticipated significant event;


Distance range of the site from the causative fault;
Site Condition (i.e. looking at the average shear velocity);
Basin effect (if basin exists)

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NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Contribution of Joint Regions

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Contribution of Joint Regions


SAP2000 3-Story RC Frame System
not considered

considered

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NORSAR Kjeller (Norway) 2014

Abdelghani Meslem, PhD


NORSAR, Kjeller
abdelghani.meslem@norsar.no
Phone: (+47) 974 10 740
Web: www.norsar.no