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BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 01
#

Electronics Principle By Malvino

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

A rule that relates quantities.

Formula

2)

Are formulas that a researcher creates and based on


scientific observation.

3)

It summarizes a relationship that already exists in


nature.

4)

A formula that we can get other formulas.

5)

Sometimes called the first approximation, is the


simplest approximation equivalent circuit for a
device.

6)

Adds one or more components to the ideal


approximation.

7)

Produces a load that is constant.

8)

Produces a constant load current for different load


resistances.

dc Current Source

9)

A current source whose internal resistance is at least


100 times larger than the load resistance.

Stiff Current Source

10)

A statement that we can prove mathematically.

11)

Defined as the resistance that an ohmmeter


measures across the load terminals.

Definitions

Law

Derivation

First Approximation

Second Approximation

Ideal dc Voltage Source

Theorem

Thevenin Resistance

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

12)

Defined as the load current when the load resistor is


shorted.

Norton Current IN

13)

It states that for any theorem in electrical circuit


analysis there is a dual (opposite) theorem in which.

Duality Principle

14)

Means finding out why a circuit is not doing what is


supposed to do.

Troubleshooting

15)

16)

Two facts about an open devices:

1. the current through an


open device is zero.
2. the voltage across it is
unknown

Two facts about a shorted devices:

1. the voltage across a


shorted device is zero.
2. the current through it is
unknown

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 2
#

Electronics Principle By Malvino

SEMICONDUCTORS
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

The reason why electrons are not pulled into the


nucleus.

Centrifugal

2)

It controls the electrical properties of the atom.

Valence Orbit

3)

An element with electrical properties between those


of a conductor and those of an insulator.

4)

An example of a semiconductor and has four


electrons in the valence orbit.

5)

Another example of semiconductor and became


the most practical in most electronics applications.

Silicon

6)

An orderly pattern formed when silicon atoms


combined their self to form a solid.

Crystal

7)

A bond between the opposite cores.

8)

One way to increase conductivity of a


semiconductor by adding impurity atoms.

9)

A doped semiconductor.

10)

It is added to molten silicon to increase the number


of free electrons.

Pentavalent Atom

11)

Atom with five electrons in valence orbit and also


called donor impurities.

Pentavalent Atom

Semiconductors

Germanium

Covalent Bond

Doping

Extrinsic Semiconductor

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

12)

Atom with three valence electrons and also called


acceptor atom.

13)

Silicon that has been doped with a pentavalent


impurity.

N-Type Semiconductor

14)

Silicon that has been doped with a trivalent impurity.

P-Type Semiconductor

15)

It is the border where the p-type and n-type regions


meet.

Junction

16)

Another name for pn crystal.

17)

The pair of positive and negative ions at the junction.

18)

Charge empty region.

19)

The electric field between the ions is equivalent to


difference of potential.

20)

It is when the negative source terminal is connected


to the n-type material and the positive is connected
to the p-type material.

Forward Bias

21)

The negative battery terminal is connected to the p


side and the positive battery terminal to the n side.

Reverse Bias

22)

The reverse current caused by the thermally


produced minority carriers.

Trivalent

Junction Diode

Dipole

Depletion Region

Barrier Potential

Saturation Current

The temperature of the surrounding air.


23)

Ambient Temperature

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

24)

The departure of the electron creates a vacancy in


the valance orbit.

25)

The merging of a free electron and a hole.

26)

The amount of time between the creation and


disappearance of a free electrons.

27)

It means that we cannot get more minority-carrier


current than is produced by the thermal energy.

Saturation

28)

A small current flows on the surface of the crystal.

Surface-Leakage Current

29)

The temperature inside a diode, right at the pn


junction.

30)

The nucleus of a copper atom contains how many


protons?

29

31)

The net charge of a neutral copper atom.

+1

32)

How many valence electrons does a silicon atom


have?

33)

How many protons does the nucleus of a silicon atom


contain?

14

Hole

Recombination

Lifetime

Junction Temperature

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 3
#

Electronics Principle By Malvino

DIODE THEORY

DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

A device where the graph of its current versus


voltage is a straight line.

Linear Device

2)

A device where the graph of its current versus


voltage is not straight line.

Nonlinear Device

3)

In the forward region, the voltage at which the


current starts to increase rapidly.

Knee Voltage

4)

The knee voltage of a silicon diode.

5)

The ohmic resistance of a semiconductor material.

Bulk Resistance

6)

The maximum power the diode can safely dissipate


without shortening its life or degrading its properties.

Power Rating

7)

A diode acts like a switch that closes when forwardbiased and opens when reverse-biased.

Ideal Diode

8)

It is a region where either avalanche or zener effects


occurs.

Breakdown Region

9)

The maximum reverse voltage a diode can withstand


before avalanche or the zener effect occurs.

Breakdown Voltage

10)

The maximum rating specified in the data sheet.

11)

A tool used to find the exact value of a diode current


and voltage.

0.7 V

Safety Factor

Load Line

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

12)

In load line, this point represents maximum current.

Saturation

13)

This point represents the minimum current minimum


current.

Cut-Off

14)

It represents a simultaneous solution between the


diode curve and load line.

Q Point

15)

The knee voltage of a diode is approximately equal


to the.

Barrier Potential

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 4
#

Electronics Principle By Malvino

DIODE CIRCUIT
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

Electronic device that converts the ac input voltage


to an almost perfect dc output voltage.

Power Supply Rectifiers

2)

A rectifier with only one diode in series with the load


resistor.

Half-Wave Rectifier

3)

A transformer thatwill produce a secondary voltage


that is higher than a primary.

Step-Up

4)

A transformer that will produce a secondary voltage


that is smaller than the primary.

Step-Down

5)

A rectifier that is equivalent to two half-wave


rectifiers.

6)

Type of rectifier circuit that has four diode, two of


which are conducting at the same time.

7)

Used to filter the output of a rectifier.

8)

It states that, if you have two or more sources, you


can analyze the circuit for each source separately
and then add the individual voltages to get the total
voltage.

9)

The fluctuation in load voltage caused by the


charging and the discharging of capacitor input
filter.

10)

A regulator that uses a transistor that switches


between saturation and cut-off.

Full-Wave Rectifier

Bridge Rectifer

Choke-Input Filter

Super Position Theorem

Ripple

Switching Regulator

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

11)

A filter that produce a dc output voltage equal to


the peak value of the rectified voltage.

Capacitor-Input Filter

12)

The maximum voltage across the non-conducting


diode of a rectifier.

Peak Inverse Voltage

13)

The initial rush of current when the power is turned on.

14)

This device not only reduces the ripple, it also holds


the output voltage constant.

15)

The diodes used in low-frequency power supplies.

16)

This diodes are optimized for use at high frequencies


and have power ratings less than 0.5W.

17)

A circuit that removes either positive or negative


parts of a wave form.

18)

The circuit removes all the positive parts of the input


signal.

Positive Clipper

19)

The series resistance must be 100 times greater than


bulk resistance and 100 times smaller than the load
resistance.

Stiff Clipper

20)

The circuit removes all the negative parts of the input


signal.

Negative Clipper

21)

It means, applying an external voltage to change the


reference level of a circuit.

Bias

22)

The output signal when the input voltage is very large


compared to the bias level.

Surge Current

IC Voltage Regulator

Rectifier Diodes

Small-Signal Diodes

Clipper

Square Wave

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

23)

It adds a dc voltage to the signal.

Clamper

24)

The same as a rectifier with a capacitor input filter


used for output voltage of the peak detector.

25)

Connecting two or more stages so that the output of


one stage is the input to the next.

Cascaded Stage

26)

A redesign of the peak-to-peak detector, it uses


rectifier diodes instead of small-signal diodes.

Voltage Doubler

Peak Detector

10

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 5
#

Electronics Principle By Malvino

SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE


DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

A diode designed to operate in reverse break over


with a very stable voltage drop.

Zener Diode

2)

Three regions where a zener diode can operate:

Forward;
Leakage;
Break-Down

3)

As long as the reverse current is less than _________


the diode is operating with the safe range.

4)

Referred as bulk resistance in the reverse region.

5)

Also called voltage regulator diode.

6)

Circuit used when you want a dc output voltage that


is less than the output of a the power supply.

Zener Regulator

7)

Sometimes called high-field emission, this occurs


when the intensity of the electric field becomes high
enough to dislodge valence electrons in reverse
biased diode.

Zener Effect

8)

The breakdown voltage of a zener diode.

9)

It is defined as the change in breakdown voltage per


degree of increase of temperature.

10)

The zener regulation is approaching a dropout or


failure condition when zener current is.

11)

The power rating usually include in the data sheet


where diode can handle without exceeding.

IZM

Zener Resistance

Zener Diode

Zener Voltage

Temperature Coefficient

Near Zero

Maximum Current

11

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

12)

Also include in the data sheet tells you how much


you have to reduce the power rating of a device.

Derating Factor

13)

The technology that combines optics and


electronics.

Optoelectronics

14)

Resistor that prevents the current from exceeding the


maximum current rating of the diode.

15)

The brightness of an LED depends on the _________.

16)

It contains seven rectangular LEDs.

Seven-Segment Display

17)

The seven-segment indicator were all anode are


connected together.

Common-Anode Type

18)

The seven-segment indicator were all cathode are


connected together.

19)

A reversed-biased diode that is sensitive to incoming


light.

Photodiode

20)

A combination of LED and photo-diode, an input


signal to the LED is converted to varying light which is
detected by the photodiode.

Opto-Coupler

21)

Light that has many different phases.

22)

A diode that produce a coherent light.

23)

This means that all the light wave is in-phase with


each other.

Current-Limiting Resistor

Current

Common-Cathode Type

Non-coherent Light

Laser Diode

Coherent Light

12

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

24)

Analogous to a stranded wire cable, except that the


strands are thin flexible fibers of glass or plastic that
transmit light beams instead of free electrons.

Fiber-Optic Cable

25)

The temporary storage of free electrons in the upper


energy band and holes n the lower energy band.

Charge Storage

26)

The time it takes to turn off a forward-biased diode.

Reverse Recovery Time

27)

A special-purpose diode with no depletion layer,


extremely short reverse recovery time, and ability to
rectify high-frequency signals.

Schottky Diode

28)

A diode optimized for a reverse capacitance, the


larger the reverse voltage, the smaller the
capacitance.

29)

The frequency of a lead-lag circuit or the frequency


of an LC tank circuit where the voltage gain and
phase shift are suitable for oscillation.

30)

A device acts like two back-to-back zener diodes,


used across he primary winding of a power
transformer to prevent line spikes from entering the
equipment.

Varistor

31)

These device keep the current through them fixed


when the voltage changes.

Current-Regulator Diodes

32)

A diode conducts reverse current for a while and


then suddenly snaps open.

Snap Diode

Varactor

Resonant Frequency

Multiple input frequency.


33)

Harmonics

13

BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

Electronics Principle By Malvino

34)

A diode that conducts better in the reverse than in


the forward directions.

Back Diode

35)

This type of diode exhibits a phenomenon known as


negative resistance.

Tunnel Diode

36)

This means that an increase in forward voltage


produces a decrease in forward current.

37)

The negative resistance of a tunnel diode is useful in


high-frequency circuits called.

Negative Resistance

Oscillators

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