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# BOOK REVIEW IN ELECTRONICS

CHAPTER 01
#

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

Formula

2)

## Are formulas that a researcher creates and based on

scientific observation.

3)

nature.

4)

5)

## Sometimes called the first approximation, is the

simplest approximation equivalent circuit for a
device.

6)

approximation.

7)

## Produces a load that is constant.

8)

resistances.

dc Current Source

9)

## A current source whose internal resistance is at least

100 times larger than the load resistance.

10)

11)

## Defined as the resistance that an ohmmeter

Definitions

Law

Derivation

First Approximation

Second Approximation

## Ideal dc Voltage Source

Theorem

Thevenin Resistance

## Electronics Principle By Malvino

12)

shorted.

Norton Current IN

13)

## It states that for any theorem in electrical circuit

analysis there is a dual (opposite) theorem in which.

Duality Principle

14)

supposed to do.

Troubleshooting

15)

16)

## 1. the current through an

open device is zero.
2. the voltage across it is
unknown

## 1. the voltage across a

shorted device is zero.
2. the current through it is
unknown

CHAPTER 2
#

SEMICONDUCTORS
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

nucleus.

Centrifugal

2)

Valence Orbit

3)

## An element with electrical properties between those

of a conductor and those of an insulator.

4)

## An example of a semiconductor and has four

electrons in the valence orbit.

5)

## Another example of semiconductor and became

the most practical in most electronics applications.

Silicon

6)

## An orderly pattern formed when silicon atoms

combined their self to form a solid.

Crystal

7)

8)

## One way to increase conductivity of a

9)

A doped semiconductor.

10)

## It is added to molten silicon to increase the number

of free electrons.

Pentavalent Atom

11)

## Atom with five electrons in valence orbit and also

called donor impurities.

Pentavalent Atom

Semiconductors

Germanium

Covalent Bond

Doping

Extrinsic Semiconductor

12)

acceptor atom.

13)

## Silicon that has been doped with a pentavalent

impurity.

N-Type Semiconductor

14)

## Silicon that has been doped with a trivalent impurity.

P-Type Semiconductor

15)

meet.

Junction

16)

17)

18)

19)

## The electric field between the ions is equivalent to

difference of potential.

20)

## It is when the negative source terminal is connected

to the n-type material and the positive is connected
to the p-type material.

Forward Bias

21)

## The negative battery terminal is connected to the p

side and the positive battery terminal to the n side.

Reverse Bias

22)

## The reverse current caused by the thermally

produced minority carriers.

Trivalent

Junction Diode

Dipole

Depletion Region

Barrier Potential

Saturation Current

## The temperature of the surrounding air.

23)

Ambient Temperature

24)

## The departure of the electron creates a vacancy in

the valance orbit.

25)

26)

## The amount of time between the creation and

disappearance of a free electrons.

27)

## It means that we cannot get more minority-carrier

current than is produced by the thermal energy.

Saturation

28)

## A small current flows on the surface of the crystal.

Surface-Leakage Current

29)

junction.

30)

protons?

29

31)

+1

32)

have?

33)

## How many protons does the nucleus of a silicon atom

contain?

14

Hole

Recombination

Junction Temperature

CHAPTER 3
#

DIODE THEORY

DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

## A device where the graph of its current versus

voltage is a straight line.

Linear Device

2)

## A device where the graph of its current versus

voltage is not straight line.

Nonlinear Device

3)

## In the forward region, the voltage at which the

current starts to increase rapidly.

Knee Voltage

4)

5)

Bulk Resistance

6)

## The maximum power the diode can safely dissipate

without shortening its life or degrading its properties.

Power Rating

7)

A diode acts like a switch that closes when forwardbiased and opens when reverse-biased.

Ideal Diode

8)

occurs.

Breakdown Region

9)

## The maximum reverse voltage a diode can withstand

before avalanche or the zener effect occurs.

Breakdown Voltage

10)

11)

and voltage.

0.7 V

Safety Factor

12)

Saturation

13)

current.

Cut-Off

14)

Q Point

15)

## The knee voltage of a diode is approximately equal

to the.

Barrier Potential

CHAPTER 4
#

DIODE CIRCUIT
DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

## Electronic device that converts the ac input voltage

to an almost perfect dc output voltage.

2)

## A rectifier with only one diode in series with the load

resistor.

Half-Wave Rectifier

3)

## A transformer thatwill produce a secondary voltage

that is higher than a primary.

Step-Up

4)

## A transformer that will produce a secondary voltage

that is smaller than the primary.

Step-Down

5)

rectifiers.

6)

## Type of rectifier circuit that has four diode, two of

which are conducting at the same time.

7)

8)

## It states that, if you have two or more sources, you

can analyze the circuit for each source separately
and then add the individual voltages to get the total
voltage.

9)

## The fluctuation in load voltage caused by the

charging and the discharging of capacitor input
filter.

10)

## A regulator that uses a transistor that switches

between saturation and cut-off.

Full-Wave Rectifier

Bridge Rectifer

Choke-Input Filter

## Super Position Theorem

Ripple

Switching Regulator

11)

## A filter that produce a dc output voltage equal to

the peak value of the rectified voltage.

Capacitor-Input Filter

12)

## The maximum voltage across the non-conducting

diode of a rectifier.

13)

14)

## This device not only reduces the ripple, it also holds

the output voltage constant.

15)

16)

## This diodes are optimized for use at high frequencies

and have power ratings less than 0.5W.

17)

## A circuit that removes either positive or negative

parts of a wave form.

18)

signal.

Positive Clipper

19)

## The series resistance must be 100 times greater than

bulk resistance and 100 times smaller than the load
resistance.

Stiff Clipper

20)

signal.

Negative Clipper

21)

## It means, applying an external voltage to change the

reference level of a circuit.

Bias

22)

## The output signal when the input voltage is very large

compared to the bias level.

Surge Current

IC Voltage Regulator

Rectifier Diodes

Small-Signal Diodes

Clipper

Square Wave

23)

Clamper

24)

## The same as a rectifier with a capacitor input filter

used for output voltage of the peak detector.

25)

## Connecting two or more stages so that the output of

one stage is the input to the next.

26)

## A redesign of the peak-to-peak detector, it uses

rectifier diodes instead of small-signal diodes.

Voltage Doubler

Peak Detector

10

CHAPTER 5
#

DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

## A diode designed to operate in reverse break over

with a very stable voltage drop.

Zener Diode

2)

Forward;
Leakage;
Break-Down

3)

## As long as the reverse current is less than _________

the diode is operating with the safe range.

4)

5)

6)

## Circuit used when you want a dc output voltage that

is less than the output of a the power supply.

Zener Regulator

7)

## Sometimes called high-field emission, this occurs

when the intensity of the electric field becomes high
enough to dislodge valence electrons in reverse
biased diode.

Zener Effect

8)

9)

## It is defined as the change in breakdown voltage per

degree of increase of temperature.

10)

## The zener regulation is approaching a dropout or

failure condition when zener current is.

11)

## The power rating usually include in the data sheet

where diode can handle without exceeding.

IZM

Zener Resistance

Zener Diode

Zener Voltage

Temperature Coefficient

Near Zero

Maximum Current

11

12)

## Also include in the data sheet tells you how much

you have to reduce the power rating of a device.

Derating Factor

13)

electronics.

Optoelectronics

14)

## Resistor that prevents the current from exceeding the

maximum current rating of the diode.

15)

16)

## It contains seven rectangular LEDs.

Seven-Segment Display

17)

## The seven-segment indicator were all anode are

connected together.

Common-Anode Type

18)

## The seven-segment indicator were all cathode are

connected together.

19)

light.

Photodiode

20)

## A combination of LED and photo-diode, an input

signal to the LED is converted to varying light which is
detected by the photodiode.

Opto-Coupler

21)

22)

23)

## This means that all the light wave is in-phase with

each other.

Current-Limiting Resistor

Current

Common-Cathode Type

Non-coherent Light

Laser Diode

Coherent Light

12

24)

## Analogous to a stranded wire cable, except that the

strands are thin flexible fibers of glass or plastic that
transmit light beams instead of free electrons.

Fiber-Optic Cable

25)

## The temporary storage of free electrons in the upper

energy band and holes n the lower energy band.

Charge Storage

26)

27)

## A special-purpose diode with no depletion layer,

extremely short reverse recovery time, and ability to
rectify high-frequency signals.

Schottky Diode

28)

## A diode optimized for a reverse capacitance, the

larger the reverse voltage, the smaller the
capacitance.

29)

## The frequency of a lead-lag circuit or the frequency

of an LC tank circuit where the voltage gain and
phase shift are suitable for oscillation.

30)

## A device acts like two back-to-back zener diodes,

used across he primary winding of a power
transformer to prevent line spikes from entering the
equipment.

Varistor

31)

## These device keep the current through them fixed

when the voltage changes.

Current-Regulator Diodes

32)

## A diode conducts reverse current for a while and

then suddenly snaps open.

Snap Diode

Varactor

Resonant Frequency

33)

Harmonics

13

34)

## A diode that conducts better in the reverse than in

the forward directions.

Back Diode

35)

## This type of diode exhibits a phenomenon known as

negative resistance.

Tunnel Diode

36)

## This means that an increase in forward voltage

produces a decrease in forward current.

37)

## The negative resistance of a tunnel diode is useful in

high-frequency circuits called.

Negative Resistance

Oscillators

14