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Running Head: EVALUATING JIT TRAINING

Evaluating JIT Training


Keith C. Quarles
EDU656: Technology Solutions for JIT Training & Learning (MRY1502A)
Instructor: Larry Simmons
2-9-14

Running Head: EVALUATING JIT TRAINING


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Evaluating JIT Training


Evaluating JIT training has to be accomplished through application of guidelines that
were part of a strategy relative to learning outcomes. Instructors who apply instruction design
principles such as the multimedia, segmenting/pre-training and the guidelines for presenting
worked examples when creating JIT training instruction can control the cognitive load on reader
while creating a lean learning model particularly for ones learning activity during computerbased (e-learning). Arenas-Mrquez, Jos, Machuca, and Medina-Lpez, C. (2012) state, online
courses, meanwhile, have been demonstrated to
be at least as effective as traditional classrooms in this area, particularly as learners become more
experienced with the medium (p.1397). Thus, e-learning is just as beneficial to achieving
learning outcomes as tradition chalkboard learning and instructors need to ensure that JIT
training conforms to principles conceptualized by expert in the education research field. In this
paper assertions by the author in critique of the JIT training mock app in PowerPoint format
are supported by scholarly sources for the purpose of evaluating/revising the content and
subsequently the delivery of the lesson.
Worked Examples
The PowerPoint presentation presented for evaluation is actually a worked example of
how to make a latte. Clark and Mayer (2011) state, a modeling example is a worked example
that in which a human provides a demonstration of how to complete a task usually accompanied
by commentary. (p.226) Thus, explaining how to make latte is a model example since it can be
directly used to demonstrate. The worked example lack bullets and numbering in logical
sequencing for the steps of the process which would add to the clarity of the directions. Mayer
and Clark (2011) state, in other words, you can reduce extraneous cognitive load by initially

Running Head: EVALUATING JIT TRAINING


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relying on worked examples that promote borrowing and then transition into practice exercises
that help more learners consolidate and automate new knowledge and skills (p.227). In this
case, the worked example provides directions in a haphazard manner because of the way the text
is written in paragraph form instead of using bullets within the paragraphs. Mayer and Clark
(2011) state, to maximize the cognitive load benefits of worked examples, it is important that
you apply the multimedia principles to their design (p.235). Thus, I would recommend that the
explicit directions are presented by bulleting or numbering the steps in sequence throughout the
text which would also alleviate some of the wordy text and use audio in some places to control
cognitive overload(s).
Coherency Principle
Slide threes graphic image of cow should be removed. Slide four has extraneous use of
numbers on page and words on cups. Slide five has extraneous graphics; cow and wordiness.
Slide six has overuse of graphics; cow! Worked example should not over load cognitive ability.
Too much information/visuals dominate screen but do not necessarily add to instructions. Clark
and Mayer (2011) state, perhaps our single most important recommendation is to keep the
lesson uncluttered. In short, according to the coherency principle, you should avoid adding any
material that does not support the instructional goal (p.151). All of the above-mentioned slides
have overuse of text/graphics which detract from its clarity and requires the learner to process
more at one time than is necessary for learning. Clark and Mayer (2011) state, adding
extraneous pictures to can interfere with the process of sense-making because learners have a
limited cognitive capacity for processing incoming material (p.161). Thus, recommendations to
remove certain graphics and text is by warrant of the coherency principle in order to reduce
noise/clutter within the confines of the lesson.

Running Head: EVALUATING JIT TRAINING


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Modality Principle
Slide one should have the sound of liquid pouring synchronized with liquid pouring into
the cup to grab readers attention. Slide two should have audio of cows moo instead of text on
screen moo. Again the modality is the issue since the audio can be used to provide animation
and catch readers attention. Slide seven make cow moo again and animate cows mouth. The
accompaniment and animation would catch the learners attention. The Modality Principle is the
guideline for the recommended change. Clark and Mayer (2011) state, also consistent with the
cognitive theory, researchers have found that the modality effect is stronger for less-skilled
learners than for more-skilled learners (P.127). Thus, considering adoptive control can be
applied to modality and the change recommended does not cloud the message in respect to the
coherency principle; the less-skilled learners can grasp the sound-effect of the milk pouring as
well as the more-experienced learner. Clark and Mayer (2011) state, if the material is easy for
the learner or the learner has control over the pacing of the material, the modality principle
becomes less important (p.128). Thus learner control has relevance to the modality principle
since the reader is guiding by the use and timing of the audio with text and other graphics.
Readers absorption rate of the material is modified by the extent of audio added to text and
graphics which may be credited to the instructor who applies the modality principle to the lesson
planning. At this point, the use of audio warranted by the recommended changes are of an
animated nature and to be measured holistically in regards to the PowerPoints total audio
content for consistency with coherency principle in duality with modality principle.
Segmenting
Slide eight gives directions to an extended process after making latte which should be a
separate part of the lesson or an introduction/link to another series on this subject matter. Clark

Running Head: EVALUATING JIT TRAINING


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and Mayer (2011) state, you can help the learner manageable the complexity by breaking the
lesson into manageable segments (p.209). The whole lesson in its original state is wordy and
overuses graphics; however, even in its raw state the lesson delivery could be enhanced by
segmenting the lessons into two or three segments. Where will the lesson be segmented?
How much learner control should be evident in the segmenting? (Clark and Mayer, 2011, p.219).
The entire lesson should be segment into two parts at least. I would recommend after the fourth
page for an even split with the last page as an introduction to an additional process/example.
Pre-Training
On the introduction slide or between the introduction and first slide there should be an agenda
page which outliners the key concepts presented in the lesson as a pre-training measure.
Evaluate material by implementing the pre-training principle. If the material is difficult, then
point out key concepts before the actual lesson ( Clark and Mayer, 2011, p. 215) Thus, by
adding an agenda page the instructor can pre-training learners on the key concepts which
should stimulate curiosity and interest in the content that follows. Clark and Mayer (2011) state,
we also do not yet know how best to identify key concepts that should be included in pre
training or how extensive the pre training needs to be (p.219). Thus, pre-training is not an
exact science so I recommend the agenda page which is more informative than extraneous which
limits the risks of incoherency given that the agenda is laid out in a comprehensive, concise
and logical order.
Conclusion
It is advisable to have an expert evaluate new JIT Models before implementation.

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Sometimes, instructors may get so intrigued by the work that one may miss the obvious.
Instructors who apply instruction design principles such as the multimedia, segmenting/pretraining and the guidelines for presenting worked examples when creating JIT training
instruction can control the cognitive load on reader while creating a lean learning model
particularly for ones learning activity during computer-based (e-learning). However, taking the
advice of an expert is part of being a professional and a thought leader in the learning
environment whom seeks to ensure the lesson plan is optimal for the desired learning outcome.
Arenas-Mrquez, Jos, Machuca, and Medina-Lpez, C. (2012) state, learning outcomes
should be analyzed from a broad perspective. They must measure acquired skills and received
knowledge, but the subjective variables that measure the students perceptions of their learning
process should also be considered proxies for the learning outcome. (p.1399). Thus, I make the
above recommendations in order to control the conveyance of the intended message in the
training app in application of the worked example, coherency, modality, segmenting and pretraining principles.

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References
Arenas-Mrquez, F.,J., Jos A.D. Machuca, & Medina-Lpez, C. (2012). Interactive learning in
operations management higher education. International Journal of Operations &
Production Management, 32(12), 1395-1426.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443571211284160
Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-Learning and the science of instruction (3rd ed). San
Francisco. Pfeiffer.