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## Caleb Tee Li Jun

0318976
School of Engineering
Taylors University
17 September 2014
Group Members
Ng Vui Loong
Lee Man Chee
Kalaichelvan A/L Arugam
Shivani Amish Kumar Pandya

Table of Content
ABSTRACT
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
2.1 Materials
2.2 Methods
2.3 Procedures

Date of Experiment:
Report due date:
Report submission date:
Checked by:
Item/marks
Format/10
Abstract and
Introduction/10
Figures and 3
Diagrams/15
Materials and
Method/10
3
Results
Discussions/45
References/10
Total

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5,6

## 3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Data Tabulation
3.2 Graphs
3.3 Calculation
3.4 Discussion

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## 4.0 ERROR ANALYSIS

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5.0 CONCLUSION

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6.0 REFERENCES

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Abstract
This experiment is done in two parts which is experiment A and experiment B.
During experiment A, the power we use is constant while the one which is changing is the
distance of the radiometer and the heat source. While, in experiment B, the distance of the
radiometer and the heat source is constant but the power is changing to minimum,
medium and maximum power. From experiment A, result shows that the intensity of the
radiometer is inversely proportional to the distance of the radiometer and the heat source.
This shows that the distance affect the reading of the intensity of the radiometer. In
experiment B, we can see that the intensity of the radiometer increases as the power
increase that makes the temperature increase. This shows that the power that control the
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temperature affects the intensity of the radiometer. In this experiment, both random error
and systematic error occurs as the result is slightly different from the theoretical value.
But still, Stefan-Boltzmann law has been proven true in this experiment.

1.0 Introduction
The main objective in conducting this experiment is to prove that the intensity of
the radiometer is inversely proportional to the distance between the radiometer and the
heat source. For the 2

nd

## experiment, it proves that the intensity of the radiation is also

affect by the power of the heat source which is the temperature. Thermal radiation is
different from conduction and convection, thermal radiation requires to have the presence
of an intervening medium while conduction and convection does not have to. Therefore,
thermal radiation is much faster compare to conduction and convection. Example for
thermal radiation is a radiant grill in an oven heating food. The occurrence of the thermal
radiation is due to the radiation emitted by bodies because of their temperature. So this
proves that all things which have a temperature over zero will have thermal radiation.
Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that the thermal energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per
second per unit area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature is

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given by qb TS T A

where,

qb

TS

TA

2.1 Materials

## Diagram 1. Thermal Radiation apparatus

A- Power control
C- Heat source
E- ON switch
1) Thermal Radiation Apparatus ( A, B, C, D, E, F)
2) Protective cover
3) Black plate

2.2 Methods

## A thermal radiation apparatus is placed on a flat table. The switch us turned to

ON button as the temperature increase as shown on the temperature reading. As time
goes by, the reading of the temperature will be stabilized at a certain amount. The
covered by a rubber cover to prevent the heating of the radiometer. Distance of the
radiometer and the heat source is by a scale on the track. The measurement of the
distance is used using parallel to the eyes level to avoid parallax error. To avoid the
inaccuracy of the radiometer reading, the experiment is start from the furthest to the
nearest between the radiometer and the heat source.
2.3 Procedure
Experiment A: Inverse Square Law of Heat
1. Main switched is turned ON to enable the power to flow into the apparatus.
2. The radiometer is covered with a rubber protector.
3. The power control is set to the mid position as constant to conduct the whole
experiment.
4. As time goes by, the temperature is set to a stable state before noticing the
5. The radiometer is placed away from the heat source within 500mm, 400mm,
300mm, 200mm and 100mm respectively.
6. As the temperature is stabilized, the rubber cover and the black plate is taken off
to conduct the experiment.
7. Radiometer reading then is recorded and is written into the table prepared.
8. The experiment is made respectively by changing the distance of the radiometer
and the heat source.
9. Results is taken and recorded in the table prepared.

## Experiment B: Stefan-Boltzmann Law

1.
2.
3.
4.

Main switched is turned ON to enable the power to flow into the apparatus.
The radiometer is covered by a rubber protector.
The power control is set to the minimum to conduct the 1st part of the experiment
As times goes by, the temperature shown on the temperature reading is then

stabilized.
5. The distance of the black plate and the heat source is 50mm and it stays constant.
6. The rubber cover and the black plate is then taken off after the temperature is
stabilized.
7. The results shown on the radiometer reading is then recorded in the table.
8. Experiment is repeatedly done by changing the power to the minimum, medium
and maximum.
9. Results shown in the experiment is taken and tabulated.

## 3.0 Results and Discussion

3.1 Data Tabulation
Experiment A:
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Distance X (mm)

100

200

300

400

500

1042

446

220

125

80

## Table 2: Logarithm Values of the Data Taken

Log10 X

2.00

2.30

2.48

2.60

2.70

Log10 R

3.00

2.65

2.34

2.10

1.90

Experiment B:
Energy Emitted by Unit Area of a Black Body Surface

CALCULATIONS

Source

Ambient

Temperature

Temperature (TA)

o
C

TS

TA

q b TS4 T A4

Wm-2

Wm-2

30

27

160

303

300

18.65

0.117

39

27

575

312

300

78.01

0.136

77

27

1999

350

300

391.58

0.196

3.2 Graphs

3.3 Calculation
Conversion of oC(celcius) to K(Kelvin)
K= oC +273
=77+273
=350 K
Gradient of the slope between log10 R and log10 X
m=

2.702.00
1.93.0

=-0.64

q b TS4 T A4

## = 56.7 10-9 (3124 - 3004)

= 78.01 Wm-2

Calculation for

q b
R
78.01
575

= 0.136

3.4 Discussion
By looking at the graph, we can see that the intensity of the radiation is inversely
proportional to the distance between the heat source and the radiometer in graph1. This
has shown that the intensity of the radiometer depends on the distance of the radiometer
and the heat source. The further the radiometer is away from the heat source, the lower
the intensity of the radiometer. As shown in graph 2 as well, we can see that Log 10 R is

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inversely proportional to Log10 X. As calculated in the calculation part, we then found out
As we look at table3, it is shown that when the power is set to the minimum, the
shows that the radiometer is 160 Wm -2 .The temperature is 39 oC when the power is set to
shows a reading of 1999 Wm-2 while the power is set to the maximum level which has a
temperature of 77 oC. Ambient temperature is constant throughout the whole experiment
which is 27 oC same as the room temperature. By observing the pattern of the results, we
know that when the power increases which makes the temperature to increase, the
intensity of the radiometer also increases. With the help of Stefan-Boltzmann Law, we
can calculate the which is 0.117, 0.136 and 0.196 respectively. Calculated average for

is 0.15. The different value of is due to some error occur in the experiment. But still
we can prove that the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is credible.

## 4.0 Error Analysis

From the graph above, we can see that the values are a bit different from the
theoretical value. This can be explained as error occurs during the process of conducting

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the experiment. The error that may occur in this experiment might be random and
systematic error.
One of the random error is caused by human errors. When conducting the
experiment, by looking at the apparatus to measure the distance may cause some error as
the eyes is not parallel to the measuring tape. This will lead to the inaccuracy of the result
for the experiment. Besides that, the apparatus which is rusty may also cause error to
occur.
While the systematic error is caused by the gadgets we have around us which may
other systematic error which occurs is due to the apparatus which can only go up to 1999
Wm-2 . This means that the reading of the radiometer might go higher but due to the limit
By having all these errors occur, we can minimize it by repeating the experiment a
few times to get the average result to increase the accuracy of the experiment. Besides
that, the university should be generous enough to change the apparatus or upgrade it so
that we can get a more accurate result while conducting the experiment.

5.0 Conclusion
After conducting this experiment, we can see that the intensity of the radiometer
depends on the distance of the radiometer and the heat source. We then can conclude that

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the intensity of the radiation is inversely proportional to the distance between the heat
source and the radiometer. Log10 R is inversely proportional to Log10 X which has a
gradient of -0.64. The value of is almost the same regardless of the changing of the
temperature. In conclusion, we can prove that Stefan-Boltzmann Law is true.

6.0 References
1. unknown. (2014). Introduction to the principle of heat transfer. Available:
http://www.efunda.com/formulae/heat_transfer/home/overview.cfm. Last accessed
30th Sep 2014.
2. Unknown. (2014). Stefan-Boltzmann Law. Available: http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/stefan.html. Last accessed 30th Sep 2014.

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