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# ECE-305: Spring 2015

Carrier Properties: II
Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (SDF)
pp. 32-49
Professor Mark Lundstrom
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
lundstro@purdue.edu
1/23/15
Lundstrom
ECE 305 S15

announcements
1. Exam 1: Friday, Jan. 30 in class
see the class homepage for info
https://nanohub.org/groups/ece305lundstrom
2. Do the homework!
3. Review the quizzes.
Lundstrom ECE 305 S15

vocabulary
1. Miller indices
2. Diamond and Zinc blende lattices
3. Energy bands
4. Conduction band, valence band, band gap
5. Energy band diagrams
6. Intrinsic carriers, intrinsic carrier concentration
7. Effective mass and band structure
8. Doping
9. Intrinsic semiconductor
10. Extrinsic semiconductor
11. Density of States
12. Fermi function, Fermi level
13. Non-degenerate semiconductor

## carrier concentration vs. temperature

freeze-out

intrinsic

extrinsic

4
Fig. 2.22 from R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor
Device Fundamentals

outline
1. Density of States
2. Fermi function
3. Carrier distributions
4. Carrier concentrations
-given Fermi level
-given doping densities
Lundstrom ECE 305 S15

DOS
4Na states / band

conduction band

Na = 5 x 1022 /cm3

## How are the energy levels

distributed with the bands?

valence band

g ( E ) dE

density-of-states

Number of states in an
energy range, dE, per m3.

## Number of states per unit

energy per unit volume.
Units: (J-m3)-1
6

DOS
E
ECtop
ECtop

g ( E )dE = 4N

gC ( E ) dE

EC

EC
EV

gV ( E ) dE

EV

g ( E )dE = 4N
V

EVbot

EVbot
g(E)

## density of states near the band edge

E
ECtop

gC ( E ) =

mn* 2mn* ( E EC )

2!3

EC
EV
gV ( E ) =

m *p 2m *p ( EV E )

2!3

bot
V

D(E)

outline
1. Density of States

2. Fermi function
3. Carrier distributions
4. Carrier concentrations
-given Fermi level
-given doping densities
Lundstrom ECE 305 S15

Occupation of states
Si atom (At. no. 14)
4S0

## States way above

have very little
probability of being
occupied.

energy

3P2
3S2
States below this
energy have a high
probability of being
occupied.

2P6
2S2
1S2
10

Fermi level
E
ECtop

E = EF

(electrochemical potential)

EC

f (E) =

EV

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

(Fermi function)
bot
V

D(E)

11

## occupying the bands

small probability
of being filled.

f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

f ( EF ) =

EF

Fermi function
small probability
of being empty.

## Probability that a state

at energy, E, is
occupied in equilibrium.
0
12

0.5

f (E)

1
2

Fermi function
Fermi level

f (E)

kBT = 0.026 eV

12

f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

0
EF

13

effect of temperature
f (E)

kBT0

T1 > T0
f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

0
EF
14

T2 < T0

## electrons and holes

These states are way
above the Fermi level.
EC

## Typically, we will find the

Fermi level somewhere
inside the bandgap.

EG = 1.1 eV
EV

## These states are way

below the Fermi level.

15

conduction band
non-degenerate
semiconductor

f (E)

E >> EF

f ( E ) e( EF E ) kBT

small probability
of being full

f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

0
EF
16

EC

valence band
f (E)

fh ( E ) = 1 f ( E ) =

small probability
of being empty

E << EF

f (E) =

( EF E )

1+ e

kB T

fh ( E ) e( EEF ) kBT
non-degenerate
semiconductor

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

0
EF

17

Non-degenerate semiconductors
f ( EC ) =

1
1+ e( EC EF ) kBT

f ( EC ) ( EF EC ) kBT

EC

EG = 1.1 eV
3k BT
EV

f ( EV ) =

( EV EF )

1+ e

kBT

1 f ( EV ) e( EV EF ) kBT
18

EC

n = ni
E F = Ei

EG = 1.1 eV

EV

f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

p = ni

19

## temperature dependence of intrinsic density

Fermi function
E
EC

n = ni (T )

T1 > T2
EF

EG = 1.1 eV

T2
EV

p = ni (T )
small probability
of being empty.

20

12

f (E)

## carrier concentration vs. temperature

intrinsic

21

21
Fig. 2.22 from R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor
Device Fundamentals

## energy band diagram of an n-type semiconductor

Expect:
n e( EF EC ) kBT
EC

n = N C e( EF EC ) kBT

n >> ni
EF

EG = 1.1 eV

f (E) =

EV

22

( E EF )

1+ e

kB T

## carrier concentration vs. temperature

extrinsic

23

23
Fig. 2.22 from R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor
Device Fundamentals

## energy band diagram of an p-type semiconductor

EC

EG = 1.1 eV

EF
EV

p >> ni

f (E) =

( E EF )

1+ e

Expect:
p e( EV EF ) kBT

24

p = NV e( EV EF ) kBT

kB T

outline
1. Density of States

2. Fermi function

3. Carrier distributions
4. Carrier concentrations
-given Fermi level
-given doping densities
Lundstrom ECE 305 S15

25

## distribution of electrons within a band

E
ECtop

gC ( E )

( E EC )
n ( E ) dE = gC ( E ) dE f ( E )

EC

EF
p ( E ) dE = gV ( E ) dE (1 f ( E ))

EV

EVbot

gV ( E )

g(E)

( EV E )
26

carrier distribution

27

## from R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals

28

question
1) At T = 0 K, what is the density of holes in the valence
band of a pure semiconductor?
a) the atomic density of the material.
c) The density of dopants.
d) The packing fraction of the material.
e) Zero

29

another question
2) At T = 0 K, where is the Fermi level located in a pure
semiconductor?
a) Deep inside the conduction band
b) Near EC.
c) Near the middle of the bandgap.
d) Near EV.
e) Deep inside the valence band.

30

gC ( E ) dE

EC

## How many electrons in the

conduction band?

EF

EG = 1.1 eV

n ( E ) dE = f ( E ) gC ( E ) dE

EC

EC

n ( E ) dE = f ( E ) g ( E ) dE
C

EV

31

valence band?

## final result (electrons)

( EF EC )

n = NC e

kB T

EC EF > 3kBT

mn* k BT
NC = 2

2
2 !

For Si at T = 300K:

3/2

## m = 1.182 (DOS effective mass)

*
n

EC
EF

N C = 3.23 1019 cm -3

EV
32

( EV EF )

p = NV e

m *p kBT
NV = 2
2
2 !

kB T

EF EV > 3kBT

m = 0.81

3/2

## effective density of states

For Si at T = 300K:
*
n

EC

## (DOS effective mass)

NV = 1.83 1019 cm -3

EF
EV

33

summary
n = N C e( EF EC ) kB T

p = NV e( EV EF ) kB T

mn* k BT
NC = 2
2
2 !

m *p kBT
NV = 2
2
2 !

EC

EF

3/2

EV
3/2

## Fermi level should be at least

3kBT away from a band edge.
34

summary
1) Semiconductor devices are made by controllably putting a
few electrons in the conduction band and a few holes in
the valence band.
2) In equilibrium, the Fermi function gives the probability
that a state at energy, E, is occupied by an electron.
3) The two parameters in the Fermi function are the Fermi
level and the temperature.
4) The density of states, g(E), tells how the states are
distributed in energy.
5) From the DOS and the Fermi function, we can relate the
electron and hole densities to the location of the Fermi
35
level.