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EE0103

A SOLUTION TO REMOTE DETECTION OF ILLEGAL ELECTRICITY


USAGE Via POWER LINE COMMUNICATION

1 MR.RAMPELLY SINATH 2 MR.KIRANKUMAR.J

Abstract:
Power line communication (PLC) presents an interesting and economical solution for
automatic meter reading (AMR). If an AMR system via PLC is set in a power delivery system, a
detection system for illegal electricity usage may be easily added to the existing PLC network. In
the detection system, the second digital energy meter chip is used and the value of energy is
stored. The recorded energy is compared with the value at the main kilowatt hour meter. In the
case of difference between the two recorded energy data, an error signal is generated and
transmitted via PLC network. The detector and control system is proposed. The architecture of the
system and their critical components are given. The measurement results are given. This paper
describes a prototype of the detector system for illegal electricity usage using the power lines. The
target of this study is to discover new and possible solutions concerning this problem.

Keywords:
Automatic meter reading (AMR), detector, illegal electricity usage, power line
communication, power line communications (PLC) modem.

Conclusion:
A detector system to determine illegal electricity usage via power line communications is
designed and proposed. If the AMR and detector system are used together, illegal usage of
electricity may be detected. The proposed system has not been tried in real power lines due to
nonexistent AMR system in many countries. In the near future, combined AMR and detector
systems will be tried in many parts of the world as explained above. The main aim of this paper is
to propose solutions for illegal usage of electricity, because illegal usage is a serious problem in
our country and may also be in other parts of the world.

___________________________________________________________________
1. II B.Tech EEE, 2. II B.Tech EEE,
Hi-Tech college of Engg and Tech. Hi-Tech college of Engg and Tech.
sree_4u_25@yahoo.com

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INTRODUCTION:
The automatic meter reading (AMR) system has become a
necessity for most energy suppliers as deregulation, free customer choice and open market
competition occur in the energy supply sector. Power line communications has many new service
possibilities related to the data transferring via power lines without the use of extra cables. AMR is
a very important application in these possibilities as every user is connected to each other via
power lines. If an AMR system may be established in a power network, every user is connected to
each other via modems using power lines. AMR is a technique to facilitate remote readings of the
energy consumption. Another important problem for energy suppliers is regarding the illegal
electricity usage. There is no study in this field to determine the illegal usage in the literature. In
order to portray the dimensions of this problem, the following explanations are very interesting.

Illegal electricity usage may be(is) a serious problem in many countries. In our country
nearly 30%-40% of total electricity consumption is illegal; adding that prevention of its illegal use is
of great importance in overcoming this problem. Increasing electricity production and building
complexes is not sufficient to meet the demand, because of the illegal image of electricity. This
illegal electricity causes loss of millions of rupees to the electricity board. Using electricity illegally
may indirectly affect the economic state of a country negatively. On the other hand, the planning of
national energy demand may be difficult in the case of unrecorded usage.

This illegal usage of electricity problem can be attempted to be resolved by special skills of
humans, such as the police, special security, etc. These methods could not give the optimum
solutions due to their impartialities, other factors. Meter reading has been recorded manually and
some electronic solutions such as optical reading Methods, etc. There does not exist a study about
electronic detection of illegal usage of electricity. This may be related to technological innovations
so far. Today, we have many chips which can be used for digital energy metering and PLC
modems. At this point of technological development, the problem of illegal usage of electricity must
be solved electronically, without any human control. The main aim of this paper is to start a
discussion on this problem and find solutions similar to this which has occurred.

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DETECTION OF ILLEGAL ELECTRICITY USAGE::
METHODS OF ILLEGAL ELECTRICITY USAGE::
Here, the methods of illegal electricity usage are determined. In illegal usage, a subscriber
illegally uses electricity in followings ways.
Using the mechanical objects: A subscriber can use some mechanical objects to
prevent the revolution of a meter, so that disk speed is reduced and the recorded energy is
also reduced.
Using a fixed magnet: A subscriber can use a fixed magnet to change the
electromagnetic field of the current coils. As is well known, the recorded energy is
proportional to electromagnetic field.
Using the external phase before meter terminals: This method gives subscribers free
energy without any record.
Switch the energy cables at the meter connector box: In this way, the current does not
pass through the current coil of the meter, so the meter does not record the energy
consumption.
Although all the methods explained above may be valid for electromechanical meters, only the last
two methods are valid for digital meters. Therefore, this problem should be solved by electronics
and control techniques.
DETECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS::
The proposed control system for the detection of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig. 1.
PLC signaling is only valid over the low voltage-220V AC power lines. The system should apply to
every low-voltage distribution network.
The schematic illustration of the detection and control systems of the illegal electricity usage
is as shown in the figure below. The system shows the detection system of N-subscribers
connected to a distributed transformer.

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Subscriber 1 Subscriber 2

KWh KWh

PLC PLC
1A 2A

PLC energy PLC energy


1B meter 1B meter
220VAC
Distribution
Transformer

PLC energy
NB meter
Host PLC
Unit
KWh

PLC
NA Subscriber N

Fig .1 schematic illustration of detection system of illegal electricity usage

The system given in Fig. 1 contains only one distribution transformer network and the
procedure should be repeated for every distribution network. Although the proposed system can be
used independently, it is better to use it with automatic meter reading system. If the AMR is to be
used in any network, the host PLC unit and a PLC modem for every subscriber should be
contained in this system. In Fig.1, the host PLC unit and the other PLC modems are named
PLC1A… PLCNA and used for AMR. These units provide communication with each other and send
the recorded data in kilowatt hour meter to PLC unit. In order to detect illegal usage of electrical
energy a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an AMR
system. As given in Fig.1 PLC1B… PLCNB and energy meter chips belong to the detector. The
detector PLCs and energy meters must be placed at the connection point between distribution
main lines and subscriber’s line. Since this connection point is usually in the or at the ground, it is

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not suitable for anyone to access, such that its control is easy. The main procedure of the
proposed system can be summarized as follows.

THE MAIN PROCEDURE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM::


The frequency bands, signaling levels, and procedures are specific 3-95 kHz are restricted
for use by electricity suppliers, a 95-148.5 kHz are restricted to consumer use. The signal level for
the band 95-148.5 kHz is limited as follows. For general use the signaling level is limited to 116dB
µV, and for particular applications, e.g., industrial areas, the signaling level is limited to 134 dB µV.
The recorded data in kilowatt hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via
PLC modems placed in subscriber’s locations. On the other hand, energy meter chips are located
at the connection points and read the energy in kilowatt hours and also send data to host PLC unit.
This proposed detector system has two recorded energy data in host PLC unit, one which comes
from the AMR-PLC and the other which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points.
These two recorded data area compared in the host PLC; if there is any difference between two
readings, an error signal is generated. This means that there is an illegal usage in the network.
After that the subscriber address and error signal combined and sent to the central control unit. If it
is requested, a contactor may be included to the system at subscriber locations to turn off the
energy automatically, as in the case of illegal usage.
The main elements of the PLC modem are ST7537HS1 and the 707VX-T1002 the
ADE7755 is an accurate electrical energy measurement IC intended for use in single phase
distribution systems.

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Main power
line 220VAC
Connector box for k subscriber
PLC
Modem k1 Energy meter
address chip

Power line of
k subscriber k subscriber

PLC exist
Modem kWh
K. address meter

Host PLC unit

Main microprocessor logic


PLC
Modem

To information center
Fig. 2 Illegal detector system for one subscriber

TESTS OF A PROPOSED SYSTEM:


The tests of the proposed detector system are carried out in the laboratory. Because the
AMR system has not established a power grid in many places yet, the detector system is checked
using the model of the overall system. The system model and simulation of the detection system of
illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig.2. In the laboratory, a host PLC modem, an energy meter
chips and PLC modem, an electromechanical kilowatt hour meter and its PLC modem, and an
optical reflecting sensor system are loaded at the same phase of the power grid. The energy value
at the electromechanical kilowatthour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector
sensor. Disk speed of the kilowatthour meter is counted and obtained data is sent to PLC modem
as energy value of the kilowatthour meter. At the system model, an illegal load may be connected
to the power line before the kilowatthour meter via an S switch. While only a legal load is in the
system, two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. The host PLC
units read two recorded data coming from metering PLC units. If the S switch is closed, the illegal

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load is connected to the system, and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each
other. The host PLC unit is generated when it received two different records from the same
subscriber. This is the detection of the illegal usage for interested users. In these tests, the carrier
frequency is selected at 132kHz. Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol which
includes a header, address, energy value data, error detection bits, and other serial communication
bits such as parity and stop bits. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of
the required system and national power grid architecture.

Energy meter PLC KWhmeter


chip modem modem

Power line

S disk
Legal
load

Host PLC modem Illegal load


PLC modem optical reflector system
Fig. 3 system simulation and modeling of the detection system of illegal
electricity usage for electromechanical kilowatthour meters.

Fig3 shows the detection system for an electromechanical kilowatthour meter system. In
the digital energy meter system, the recorded energy may be received in the digital in the digital
form directly using the port of the meter. Therefore, there is no need for an optical reflector system
in digital meters.
The results of the tests may give whether the system is economical or not. It is very economical
and is a reliable solution when it is compared with the economic loss caused by illegal usage.

OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED DIRECTOR SYSTEM::


The proposed detector system is the equipment and procedure for controlling more remote
stations from a master control station. It includes PLC modems, energy meters, control logics, and
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the system software. The PLC modems are host and target modems for two-way communications
to and from the host station and the remotely controlled targets. The energy meters include
metering chips and some circuit elements; the control and logic units compare and generate the
error signal in the illegal usage. The system software has two parts: assembler program for the
micro controller and the operating software for the management of the overall system. Operated
software may be downloaded from a PC and should be placed in the main center of the system. An
AMR system including an illegal detector performs the following functions.
Every user has two PLC modems; one is for AMR and the other is used to send the data
from second energy meter chip to host PLC modem.
An energy meter must be installed in the connection box between a home line and main
power lines.
The host PLC unit must be placed in the distribution transformer and the configuration of
the addressing format of PLC signaling must be designed carefully.
The host PLC modem and its controller must include two addresses per every user: one is
the AMR and the other for the energy meter. These two addresses must be selected
sequentially.
Operating software must be designed for the information of every subscriber in every sub
power network: subscriber identification number, billing address, etc.
The system has two values of the energy consumption for every user, so if there is a
difference between them, an error signal is generated for the illegal user.
The proposed equipment is the only one distributed in the power network. So this system
should be repeated for all distributed power networks. All host units in each distribution
transformer may be connected to only one main center station via phone lines, fiber-optics
cables, or RF links.

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Fig. 4

Fig.5

Fig.6
Some results of the measurements are shown in Fig.4-6. The relations between
frequency, length, and bit-order probability are given in these figures.

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REFERENCES:
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ON POWER DELIVERY,VOL.19,NO 4,OCTOBER 2004.
[2]. I.H.CAVDAR,”PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FSK POWER LINE COMMUNICATIONS OVER
THE TIME VARYING CHANNELS:MEASUREMENT & MOULDING”,IEEE TRANSACTION ON
POWER DELIVERY,VOL.19,PP111-117,JAN 2004
[3]. YOSHINORI MIZUGAI AND MASHAHIRO OYA “WORLD TRENDS IN POWER LINE
COMMUNICATIONS”MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC ADVANCE MARCH 2005
[4].TOM D TAMARKIN”AUTOMATIC METER READING”PUBLIC POWER MAGAZINE VOLUME
50,NO5 SEPT-OCT,1992
[5].WWW.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/POWERLINECOMMUNICATION
[6].WWW.ITRITE.COM

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