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No 1, January 2014
Etruscan Research [Editor-in-Chief Sergei V. Rjabchikov]. January 2014.
Number 1. The postal address of the Editor-in-Chief is as follows: 1/39 Krasnoarmejskaja Street, 350063 Krasnodar, Russia.
The journal Etruscan Research was established by the Sergei Rjabchikov Foundation, Krasnodar, Russia.

The Etruscan Astronomy
Sergei V. Rjabchikov
Keywords: archaeoastronomy, writing, solar eclipses, Pythagoras, Greek, Etruscan,
Etruria, Egypt, Italy

Copyright 2014 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. ll rights reserved.

The Etruscan Astronomy1

Sergei V. Rjabchikov
Several Celestial Scenes on Etruscan Vases from Caere
According to van der Waerden (1974: 186, table), in the past the Greek and Roman deities were symbols of
some planets (Zeus, Iuppiter = Jupiter: Jupiter; Aphrodite, Venus: Venus; Ares, Mars: Mars and so on). I
suggest that the Etruscans who had borrowed many religious ideas from the Greeks were aware of the celestial appendix of the Greek religion.
Let us consider some mythological plots painted on Etruscan vases from the town of Caere (Cerveteri). Here and everywhere else, I use the computer program RedShift Multimedia Astronomy (Maris Multimedia, San Rafael, USA) to look at the heavens. The dates for observations are chosen as examples only.
There are others dates to illustrate the obtained results.
(1) Vase 1 (Del Chiaro 1974: 43, plate 43):
Neck. A satyr rides a goat in the right direction. A rosette is shown beneath the animal.
Body. The goddess of dawn esan-2 (the Greek goddess Eos, the Roman goddess Aurora) drives the quadriga decorated with rays.
My decipherment. Choose January 15, 400 B.C. The time was 06:05. The rising star Prima Giedi (
Capricorni) was seen in the direction of the south-east. Then the dawn began at 06:06. The sun rose at 07:46.
In this scene the goat denotes the constellation Capricornus (The Horn of the Goat). As a general rule, a rosette is the symbol of a celestial object (= a star, a planet, the moon etc.). Here this sign indicates the brightest star of the constellation. The goddess esan- (Morning) denotes the dawn, the rising sun.
(2) Vase 2 (Del Chiaro 1974: 33, plate 34):
Side A. A woman moves to the right. She holds two torches in both hands. A rosette is depicted near her at
the bottom left, and another one is depicted near her at the top right.
My decipherment. It is the picture of the rising full moon. The woman is the goddess Artumes (the
Greek goddess Artemis, the Roman goddess Diana), the incarnation of the moon. Both rosettes represent the
motion of the moon from left to right.
(3) Vase 3 (Del Chiaro 1974: 30, plate 30):
Neck. A griffin is depicted. A rosette is shown under this character.
Body. Two rosettes located in the down positions accompany a woman.
My decipherment. Choose September 09, 290 B.C. The griffin (the symbolism of thunderstorm) is the
planet Jupiter (the Etruscan god Tin, the Roman god Iuppiter, the Greek god Zeus). The rosette is the sign of
that planet. The time was 22:30. Jupiter rose in the constellation Taurus. At the same time the moon was seen
lower above the horizon, it set in the constellation Sagittarius. In the picture the woman (Artumes) is the incarnation of the moon. The rosettes represent the setting moon.
(4) Vase 4 (Del Chiaro 1974: 13, plate 11):
Body. A winged god stands before a sitting woman. He offers a necklace to her. A wheel is depicted beside
his feet.
My decipherment. The god symbolises the rising sun (usil etc.). The wheel (round) is its sign. The
woman (the goddess Artumes) is the incarnation of the setting moon.
(5) Vase 5 (Del Chiaro 1974: 23, plate 21):
Body. At the left a woman is seated. Another woman at the right goes away. A rosette marks the latter.
My decipherment. Choose June 9, 290 B.C. The time was 21:53. The sitting woman denotes the setting moon (the goddess Artumes), and the moving woman denotes the planet Venus (the Etruscan goddess
Turan, the Greek goddess Aphrodite, the Roman goddess Venus) setting slower to the right of it in the constellation Leo. The rosette represents this planet.
(6) Vase 6 (Del Chiaro 1974: 8, plate 1):
Neck. The god Turms (the Greek god Hermes, the Roman god Mercury) with a caduceus stands before a sitting woman. She holds a tambourine.
My decipherment. Here the conjunction of the planet Mercury with the moon is described.
This paper was first read by the author on the scientific session of the Sergei Rjabchikov Foundation Research Centre for Studies of Ancient Civilisations and Cultures, January 13, 2014, Krasnodar, Russia.
Some meanings of the Etruscan words are taken from this work (Pallottino 1963). I use its variant published as the
Russian edition of the selected chapters (Pallottino 1976).

(7) Vase 7 (Del Chiaro 1974: 10, plates 3-4):

Body. On the distant left a winged woman stands. Another woman is seated on the right. Then a youth holding a spear stands before a sitting woman.
My decipherment. This youth is the Etruscan god Maris (the Greek god Ares, the Roman god Mars).
He is the image of planet Mars. Choose October 9, 392 B.C. The time (04:40) was before the dawn (04:41).
Mars was seen near the moon in Gemeni. Venus was seen in Virgo low above the horizon. So, the three females in the picture were Virgo (the star Spica), Venus and the moon.
(8) Vase 8 (Del Chiaro 1974: 13, plate 10):
Neck. A youth moves to the left turning away to the right. He holds a spear and supports a tambourine. A
star is depicted before his head.
My decipherment. Here the retrograde motion of Mars relative to the stars is depicted.
The Astral Religion in Etruria
Three gold tablets of ca. 500 B.C. with inscriptions, two Etruscan (CIE 6314, 6315) and one Punic (CIE
6316), were excavated in an Etruscan sanctuary at the port of Pyrgi (Santa Severa) of the town of Caere
(Cerveteri). The first Etruscan plate and the Punic one encompass quasi-bilingual texts. All the records are
dedicated to the goddess Uni-Astre or Uni (atin Iuno, Greek Hera Juno hoenician trt Astarte). According to Pliny the Elder (Natural History, II: 37), the planet Venus was the star of Juno in the Roman beliefs. In
all three texts the temple of the goddess is connected with stars.3
Etruscan pulum means star the root pul (celestial fire) was derived from Greek fire and the
suffix um is the same as in Latin astrum star. Greek
mean star flame and star celestial body respectively. The expression Spulare Aritimi is read in the record on an Etruscan statuette, and
Aritimi is another version of the name of the moon goddess Artumes (Jannot 2005: 144). I have translated the
epithet Spulare as S-pul-are Starlike (Someone who belonged) to stars. The word snuia (all, many,
filled etc.) correlated with the word pulum va star (dat. plur.) in the second yrgi record is cognate with
Hittite unnai- to fill and unnant- filled.
Consider the scenes on an Etruscan vase (Eisenberg 2011: no. 138) as an illustration:
Side A. The goddess Artumes drives a cart drawn by two stags to the left.
Side B. The same personage is seated to the left. She holds a basket with two eggs. On her frock a starlike
sign is represented. Near this goddess a rosette is shown.
My decipherment. The sign of the star corresponds to Etruscan Spulare Starlike. In both scenes the
setting moon is indicated. The rosette is the additional symbol of the moon in this context.
The stars played a crucial role in the questions of the inheritance rights, too. Consider a fragment of
the text inscribed on side B of the Perugia stele (CIE 4538):
Vel ina atena zuci enesci ipa spel ane i fulum va spel i rene i estac
Velthina has joined inheritance rights since (he) promised on oath a sacred gift to the stars, (he) promised on
oath (and) called the stars.
Vel ina acilune turune cune
Velthina has done (all), given (that gift), given (that) sign (gift, sacrifice etc.).
Vel ina the personal name
at- to have rights, cf. Hittite aanza- true
zuc- book, text, cf. Etruscan zic-, zi - to write, zi - book cf. Greek record recording
enesc- (e-nes-c) died, dead, cf. Etruscan nes- died
ipa since, as
spe- to promise on oath, cf. atin spondeo ditto and sponsio oath obligation
ane i sacred gift cf. Sidetic ana ema ditto from Greek
ditto (eumann 1)
fulum star, cf. Etruscan pulum ditto
ren- to call to name cf. Hittite lamniya- to call to name (the alternations of the sounds a/e, r/l and m/n
are possible);

In compliance with van der Waerden (1961: 100), the transmission of the mathematical knowledge from the Greek
astronomer and mathematician Pythagoras to the Etruscans is dated from before 500 B.C. One can suggest in this connection that the Etruscans also learned the information about the sun, the moon, planets and some stars from him or his

estac star, cf. Hittite hater- ditto

ac-, acil to do, cf. Etruscan acas ditto
tur- to give
c- to give an omen, a sign, cf. Etruscan ac (a verb associated with the religious practice); cf. Hittite
akiya- to give an omen, a sign.
On the Observations of Mars in Rome
Consider the Etruscan inscription (CIE 5093) in the Golini Tomb I of 4th century B.C. at Volsinii (Orvieto).
Here some data about the nobleman Vel are reported. The following fragment has attracted my attention:
Zila nve pulum Rumi trine i a[r]ce clel lu[c]
(He) served as a magistrate (there where had been a dedication) to the star of the trinity (of gods) of the city
of Rome, (and where) ars had created a king [known as ucius Tarquinius Superbus]
zila to serve as a magistrate
pulum star
Rumi Rome (gen. sing.), cf. Etruscan Ruma Rome (nom. sing.)
trine i triad three from atin trinitas three trinity [the late term]
Marce the planet ars
cle- to make (Rjabchikov 2013: 31)
luc- king.
Thus, one can suppose that the Etruscan Vel was a magistrate of the Etruscan part of the ancient Rome
for some years. According to Livy (Books from Foundation of the City, II: 5.2), the Field of Mars in Rome
belonged once to the last Roman king Lucius (i.e. Luc-, King) Tarquinius (Superbus) who was an Etruscan.
In Rome the basic deities were known as the triad, Iuppiter, Mars and Quirinus, in more recent times.
The Record about Mars and Jupiter
Consider the inscription on a leaden plate (TLE 359) of the 4th century B.C. from Heba (Magliano in Toscano). Side A contains the expression cepen tu iu meaning the priest of society. So, this ancient report
could tell of his service at the temple in the role of an astronomer.
Side B contains three vital fragments:
Marca lurcac
(The planet) ars was not visible
uris eis teis Evi tiuras mulsle mla
(It was) the god The sun of the month of Sheep (the constellation Aries). The votive gift was given
Tins lurs (The planet) Jupiter is not visible
Marca the god aris the planet ars
lur- to be invisible, to disappear to shorten, cf. Hittite luri- deficiency shortage and uwian lawarr- to
ur , sur- the sun, cf. Sanskrit srya ditto the Etruscan name uri is closely related to the sun god Aplu
(Apulu Greek Apollon Apollo) (Jannot 200: 14) I have translated this epithet as the sun solar
eis, ais deity, cf. Hittite eri- statue
tei this
evi sheep (Rjabchikov 2013: 32), cf. Luwian hawi- ditto
tiur- month
mul- to sacrifice
mla - votive gift
Tin- the god of thunderstorm the planet Jupiter.

According to Weeks (1985: 11, 44), some Hittite words are cognate with Old Indic words because of
the Mitannian influence. In this context one can compare Etruscan sur- the sun with Sanskrit srya ditto.
Besides, Hittite *awelia the sun could be closely connected with the latter form. Furthermore, Etruscan
herama temple in the texts on the first and second gold yrgi tablets (CIE 314, 31) is comparable with
Sanskrit harmya palace (cf. Hittite karimn- temple as well).
For instance, on April 21, 324 B.C. Mars could not be observed in Magliano (Mars: the rising: 05:11,
the setting: 18:00; the sun: the beginning of dawn: 03:48, the rising: 05:30, the setting: 18:56); and on May
21 324 B.C. Jupiter and Mars could not be observed, too (Jupiter: the rising: 05:58, the setting: 21:07; Mars:
the rising: 04:01, the setting: 17:52; the sun: the beginning of dawn: 02:48, the rising: 04:48, the setting:
19:27, the end of twilight: 21:26).
Capricornus and ars in the Etruscan iber inteus
Etruscan records of an ancient book were discovered on an Egyptian mummy binding from Alexandria
(Egypt). Now this relic is housed in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb (Croatia). Here and everywhere
else, I use the term book to designate it. Consider the following record in it (X: 2-3):
Caprti arem za ame nacum
Capricornus (and) Mars are observed at night.
Cepen fla na vacl
The priest watches (the stars) at night, makes a libation
caper- (capr-) he-goat, cf. roto-Indo-European root *kapro- ditto (okorny 1949), cf. Latin caper
Caper- Capricornus cf. atin Capricornus (the constellation);
za - to watch over, cf. Hittite akuwai- ditto
nacum (nac-um), na night at night, cf. atin nox ditto
cepen, capen priest, cf. ydian kave- ditto cf. also Hittite hap- wealth
fla-, pal- to observe, the verb palha (the exact meaning is unknown) is presented in a Hettite record about
the astronomical observations (Gterbock and Hoffner 1: 3) cf. the roto-Indo-European root *per- to
try (okorny 1) cf. atin periri to learn and Russian pyalit to gaze
vacl- to make a libation.
Cf. the representation of Capricornus on vase 1, see above.
On Some Other Astronomical Records in the Book
The parallel text in the book (XI, 19) reads:
Fla-nac Farsi lans enac
Watch Sagittarius (the star Rukbat Sagittarii) for a short interval of time at night.
Fla-nac Farsi tunt enac
Watch Sagittarius (the star Rukbat Sagittarii) for a long interval of time at night.
fla-, pal- to observe
nac, enac (e-nac) night, at night
Fars- the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer), cf. Greek
ditto as well as
archer (
arrow and
carrying) the name
Sagittarius could coexist as
a variant it is clear that Greek component
of the name of the constellation was borrowed by the
Etruscans in the form fars-;
lans small period of time this moment, cf. Hittite lammar ditto
tunt long period of time, cf. Hittite itantai- to delay.

Judging from the next record, the observations were conducted in the winter. Here the appearances of
the star Rukbat after the heliacal rising are described: the interval of time of the visibility of this star increased smoothly in January.
Another astronomical record in the book (XI, 21) reads:
Tei im
It is the winter.
Stre ta Satrs enac
The planet Saturn (is seen) at night.
tei this
im- winter, cf. Greek
, Latin hiems ditto
stre star
ta this
Satrs the planet Saturn, cf. atin Saturnus the name of the god the planet Saturn
enac (e-nac) night at night.
The observations of Saturn were conducted in January to predict the weather in next months. It should
be emphasised that the Roman festival Saturnalia dedicated to the god Saturn lasted for several days in December. It is likely that the Romans borrowed this custom from the Etruscans in the distant past.
The Report about a Solar Eclipse in the Book
Housley, Srdo and Horvatini (1989: 975) have identified that the most probable age range for the
book is ca 360-210 B.C.
Let us read the following fragment of the inscription (VII: 8-16):
Cepen tutin ren zua
The priest of the society calls: the sun!
Etnam cepen Ceren ucic firin tesim
(And) The priest of (the goddess) Ceres has repeated struggling, caring:
Etnam celu cum caitim Caper va hecia
(And) Rise together with the low (constellation) Capricornus here!
Aisna clevana
The sacred gifts (are given to) the deities.
im enac usil
(Now) the sun is as at night in the winter.
Cerine [T]en a[ ]a ca[ ] nam [] asn zelva mur
(The goddess) Ceres the month asn (January February) that is dead.
Etnam acac usli ne se acil ame
(And) The sun is made dark.
Etnam cil cveti hilare acil
(And) The (bright) sky is killed everywhere.
Vacl cepen- aur Ce[r]ene acil
The priest pours a libation for (the goddess) Ceres.
Etnam ic clevana ucic firi Vene acil
(And) Since the sacred gifts were given, (the prayers) have been repeated struggling: Venus (was here)!
cepen, capen priest
tuti society
ren- to call to name
zu, su the sun cf. Hittite DUTU-liya- = *awelia ditto (Weeks 1: 1) so, zu, su < *sulia < *sawelia;
etnam and
Ceren, Cerine, Cerene the goddess of fertility and agriculture, cf. atin Ceres;

uci to say again and again, cf. atin succino to repeat (the segment -no may be an Etruscan suffix: cf.
Etruscan Tur-an etc.);
firin, firi struggling, cf. atin firmus strong, might
tesim caring, cf. Etruscan tes- to care
celu to rise to lift, cf. roto-Indo-European root *kel- to rise (Weeks 1: ), to be high (okorny
1949), cf. Hittite kalmara mountain, Greek
slope hill and
height hill, atin collis hill,
clivosus steep and celsus to elevate
cum with, cf. atin cum ditto
caitim low, cf. Hittite katta down, kattera lower
Caper- Capricornus cf. atin Capricornus (the constellation);
hecia here, cf. atin hac ditto
aisna deities
clevana sacred gifts are given
im winter
enac (e-nac) night at night
usil, usli the sun *sulia ditto (see above)
Masn, Masan January February the name reads as two Sumerograms, he-goat and AN sky, of
the Hittite script;4
mur died dead dark, cf. Hittite mar-, merr-, mirr- to disappear, to get lost the Hittite word marmarra swamp is the reduplication of the previous meaning
acac to make, cf. Hittite tak- ditto
ne se dark, cf. Hittite neku to get dark to become evening
ac- to do
am, ame to be
cil sky, cf. atin caelum ditto
cveti (cve-ti) is killed, cf. Hittite kuen to kill, cf. Etruscan cver, cvil votive gift, its original meaning
was victim sacrifice
hilare anything, cf. ydian qelis- ditto
vacl to make a libation
cepen- aur priest
ic because
clevana sacrifice is done
Vene Venus (the planet), cf. atin Venus (ditto).
One can suppose that the book was written in Alexandria (Egypt). The expression in the text (II: 8)
pureri me lum Eric
for the city-community of Alex(andria)
pur- town city (nom. sing.)
pureri city (dat. sing.)
me l- community town (Kharsekin 1)
Eric- (the shortened record of the name of the city of Alexandria; the variations of the sounds a/e, l/r, e/i are
possible in the Etruscan language).
Choose Alexandria for our archaeoastronomical studies. The star rima Giedi ( Capricorni) rose at
03:45 on February 11, 217 B.C. Venus was in Capricornus (04:37) before the dawn. The sun rose at 06:53.
The almost total solar eclipse occurred at sunset. (In Italy this eclipse was seen weaker.)
The Second Punic War that had begun in 218 B.C. was the historical background of the arrival of the
Etruscan priest, the author of the book, to Egypt. He worshipped to the goddess Estre Astarte (the book,
IX: 16).
Consider the parallel text in the book (XII: 10-13):

In compliance with Turfa (2012: 109-110), the trustworthy meanings of the names of the Etruscan months are from
March to October; the month Masan (Masn) is outside this list.

Masn Unialti
The month asn (January February) of the goddess Uni
luce Caperi
The constellation Capricornus rose.
Za mtic svem um sa
The destination is the sun in the dim light.
atan cluc Tra hilar
The destination: the thunderstorm (= the dark clouds) appeared everywhere.
Masn January February
Uni the goddess of fertility, cf. atin Iuno Juno
clu, celu to rise
Caper- Capricornus (the constellation);
za, sa the sun (gen. sing.); see above: zu, su ditto (nom. sing.) cf. also Hittite nekuza dawn morning
*neku za;
m(a)t- destination, cf. Lycian metu to destine
svem daylight, cf. Hittite iwatt- day daylight
um dim dark, cf. Hittite *dum(m)- deaf (dumb, blind, black) (Weeks 1: 3) in this connection cf.
the Proto-Indo-European root *dhmo- smoke (okorny 14)
Tra the god of thunderstorm, cf. Etruscan Tarun- (the symbolism of the thunderstorm and authority),
Hittite and Luwian Tarhunt- (the Storm-god);5
hilar- anything.
Moreover, the Etruscan expression Masan tiur the month asan is connected with the name of the
goddess Uni (Unias) in the text on the second gold Pyrgi tablet (CIE 6315). Etruscan tiur month is a reflex
of the name of the deity in the distant homeland; in this connection cf. the Proto-Indo-European roots *deieday; the sky god, *deiew-, *diw- day (okorny 14).
The Report about a Solar Eclipse in the Record on a Leaden Tablet
This plate was excavated in an Etruscan sanctuary at Punta della Vipera near Santa Marinella (Comella
2001: 132, plates 36, 37). The lower limit of the dating of this text (CIE 6310) is the interval of time between
ca. 540 and 520 B.C., obtained on the base of the datings of Greek vases and Etruscan terracottas.
The text is very obliterated. Some interesting fragments are presented below:
[] MMMCCC lan u mite
3300 (gifts, etc. are brought from) the yards of the men
Pulun za i pal
The star ( Venus) of the sun goes along the wide (road)
Za [s]italte
The star ( Venus) of the sun
Mena Tina
Tin (Jupiter) is not seen
Helucu acasa tei luru
The sun is broken
un ena []sice lan u mite
The sacrifices (sacred gifts) were made by the yards of the men
laci a hecia i peri pa
The sacral gifts are here (so that) the Father (the sun) goes high (now)
Ar surve cles vare []
Rise, the sun, be made like the fire!
lan u yard, cf. Hittite hilan ditto

The latter survived in the late Anatolian culture as Lycian god Trqqas (Trqqiz, Trqqnt) (Bryce 1986: 177).

mit- man head of a household, cf. Hittite miti servant

pulun star, planet etc., cf. Etruscan pulum ditto
za, sa the sun (gen. sing.);
i to go, cf. Luwian i-, Hittite iya- ditto
pal wide, cf. Hittite palhi- ditto
[s]italt- star (), cf. atin astrum and stella ditto
mena invisible, cf. Hittite maninkuwant- shortened, cf. also Etruscan man died
Tin- the god of the thunderstorm (the planet Jupiter here)
helucu the sun, cf. Greek
ditto cf. also Hittite lukki- to light
acasa, acas to do
tei that
lur- to be invisible, to disappear to shorten
nun ena sacrifices
[]sice (the meaning is unclear, but this verb has the suffix ce of the past tense);
mlaci a sacral gifts
hecia here
peri high, cf. uwian parrai-, Hittite parku ditto
apa father ancestor, cf. Greek father
ar to rise, cf. Hittite arai- ditto
ur , sur- the sun
vare fire, cf. Etruscan verse ditto in this connection cf. the Proto-Indo-European root *wer- to burn
(Pokorny 1959).
Choose the town of Santa Marinella for our archaeoastronomical studies. Venus rose at 01:41 on September 1, 507 B.C. Jupiter was absent in the sky (it had set earlier). The sun rose at 05:29. The almost total
solar eclipse occurred in the evening.
I believe that the Etruscan priest could predict eclipses. The votive gifts were carried into the temple to
avoid another eclipse in future.
Some Notes on the Etruscan Language
To understand some words, I have conducted the internal comparative studies of the texts. In this respect I
am a follower of Pallottino and others.
Consider the record in the book (XI: 5): Cepen te a mitn murce. The priest takes care of the dead
people. It is common knowledge that the words cepen and te - signify priest and to care respectively.
The verb murce has the suffix ce of the past tense (mur-ce). As is well known, the word murs signifies
sarcophagus ( place associated with the dead). Hence, the word mit-n means men people the word
mit- means man human being etc., and the word mur means to die. Cf. also Etruscan mur died dead
dark that has been mentioned above. Then one can compare Etruscan mit- man head of a household with
Hittite miti servant.
It is also known that Etruscan etera and eteri mean slave servant. Hittite hurtalan means male
slave, and uwian hutarli means servant. Both terms read as the Sumerogram KUR slave and the root
tal (tar) slave servant. It is apparent that the roots ter (< e-ter-a, e-ter-i) and tal or tar are cognate. It is
also known that Etruscan luc-, lu um- (lu -um-) mean king, cf. Sumerogram LUGAL ditto in the Hittite
script. Cf. also Lydian qalmlus king *kalma- luh- (LUG-) high [i.e., great] king.
On Quasi-Bilingual Records (Pictures, Texts)
Let us examine the frescoes and the corresponding inscriptions in the Golini Tomb I of 4th century B.C. at
Volsinii (Orvieto).
(1) The fresco. The slave ignites the wood under the bath. Before the funeral repast the man performs
the ritual ablution using a scoop. The records (CIE 5084, 5085) are as follows:
Klu mie par liu
(He) lifts (the vessel) high (and) pours (the water).
Tesin tamia uras
(It is) the trustee (chief) of the synod of the sanctuary.

klu, clu to rise to elevate
mie to grow to increase, cf. Hittite mai-, miya- ditto
par high
liu to pour, cf. the roto-Indo-European root *lei- ditto (Pokorny 1949), cf. also Hittite lilahuwa ditto
Etruscan vacl- to make a libation *vac- l(ai-) to pray during a libation, cf. Hettite wek- wish request
tesin trustee
tamia temple, cf. Etruscan tmia ditto, cf. the roto-Indo-European root *domos house (okorny 14),
uras brotherhood members the similar Greek term was
religious community
tesin tamia uras trustee (chief) of the synod of a sanctuary priest () cf. Greek
member of a
religious community, too.
(2) The fresco. The slave carries a vessel and the meat. The corresponding record (CIE 5079) reads as
rama mli uns
(The slave) brings the food.7
ra-, tra- to carry to bring (Rjabchikov 2013: 31)
mli- -un- sacrificial food here, cf. Etruscan mlac offering votive gift.
(3) The fresco. The slave has brought the food. The corresponding record (CIE 5080) reads as follows:
resu f[a]si trals
The bringing (man) has brought the ritual food.
re-, tra- to carry to bring
fas-, fa - (the term of the religious practice).
The next fresco. The widow is seated; she has received a portion of the meat. The corresponding record (CIE
5081) reads as follows:
Rem zini me umfs
Rem mourns my loss.
Rem Rem, the legendary ancestor of the Etruscans, cf. atin Remus the twin brother of Romulus
zin- to mourn, cf. Greek

to mourn together so, the first part of these compound words meaning together was borrowed cf. also Latin singulto to mourn
me my
umf- loss, cf. the form um- dim dark disappearance.
According to Livy (Books from Foundation of the City, I: 4.1 to I: 7.3), the twins Romulus and Remus
were the children of the god Mars and the Vestal priestess Rhea Silvia. It is well to bear in mind that Mars
was the Etruscan god initially. The mythological story tells that Romulus killed Remus, and founded the city
of Rome later. This narration informs that a fig tree was called ficus Romularem (Romulus fig tree) at first,
and it was renamed (ficus Ruminalis) later. But the term Rumi-na- Roman is quite Etruscan! It is common
knowledge that Etruscan Ruma means Rome. Thus, the myth about the twins includes the hint at the initial

In conformity with Hoffner (2002: 6), the term wek- was presented in numerous Hittite prayers. This word could survive in late Anatolian languages. For example, the Carian form wksmu contains the root mu strength, force (Adiego
2007: 427). In my opinion, the root wk was related to Hittite wek-. Cf. also the segment wk in the end of another Carian
inscription (Adiego 2007: 119). I suggest that this word could have the same origin.
Cf. the archaic atin inscription meaning The roast in hand I bring and the corresponding drawing (Warmington
1940: 201).

domination of the Etruscans in Rome, and Remus (Rem) was their mythological or real ancestor. His death
in the Roman tradition indicates the end of the Etruscan authority in Rome indeed.
(4) The fresco. The priest leans over a small table. Another man plays a pipe. The corresponding records (CIE 5082, 5083) read as follows:
Tri un unu
(He) prays (to the gods about) the first meal.
(Cf. the parallel segment in the book (XI: 13): E ri sun tnam ray about the meal, too!)
Pazu muluane
Swallow the food!
tri(n-), etri (e-tri) to ask to pray to implore (Rjabchikov 2013: 31);
un first one
un-, sun- food, meal, cf. Tocharian suwa to eat
(e)tnam again, also, cf. Etruscan etnam and, also, cf. also Hittite namma once more, again, in addition
paz- to swallow, cf. Hittite pa- ditto
muluane (mulu-ane) sacred food (acc. plur.), cf. Etruscan mul- to sacrifice.
(5) The fresco. The three slaves carry some food.
The first part of the fresco. The first slave carries something (the picture is damaged). The corresponding
record (CIE 5088) reads as follows:
resu penznas
(It is) the bringing (slave) (with) the funeral (food).
The second part of the fresco. The second slave carries a vessel; different vessels are on the table. The corresponding record (CIE 5087) reads as follows:
Run l vis papnas
(It is) the wine of the family for the meal.
The third part of the fresco. The third slave carries something (the picture is damaged). The corresponding
record (CIE 5086) reads as follows:
kl is muifu
(It is) the June bread.
re- to carry to bring (see above)
penzn- funeral, cf. Greek
run - food meal, cf. the form runec- in the book (II: 5, 9), cf. Hittite aruni meal
vis wine, cf. Latin visulla a kind of vine cf. the form laivisca in the book (VI: 10) = lai visca pour the
wine! ()
pap-n- ancestral belonged to a family, cf. Etruscan papa father
akl - June (adj.), cf. Etruscan acale, aclus June
muif- bread, cf. Hittite muhhila a kind of bread.
Again about the Methodology of this Study
To demonstrate the possibilities of the comparative method of the study of inscriptions, consider the
following record in the book (VIII: 1-2):
ari esvita vacl tnam
cul cva spetri etnam
ic esvitle ampleri

Pour the copious libation during the rite (and),

pour the libation (using) kylixes (and),
because the amphorae (with the wine) are full!
The meanings of Etruscan vacl to make a libation, spet- (from Greek ) ditto and culi na
vessel (from Greek
) are well known. The latter term has the shortened form cul- in this text. I
have compared the forms ampl-eri amphorae and ampl- amphora with Greek
ditto. In this
context the term esvit- repeated twice means full copious etc. It is comparable with Greek
The term ari correlates with Hittite arlatt- praise praise offering exaltation (ceremony).
Several Etruscan glosses are preserved in the Lexicon by Hesychius of Alexandria. That work of the
5th century A.D. contains, for instance, Etruscan ais- deity (allottino 1963; 1976) and kapr- goat (Rjabchikov, this article). These data allow me to treat the Lexicon as a reliable linguistic source. It also contains
Etruscan arak- hawk; falcon, druna authority, and de- fear. The first term is quite probable, cf. ProtoIndo-European roots *er-, *or- eagle (okorny 14, 1). Cf. also Hittite hara(n)- eagle and aramni
hawk; falcon (uhvel 14: 12-128) < *ara mni resembling an eagle, here the latter component corresponds to Hittite man like. Cf. also Armenian arcui eagle. The Etruscan language lacked the sound d,
hence it replaced the sound t. So, one can reconstruct Etruscan t(a)r(h)u-na authority, cf. Hittite tarh- to
conquer and ydian tarv- to belong *taru ditto. Cf. the Roman (Etruscan) royal name Tarquinius <
Tarc-, Tar -, too. Etruscan te- means fear, cf. the Proto-Indo-European root *dwei- to fear (okorny
Read the following text with the term e fear in fear in the book (III: 8):
Trin e zine
Ask (pray) in fear, mourn!
It is safe to say that the Etruscan language was a descendant of Anatolian (Hittite, Luwian, Lydian,
Lycian etc.) languages;8 one can distinguish the samples of the early language contacts as well.
The Perspectives
Consider the following parallel records in the book (VII: 3, 5):
Ciz vacl ais val
Pour the libation thrice! The strong god!
Ciz vacl vile vale Staile
Pour the libation thrice for the strong god (Jupiter) Saviour!
ciz thrice
vacl to make a libation
ais deity
val to be strong strong
vile associated with
staile saviour.
The meanings of the first three words are well known. In some archaic Latin inscriptions there are appeals to gods repeated thrice (Warmington 1940: 251-253). So, one can suppose that the Etruscan phrases
were taken from the archaic Etruscan ritual which had been performed in Rome in the distant past (at least in
the 6th century B.C.). Etruscan val strong came from an Anatolian word, cf. Hittite walliwalli- ditto (the
reduplicated form), cf. also the Proto-Indo-European root *wal- to be strong and Latin valeo ditto.9 In this
context Etruscan vile with the meaning corresponding to, connected with is related to uwian wil- to pertain. Etruscan Staile means Saviour, cf. atin Stator Ditto (Jupiters epithet). In my opinion, this Etruscan term is cognate with the Proto-Indo-European roots *st-, *ste to stand (okorny 1) as the opposition to the words with the meanings to lie to be dead. So, the fragments of the archaic Etruscan ritual dedi8

So, Herodotus (History, I: 4) information about the origin of the Etruscans from ydia is correct.
In conformity with Hoffner (2002: 107), in a Hittite hymn to the Storm-god the term strong was presented.

cated to Jupiter as the god and planet have been decoded. The search of parallel segments in other Etruscan
records is my goal in future. At least, this segment in the inscription on a tomb, svalce avil XXVI (TLE
119), with the well-known term avil year years lets me translate the text thus: s-val-ce avil XXVI (he)
was strong ( lived) 2 years.
Consider the following record in the book (VI: 16-17):
ai niem anc arti sulal
Give the ritual bread because (you) have bowed to Mars!
pai to give, cf. Hittite pai- ditto
niem ritual bread, cf. Hittite niniyami- bread pastry (the reduplication of the form)
anc because if ()
Mar-t-i ars (the god the planet) (dat. sing.);
sul- to worship, cf. atin saluto ditto.
Wachter (2001: 164) reads the Greek inscription
() on a hydria and the Etruscan inscription
ar anapaes on a scarab as
-( ) . In my opinion, the component *pa(i) is an Etruscan term
meaning gift.10 So, one can translate both records as The gift of the Virgin (the latter word is an epithet of
the Greek goddess Athena).
A careful study of the parallel texts will enable us to translate a number of unclear words.
The Etruscans named the classical planets after deities. They watched at least the Sun, the Moon, the planets
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn as well as the constellations Aries, Virgo, Sagittarius and Capricornus. Doubtless they were aware of all the zodiacal signs. The two records about solar eclipses have been
decoded. One can date the artifacts since 217 till 210 B.C. and to 507 B.C. respectively. The meanings of
some Etruscan astronomical terms have been obtained with the help of cross-readings.
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Cf. the Lycian epithet of Apollo having the same structure (Bryce 1986: 187).

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