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Portfolios

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What is a Portfolio?
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Portfolios Authentic Assessments?
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Why use Portfolios?
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How do you Create a Portfolio Assignment?
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Purpose: What is the purpose(s) of the portfolio?
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"audience" Audience: For what audience(s) will the portfolio be created?
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Content: What samples of student work will be included?

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Process: What processes will be engaged in during the development of the
portfolio?
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"selection" Selection of Contents
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"reflection" Reflection on Samples of Work
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"conferencing" Conferencing on Student Work and Processes
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"management" Management: How will time and materials be managed in the
development of the portfolio?
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"communication" Communication: How and when will the portfolio be shared
with pertinent audiences?
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"evaluation" Evaluation: If the portfolio is to be used for evaluation,
how and when should it be evaluated?
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"fuss"
Can I do Portfolios Without all the Fuss?

Portfolio: A collection of a student's work specifically selected to tell


a particular story about the student

What is a Portfolio?
Note: My focus will be on portfolios of student work rather than teacher
portfolios or other types.
Student
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portfolios take many forms, as discussed below, so it is not easy to
describe them. A portfolio is not the pile of student work that
accumulates over a semester or year. Rather, a portfolio contains a
purposefully selected subset of student work. "Purposefully" selecting
student work means deciding what type of story you want the portfolio to
tell. For example, do you want it to highlight or celebrate the progress
a student has made? Then, the portfolio might contain samples of earlier
and later work, often with the student commenting upon or assessing the
growth. Do you want the portfolio to capture the process of learning and
growth? Then, the student and/or teacher might select items that
illustrate the development of one or more skills with reflection upon the
process that led to that development. Or, do you want the portfolio to
showcase the final products or best work of a student? In that case, the
portfolio would likely contain samples that best exemplify the student's
current ability to apply relevant knowledge and skills. All decisions
about a portfolio assignment begin with the type of story or purpose for
the portfolio. The particular purpose(s) served, the number and type of

items included, the process for selecting the items to be included, how
and whether students respond to the items selected, and other decisions
vary from portfolio to portfolio and serve to define what each portfolio
looks like. I will describe many of the purposes and characteristics in
the sections below.
Are
Portfolios
Authentic
Assessments?
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Some suggest that portfolios are not really assessments at all because
they are just collections of previously completed assessments. But, if we
consider assessing as gathering of information about someone or something
for a purpose, then a portfolio is a type of assessment. Sometimes the
portfolio is also evaluated or graded, but that is not necessary to be
considered an assessment.
Are portfolios authentic assessments? Student portfolios have most
commonly been associated with collections of artwork and, to a lesser
extent, collections of writing. Students in these disciplines are
performing authentic tasks which capture meaningful application of
knowledge and skills. Their portfolios often tell compelling stories of
the growth of the students' talents and showcase their skills through a
collection of authentic performances. Educators are expanding this storytelling to other disciplines such as physical education, mathematics and
the social sciences to capture the variety of demonstrations of
meaningful application from students within these disciplines.
Furthermore, in the more thoughtful portfolio assignments, students are
asked to reflect on their work, to engage in self-assessment and goalsetting. Those are two of the most authentic skills students need to
develop to successfully manage in the real world. Research has found that
students in classes that emphasize improvement, progress, effort and the
process of learning rather than grades and normative performance are more
likely to use a variety of learning strategies and have a more positive
attitude toward learning. Yet in education we have shortchanged the
process of learning in favor of the products of learning. Students are
not regularly asked to examine how they succeeded or failed or improved
on a task or to set goals for future work; the final product and
evaluation of it receives the bulk of the attention in many classrooms.
Consequently, students are not developing the metacognitive skills that
will enable them to reflect upon and make adjustments in their learning
in school and beyond.
Portfolios provide an excellent vehicle for consideration of process and
the development of related skills. So, portfolios are frequently included
with other types of authentic assessments because they move away from
telling a student's story though test scores and, instead, focus on a
meaningful collection of student performance and meaningful reflection
and evaluation of that work.

Why
use
Portfolios?
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The previous section identifies several valuable goals that make
portfolios attractive in education. The sections that follow emphasize
that identifying specific goals or purposes for assigning a portfolio is
the first and most critical step in creating such an assignment. Just as
identifying a standard guides the rest of the steps of developing an
authentic assessment, identifying the purpose(s) for a portfolio
influences all the other decisions involved in producing a portfolio

assignment. I will list several of the most common purposes here, and
then I will elaborate on how each purpose affects the other decisions in
the section below.
Purposes
Why might you use a portfolio assignment? Portfolios typically are
created for one of the following three purposes: to show growth, to
showcase current abilities, and to evaluate cumulative achievement. Some
examples of such purposes include
1. Growth Portfolios
a. to show growth or change over time
b. to help develop process skills such as self-evaluation and goalsetting
c. to identify strengths and weaknesses
d. to track the development of one more products/performances
2. Showcase Portfolios
a. to showcase end-of-year/semester accomplishments
b. to prepare a sample of best work for employment or college admission
c. to showcase student perceptions of favorite, best or most important
work
d. to communicate a student's current aptitudes to future teachers
3. Evaluation Portfolios
a. to document achievement for grading purposes
b. to document progress towards standards
c. to place students appropriately
The growth portfolio emphasizes the process of learning whereas the
showcase portfolio emphasizes the products of learning. Of course, a
portfolio may tell more than one story, including more than one category
above. For example, a showcase portfolio might also be used for
evaluation purposes, and a growth portfolio might also showcase "final"
performances or products. What is critical is that the purpose(s) is
clear throughout the process to student, teacher and any other pertinent
audience. To elaborate on how the purpose affects the portfolio
assignment let me answer the question...

How
do
you
Create
a
Portfolio
Assignment?
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I think of most tasks as problems to be solved, or questions to be
answered. So, I find it useful to approach how to do something by
thinking of it as a series of questions to be answered. Thus, I will
attempt to offer a possible answer to the question above by answering a
series of questions that need to be addressed when considering the design
of a portfolio assignment. Those questions are:
1. Purpose: What is the purpose(s) of the portfolio?
2. Audience: For what audience(s) will the portfolio be created?
3. Content: What samples of student work will be included?
4. Process: What processes (e.g., selection of work to be included,
reflection on work, conferencing) will be engaged in during the
development of the portfolio?
5. Management: How will time and materials be managed in the development
of the portfolio?
6. Communication: How and when will the portfolio be shared with
pertinent audiences?
7. Evaluation: If the portfolio is to be used for evaluation, when and
how should it be evaluated?


Purpose: What is the purpose(s) of the portfolio?
As mentioned above, before you can design the portfolio assignment and
before your students can begin constructing their portfolios you and your
students need to be clear about the story the portfolio will be telling.
Certainly, you should not assign a portfolio unless you have a compelling
reason to do so. Portfolios take work to create, manage and assess. They
can easily feel like busywork and a burden to you and your students if
they just become folders filled with student papers. You and your
students need to believe that the selection of and reflection upon their
work serves one or more meaningful purposes.
Audience: For what audience(s) will the portfolio be created? HYPERLINK
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Selecting relevant audiences for a portfolio goes hand-in-hand with
identifying your purposes. Who should see the evidence of a student's
growth? The student, teacher and parents are good audiences to follow the
story of a student's progress on a certain project or in the development
of certain skills. Who should see a student's best or final work? Again,
the student, teacher and parents might be good audiences for such a
collection, but other natural audiences come to mind such as class or
schoolmates, external audiences such as employers or colleges, the local
community or school board. As the teacher, you can dictate what audiences
will be considered or you can let students have some choice in the
decision.
Just as the purposes for the portfolio should guide the development of
it, the selection of audiences should shape its construction. For
example, for audiences outside the classroom it is helpful to include a
cover page or table of contents that helps someone unfamiliar with the
assignment to navigate through the portfolio and provide context for what
is found inside. Students need to keep their audiences in mind as they
proceed through each step of developing their portfolios. A good method
for checking whether a portfolio serves the anticipated audiences is to
imagine different members of those audiences viewing the portfolio. Can
each of them tell why you created the portfolio? Are they able to make
sense of the story you wanted to tell them? Can they navigate around and
through the portfolio? Do they know why you included what you did? Have
you used language suitable for those audiences?
Content: What samples of student work will be included?
As you can imagine, the answer to the question of content is dependent on
the answers to the questions of purpose and audience. What should be
included? Well, what story do you want to tell? Before I consider what
types of items might be appropriate for different purposes, let me make a
more general point. First, hypothetically, there is no limit as to what
can be included in a portfolio. Paper products such as essays, homework,
letters, projects, etc. are most common. But more and more other types of
media are being included in portfolios. Audio and videotapes, cd-roms,
two- and three-dimensional pieces of art, posters and anything else that
can reflect the purposes identified can be included. Some schools are
putting all the artifacts onto a cd-rom by videotaping performances,
scanning paper products, and digitizing audio. All of those files are
then copied onto a student's cd-rom for a semester or a year or to follow
the student across grades as a cumulative record. Realistically, you have
to decide what is manageable. But if the most meaningful evidence of the
portfolio's goals cannot be captured on paper, then you may consider

including
other
types
of
media.
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Obviously, there are a considerable number and variety of types of
student work that can be selected as samples for a portfolio. Using the
purposes given above for each type of portfolio, I have listed just a few
such possible samples of work in the following tables that could be
included in each type of portfolio.
Growth Portfolios: What samples might be included?PurposeSome possible
inclusionsa. to show growth or change over timeearly and later pieces of
work
early and later tests/scores
rough drafts and final drafts
reflections on growth
goal-setting sheets
reflections on progress toward goal(s)b. to help develop process
skillssamples which reflect growth of process skills
self-reflection sheets accompanying samples of work
reflection sheets from teacher or peer
identification of strengths/weaknesses
goal-setting sheets
reflections on progress towards goal(s)
see
more
detail
below
under
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Process
belowc.
to
identify
strengths/weaknessessamples
of
work
reflecting specifically identified strengths and weaknesses
reflections on strengths and weaknesses of samples
goal-setting sheets
reflection on progress towards goal(s)d. to track development of one or
more products or performancesobviously, drafts of the specific product or
performance to be tracked
self-reflections on drafts
reflection
sheets
from
teacher
or
peer
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Showcase Portfolios: What samples might be included?PurposeSome


possible
inclusionsa.
to
showcase
end-of-year/semester
accomplishmentssamples of best work
samples of earlier and later work to document progress
final tests or scores
discussion of growth over semester/year
awards or other recognition
teacher or peer commentsb. to prepare a sample of best work for
employment or college admissioncover letter
sample of work
reflection on process of creating sample of work
reflection on growth
teacher or peer comments
description of knowledge/skills work indicatesc. to showcase student
perceptions of favorite, best or most importantsamples of student's
favorite, best or most important work
drafts of that work to illustrate path taken to its final form
commentary on strengths/weaknesses of work
reflection on why it is favorite, best or most important

reflection on what has been learned from work


teacher
or
peer
commentsd.
to
communicate
a
student's
current
aptituderepresentative sample of current work
match of work with standards accomplished
self-reflection on current aptitudes
teacher reflection on student's aptitudes
identification
of
future
goals
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Evaluation Portfolios: What samples might be included?PurposeSome


possible inclusionsa. to document achievement for gradingsamples of
representative work in each subject/unit/topic to be graded
samples of work documenting level of achievement on course/grade-level
goals/standards/objectives
tests/scores
rubrics/criteria used for evaluation of work (when applied)
self-reflection on how well samples indicate attainment ofcourse/gradelevel goals/standards/objectives
teacher reflection of attainment of goals/standards
identification of strengths/weaknessesb. to document progress towards
standardslist of applicable goals and standards
representative samples of work aligned with respective goals/standards
rubrics/criteria used for evaluation of work
self-reflection on how well samples indicate attainment ofcourse/gradelevel goals/standards/objectives
teacher reflection of attainment of goals/standards
analysis or evidence of progress made toward standards over course of
semester/yearc. to place students appropriatelyrepresentative samples of
current work
representative samples of earlier work to indicate rate of progress
classroom tests/scores
external tests/evaluations
match of work with standards accomplished
self-reflection on current aptitudes
teacher reflection on student's aptitudes
parent reflection on student's aptitudes
other professionals' reflections on student's aptitudes
Other Content
In addition to samples of student work and reflection upon that work, a
portfolio might also include a table of contents or a cover letter (both
typically composed by the student) to aid a reader in making sense of the
purposes, processes and contents of the portfolio. This can be
particularly useful if the portfolio is to be shared with external
audiences unfamiliar with the coursework such as parents, other educators
and
community
members.
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Process: What processes will be engaged in during the development of the


portfolio?
One of the greatest attributes of the portfolio is its potential for
focusing on the processes of learning. Too often in education we
emphasize the products students create or the outcomes they achieve. But
we do not give sufficient attention to the processes required to create

those products or outcomes, the processes involved in self-diagnosis and


self-improvement, or the metacognitive processes of thinking. As a
result, the products or outcomes are not as good as we or the students
would like because they are often unsure how to get started, how to selfdiagnose or self-correct or how to determine when a piece of work is
"finished."
Although a variety of processes can be developed or explored through
portfolios, I will focus on three of the most common:
selection of contents of the portfolio;
reflection on the samples of work and processes;
conferencing about the contents and processes.

Selection of Contents
Once again, identifying the purpose(s) for the portfolio should drive the
selection process. As listed in the tables above, different samples of
student
work
will
likely
be
selected
for
different
purposes.
Additionally, how samples are selected might also differ depending on the
purpose. For example, for an evaluation portfolio, the teacher might
decide which samples need to be included to evaluate student progress. On
the other hand, including the student in the decision-making process of
determining appropriate types of samples for inclusion might be more
critical for a growth portfolio to promote meaningful reflection.
Finally, a showcase portfolio might be designed to include significant
input from the student on which samples best highlight achievement and
progress, or the teacher might primarily make those decisions.
Furthermore, audiences beyond the teacher and student might have input
into the content of the porfolio, from team or department members,
principals and district committees to external agencies to parents and
community members. External audiences are most likely to play a role for
evaluation portfolios. However, it is important to remember there are no
hard rules about portfolios. Anything can be included in a portfolio.
Anyone can be involved in the processes of selection, reflection and
evaluation of a portfolio. Flexibility applies to portfolios as it does
to any authentic assessment. That is, you should be true to your
purpose(s), but you should feel no constraints on how you meet them with
a
portfolio
assignment.
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How might the selection take place?
What I will describe below are just a few of the many possible avenues
for selecting which samples will be included in a portfolio. But these
examples should give you a good sense of some of the choices and some of
the decisions involved.
When?
when a sample of work is completed -- at the point a piece of work is
ready to be turned in (or once the work has been returned by the teacher)
the student or teacher identifies that work for inclusion in the
portfolio;
at periodic intervals -- instead of selecting samples when they are
completed, the samples can be stored so that selection might occur every
two (three, six or nine) weeks or once (twice or three times) every
quarter (trimester or semester);
at the end of the ... unit, quarter, semester, year, etc.

By whom?

by the student -- students are the most common selectors, particularly


for portfolios that ask them to reflect on the work selected. Which work
students select depends on the criteria used to choose each piece (see
below).
by the teacher -- teachers may be the selector, particularly when
identifying best pieces of work to showcase a student's strengths or
accomplishments.
by the student and teacher -- sometimes portfolio selection is a joint
process involving conversation and collaboration.
by peers -- a student might be assigned a "portfolio partner" or
"portfolio buddy" who assists the student in selecting appropriate pieces
of work often as part of a joint process involving conversation and
collaboration. A peer might also provide some reflection on a piece of
work to be included in the portfolio.
by parents -- parents might also be asked to select a piece or two for
inclusion that they particularly found impressive, surprising, reflective
of improvement, etc.
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Based on what criteria?
best work -- selection for showcase portfolios will typically focus on
samples of work that illustrate students' best performance in designated
areas or the culmination of progress made
evidence of growth -- selection for growth portfolios will focus on
identifying samples of work and work processes (e.g., drafts, notes) that
best capture progress shown on designated tasks, processes or acquisition
of knowledge and skills. For example, students might be asked to choose
samples of earlier and later work highlighting some skill or content area
samples of rough drafts and final drafts
work that traces the development of a particular product or performance
samples of work reflecting specifically identified strengths and
weaknesses
evidence of achievement -- particularly for showcase and evaluation
portfolios, selection might focus on samples of work that illustrate
current levels of competence in designated areas or particular exemplars
of quality work
evidence of standards met -- similarly, selection could focus on samples
of work that illustrate how successfully students have met certain
standards
favorite/most important piece -- to help develop recognition of the value
of the work completed and to foster pride in that work, selection might
focus on samples to which students or parents or others find a connection
or with which they are particularly enamored
one or more of the above -- a portfolio can include samples of work for
multiple reasons and, thus, more than one of the above criteria (or
others) could be used for selecting samples to be included
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Reflection on Samples of Work
Many educators who work with portfolios consider the reflection component
the most critical element of a good portfolio. Simply selecting samples
of work as described above can produce meaningful stories about students,
and others can benefit from "reading" these stories. But the students
themselves are missing significant benefits of the portfolio process if

they are not asked to reflect upon the quality and growth of their work.
As Paulson, Paulson and Meyer (1991) stated, "The portfolio is something
that is done by the student, not to the student." Most importantly, it is
something done for the student. The student needs to be directly involved
in each phase of the portfolio development to learn the most from it, and
the reflection phase holds the most promise for promoting student growth.
In the reflection phase students are typically asked to
comment on why specific samples were selected or
comment on what they liked and did not like in the samples or
comment on or identify the processes involved in developing specific
products or performances or
describe and point to examples of how specific skills or knowledge
improved (or did not) or
identify strengths and weaknesses in samples of work or
set goals for themselves corresponding to the strengths and weaknesses or
identify strategies for reaching those goals or
assess their past and current self-efficacy for a task or skill or
complete a checklist or survey about their work or
some combination of the above
Reflection sheets
Probably the most common portfolio reflection task is the completion of a
sheet to be attached to the sample (or samples) of work which the
reflection is addressing. The possibilities for reflection questions or
prompts are endless, but some examples I have seen include HYPERLINK
"http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/portfolios.htm" \l "top"
Selection questions/prompts
Why did you select this piece?
Why should this sample be included in your portfolio?
How does this sample meet the criteria for selection for your portfolio?
I chose this piece because ....
Growth questions/prompts
What are the strengths of this work? Weaknesses?
What would you work on more if you had additional time?
How has your ______ (e.g., writing) changed since last year?
What do you know about ______ (e.g., the scientific method) that you did
not know at the beginning of the year (or semester, etc.)?
Looking at (or thinking about) an earlier piece of similar work, how does
this new piece of work compare? How is it better or worse? Where can you
see progress or improvement?
How did you get "stuck" working on this task? How did you get "unstuck"?
One skill I could not perform very well but now I can is ....
From reviewing this piece I learned ....
Goal-setting questions/prompts
What is one thing you can improve upon in this piece?
What is a realistic goal for the end of the quarter (semester, year)?
What is one way you will try to improve your ____ (e.g., writing)?
One thing I still need to work on is ....
I will work toward my goal by ....
Evaluation questions/prompts
If you were a teacher and grading your work, what grade would you give it
and why?
Using the appropriate rubric, give yourself a score and justify it with
specific traits from the rubric.
What do you like or not like about this piece of work?

I like this piece of work because ....


Effort questions/prompts
How much time did you spend on this product/performance?
The work would have been better if I had spent more time on ....
I am pleased that I put significant effort into ....
Overall portfolio questions/prompts
What would you like your _____ (e.g., parents) to know about or see in
your portfolio?
What does the portfolio as a whole reveal about you as a learner (writer,
thinker, etc.)?
A feature of this portfolio I particularly like is ....
In this portfolio I see evidence of ....
As mentioned above, students (or others) can respond to such questions or
prompts when a piece of work is completed, while a work is in progress or
at periodic intervals after the work has been collected. Furthermore,
these questions or prompts can be answered by the student, the teacher,
parents, peers or anyone else in any combination that best serves the
purposes
of
the
portfolio.
HYPERLINK
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Other reflection methods
In addition to reflection sheets, teachers have devised a myriad of means
of inducing reflection from students and others about the collection of
work included in the portfolio. For example, those engaging in reflection
can
write a letter to a specific audience about the story the portfolio
communicates
write a "biography" of a piece of work tracing its development and the
learning that resulted
write periodic journal entries about the progress of the portfolio
compose an imaginary new "chapter" that picks up where the story of the
portfolio leaves off
orally share reflections on any of the above questions/prompts
Reflection as a process skill
Good skill development requires four steps:
Instruction and modeling of the skill;
Practice of the skill;
Feedback on one's practice;
Reflection on the practice and feedback.
Reflection itself is a skill that enhances the process of skill
development and virtually all learning in innumerable settings. Those of
us who are educators, for example, need to continually reflect upon what
is working or not working in our teaching, how we can improve what we are
doing, how we can help our students make connections to what they are
learning, and much, much more. Thus, it is critical for students to learn
to effectively reflect upon their learning and growth. HYPERLINK
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As a skill, reflection is not something that can be mastered in one or
two attempts. Developing good reflective skills requires instruction and
modeling, lots of practice, feedback and reflection. As many of you have
probably encountered, when students are first asked to respond to prompts
such as "I selected this piece because..." they may respond with "I think
it is nice." Okay, that's a start. But we would like them to elaborate on
that response. The fact that they did not initially elaborate is probably
not just a result of resistance or reluctance. Students need to learn how

to respond to such prompts. They need to learn how to effectively


identify strengths and weaknesses, to set realistic goals for themselves
and their work, and to develop meaningful strategies to address those
goals. Students often have become dependent upon adults, particularly
teachers, to evaluate their work. They need to learn self-assessment.
So, the reflection phase of the portfolio process should be ongoing
throughout the portfolio development. Students need to engage in multiple
reflective activities. Those instances of reflection become particularly
focused if goal-setting is part of their reflection. Just as instruction
and assessment are more appropriately targeted if they are tied to
specific standards or goals, student identification of and reflection
upon strengths and weaknesses, examples of progress, and strategies for
improvement will be more meaningful and purposeful if they are directed
toward specific goals, particularly self-chosen goals.
Once opportunities for reflection (practice) take place, feedback to and
further reflection upon student observations can be provided by
conversations with others. Conferencing is one tool to promote such
feedback and reflection.
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Conferencing on Student Work and Processes
With 20 or 30 or more students in a classroom, one-on-one conversations
between the teacher and student are difficult to regularly arrange. That
is unfortunate because the give and take of face-to-face interaction can
provide the teacher with valuable information about the student's
thinking and progress and provide the student with meaningful feedback.
Such feedback is also more likely to be processed by the student than
comments written on paper.
Conferencing typically takes several forms:
teacher/student -- sometimes teachers are able to informally meet with a
few students, one at a time, as the other students work on some task in
class. Other times, teachers use class time to schedule one-on-one
conferences during "conference days." Some teachers are able to schedule
conferences outside of class time. Typically such conferences take only a
few minutes, but they give the teacher and the student time to recap
progress, ask questions, and consider suggestions or strategies for
improvement.
teacher/small group -- other teachers, often in composition classes, meet
with a few students at a time to discuss issues and questions that are
raised, sharing common problems and reflections across students.
student/student -- to conserve time as well as to give students the
opportunity to learn how to provide feedback along with receiving it,
teachers sometimes structure peer-to-peer conferencing. The focus might
be teacher-directed (e.g., "share with each other a sample of work you
recently selected for your portfolio") or student-directed (e.g.,
students use the time to get feedback on some work for a purpose they
determine).

HYPERLINK
"http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/portfolios.htm" \l "top"
Management: How will time and materials be managed in the development of
the portfolio?
As appealing as the process of students developing a portfolio can be,
the physical and time constraints of such a process can be daunting.

Where do you keep all the stuff? How do you keep track of it? Who gets
access to it and when? Should you manage paper or create an electronic
portfolio? Does some work get sent home before it is put in the
portfolio? Will it come back? When will you find the time for students to
participate, to reflect, to conference? What about students who join your
class in the middle of the semester or year?
There is one answer to all these questions that can make the task less
daunting: start small! That is good advice for many endeavors, but
particularly for portfolios because there are so many factors to
consider, develop and manage over a long period of time. In the final
section of this chapter (Can I do portfolios without all the fuss?) I
will elaborate on how you can get your feet wet with portfolios and avoid
drowning in the many decisions described below.
How you answer the many management questions below depends, in part, on
how you answered earlier questions about your purpose, audience, content
and process. Return to those answers to help you address the following
decisions:
Management DecisionsPossible SolutionsShould the portfolio building
process wait until the end or should it occur as you go?The easiest
solution is to collect work samples along the way but save the selection
and reflection until the end, keeping selection simple and limiting the
amount of reflection.
The more involved (and more common) approach is for participants to
periodically make selections and to engage in reflection throughout the
process. This gives the student time to respond to identified weaknesses
and to address goals set.Will the portfolios be composed of paper or
stored electronically (or both)?Paper Portfolio: As you know, the most
common form of portfolios is a collection of paper products such as
essays, problem sets, journal entries, posters, etc. Most products
produced in classrooms are still in paper form, so it makes sense to find
ways to collect, select from and reflect upon these items.
Hybrid Portfolio: Other forms of products are increasingly available,
however, so teachers are adding videotapes, audiotapes, 3-D models,
artwork and more to the containers holding the paper products.
Electronic Portfolio: Since many of the paper products are now first
created in an electronic format, it makes sense to consider keeping some
samples of work in that format. Storage is much easier and portability is
significantly increased. Additionally, as it becomes easier to digitize
almost any media it is possible to add audio and video examples of
student work to the electronic portfolio. A considerable amount of work
can be burned to a CD or DVD or displayed on a website. An electronic
compilation can be shared with a larger audience and more easily follow a
student to other grades, teachers and schools. Copies can be made and
kept.Where will the work samples and reflections be kept?Obviously, the
answer to this question depends on your answer to the previous question
about storage format. The possible solutions I describe below will assume
that you have chosen an option that includes at least some paper
products.
A common model for portfolio maintenance is to have two folders for each
student -- a working folder and a portfolio folder. As work samples are
produced they are stored in the working folder. Students (or other
selectors) would periodically review the working folder to select certain
pieces to be included in the portfolio folder. Usually reflection

accompanies the selection process. For example, a reflection sheet may be


attached to each piece before it is placed in the portfolio.
In addition to manilla or hanging folders, portfolio contents have also
been stored in pizza or laundry detergent boxes, cabinets, binders and
accordian folders (Rolheiser, Bower & Stevahn, 2000).
For older students, some teachers have the students keep the work
samples. Then they are periodically asked to select from and reflect upon
the work. Students might only keep the working folders while the teacher
manages the portfolio folders.
As a parent, I know I also would like to look at my child's work before
the end of the semester or year. So, some teachers send work home in
carefully structured folders. One side of a two-pocket folder might be
labeled "keep at home" while the other side might be labeled "return to
school." The work likely to end up in the portfolio would be sent home in
the "return to school" pocket.Who will be responsible for saving/storing
them?Typically the teacher keep the contents of the portfolio as they are
usually stored in the classroom.
Older students (and sometimes younger ones) are also given the
responsibility of managing their portfolios in the classroom, making sure
all samples make it into the appropriate folders/containers, remain
there, are put back when removed, and are kept neatly organized.
As mentioned above, older students sometimes are required to keep track
of their work outside the classroom, bringing it to class on certain days
for reflection and other tasks.
For electronic portfolios, it usually depends on teacher preference and
whether or not students have access to storage space on the network or
can save samples locally, or burn them to CDs or DVD, or add them to
websites.Who will have access to it, and when?Who? Again, that depends on
the purposes for the portfolio.
Usually the teacher and student will have access to the working folder or
the final samples.
But, for some types of showcase portfolios, only the teacher might have
access because she is constructing the portfolio about the student.
For older students, the teacher might only have limited access as the
student controls the portfolio's development.
Parents might have access and input as samples of work are sent home.
Other educators might also have access to final portfolios for larger
evaluative purposes.
When?
Typically, students and teachers contribute samples to a working folder
as they are created. Access to a portfolio folder is gained on a more
regular schedule as times for selection and reflection are scheduled.
Parents or other educators might have access at certain intervals
depending on the purpose of the portfolio and the process that has been
chosen.How will portfolio progress be tracked?A checklist sheet is
sometimes attached to the front of a folder so that the teacher or the
student can keep track of when and which samples have been added, which
have been removed (temporarily or permanently), when reflections have
been completed, when conferences have taken place, and whether or not any
other requirements have been completed.
The teacher might just keep a schedule of when selections, reflections or
conferences are to take place.
Older students might be required to keep track of the process to make
sure all requirements are met.What will the final product look like?Once

again, this depends on the purposes and audiences for the portfolio, as
well as the type of contents to be included.
Showcase portfolios will typically have a more formal and polished
presentation. A cover letter or introduction along with a table of
contents might be included to provide context for a potentially wide
range of readers, and to give the student or teacher a chance to more
fully flesh out the student's story.
Growth or evaluation portfolios might have a less formal presentation,
unless the evaluation is part of a high stakes assessment. If the student
and teacher are the primary readers, less context is needed. However, if
parents are the primary or a significant intended audience, more
explanation or context will be needed.What if students join your class in
the middle of the process?Obviously, one advantage of choosing to build
the portfolio at the end of a period of time rather than build it along
the way (see the first question) is that transient students can still
easily participate. They have less work to consider, but they can still
engage in the selection and reflection process.
If selection and reflection occur as work is being produced, the new
student can simply join the process in progress. Some adaptation will
likely be necessary, but the student can still demonstrate growth or
competence over a shorter period of time.
If the portfolio is also to be evaluated, further adjustment will need to
be made.
Communication: How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent
audiences?
Why share the portfolio?
By the nature of the purposes of portfolios -- to show growth, to
showcase excellence -- portfolios are meant to be shared. The samples,
reflections and other contents allow or invite others to observe and
celebrate students' progress and accomplishments. A portfolio should tell
a story, and that story should be told.
Students should primarily be the ones telling their stories. As students
reflect on the balance of their work over some period of time, there is
often a great sense of pride at the growth and the accomplishment. By
telling their own stories students can take ownership of the process that
led to the growth and achievement. Assessment is no longer something done
to them; the students are playing an active role through self-assessment.
Furthermore, others will be able to recognize and celebrate in the growth
and accomplishment of the students if their work is communicated beyond
the borders of the classroom. A portfolio provides a unique vehicle for
capturing and communicating student learning. Parents tend to learn more
about their children's abilities and propensities through a portfolio
than they do through the odd assignment that makes it home and into the
parents' hands. Moreover, other interested members of the school and
local community can recognize and celebrate the accomplishment.
Finally, the portfolio can provide an excellent tool for accountability.
Parents, educators and community members can learn a great deal about
what is happening in a classroom or school or district by viewing and
hearing about the contents of these stories. Perhaps more importantly,
the student and teacher can uncover a vivid picture of where the student
was, where she has traveled to, how she got there and what she
accomplished along the way -- a fascinating and enlightening story.
Considering the audience

Of course, deciding how to tell the story will be influenced by the


intended audience. For example, presenting a collection of work to a
teacher who is already familiar with much of the content will likely
require a different approach than presenting that work as part of a
college application.
Audiences within the classroom
In some classrooms, a portfolio is used much like other assignments as
evidence of progress towards or completion of course or grade level goals
and standards. In such cases, the only audience might be the teacher who
evaluates all the student work. To effectively communicate with the
teacher about a body of work, the student may be asked to write a brief
introduction or overview capturing her perceptions of the progress (for a
growth portfolio) or accomplishments (for a showcase portfolio) reflected
in the collection of work. Teachers who assign portfolios not only want
to see student work but want to see students reflect upon it.
As a classroom assessor, the teacher also has the benefit of
communicating face-to-face with each student. Such conferences take a
variety of forms and vary in their frequency. For example,
A teacher might review a portfolio at one or more intervals, and then
prepare questions for the face-to-face conversation with each student;
A student might run the conference by taking the teacher through her
portfolio, highlighting elements consistent with the purpose of the
portfolio;
A "pre-conference" might occur in which teacher and student discuss how
the portfolio should be constructed to best showcase it or best prepare
it for evaluation.
Additionally, classmates can serve as an audience for a portfolio.
Particulary for older students, some teachers require or encourage
students to present their portfolios to each other for feedback, dialogue
and modeling. For example,
Pairs of students can review each other's work to provide feedback,
identify strengths and weaknesses, and suggest future goals;
Sharing with each other also provides an opportunity to tell a story or
just brag;
Students can always benefit from seeing good (or poor) models of work as
well as models of meaningful reflection and goal-setting.
As students hear themselves tell each other about the value and meaning
of their work it will become more valuable and meaningful to them.
Audiences within the family and school community
As many of us have experienced with our own children, parents sometimes
only receive a small, fragmented picture of their children's school work.
Some work never makes it home, some is lost, some is hidden, etc. It can
be even harder for parents to construct a coherent picture out of that
work to get a real sense of student growth or accomplishment or progress
toward a set of standards.
Portfolios provide an opportunity to give parents a fuller glimpse of the
processes and products and progress of their children's learning. Many
teachers intentionally involve the parents in the development of the
portfolio or make parents an audience or both.
For example, to involve parents in the process,
teachers make sure parents view most student work on a consistent basis;
for example,
some teachers require students to get much of their work signed by
parents to be returned to school;

some teachers send work home in a two-pocket folder in which one pocket
contains work that can stay home and the other pocket contains work that
can be viewed by parents but should be returned to school, each pocket
carefully labeled as such;
some teachers use a three-pocket folder in which the third pocket is a
place parents can pass along notes or comments or questions;
teachers also invite parents to provide feedback or ask questions about
student work; for example,
a reflection sheet, perhaps similar to the ones students complete, can be
attached to some of the pieces of work sent home inviting parents to make
comments, ask questions or provide evaluation;
parents might be invited to provide a summary reflection of work they
have seen so far;
or simply identify one or two pieces of work or aspects of their
children's work that they most like or are most surprised about.
To share the portfolio with parents,
many schools host Portfolio Nights, at which students often guide their
parent or parents through the story of their work. Having the Night at
school allows the student to more easily share the variety of two- and
three-dimensional work they have created.
after teacher evaluation of the portfolio (if that is done), the complete
portfolio might be sent home for the parents to view and possibly respond
to. This might occur once at the end of the process or periodically along
the way.
A Portfolio Night also provides an opportunity for other members of the
school or larger community to view student portfolios. The portfolios may
simply be on display to be sampled, or students might guide other
audiences through their work.
Similarly, during the school day students can share their portfolios with
students from other classes or with school personnel.
Audiences beyond the classroom, school and family
An external audience for student work can serve to motivate students to
give more attention to and take more seriously their performance. First,
it may give more legitimacy to assigned work. If the work is to be
externally reviewed, it suggests that it is not simply "busy work" that
provides a grade but that it is something authentic valued outside the
walls of the classroom. Second, some students may take more care in their
work when they believe a new, different, and perhaps expert audience will
be viewing it.
To extend the audience beyond the classroom, school and family, teachers
have adopted a variety of approaches, including
expanding the audience at Portfolio Nights to include a larger community,
perhaps even authors, or scientists or other professionals relevant to
the work in the portfolio;
inviting professionals or experts in a particular field to come listen to
presentations of the portfolios;
inviting professionals or experts to serve as one of the reviewers or
evaluators of the portfolios;
encourage or require students to share their work with a larger audience
through the Web or other media. Publishing on the Web also allows
students to solicit comments or questions.
Preparing the student to share
Just as we do not expect children to write or speak well without
considerable instruction and practice, it is not reasonable to expect

students to effortlessly and effectively share their stories without some


help. Teachers have devised a number of strategies to prepare students to
communicate with the target audience. Some such strategies include
pairing up students in class ("portfolio partners") to practice
presenting their work to each other;
pairing up the author of the portfolio with an older student a few grades
above. The younger student would practice presenting her work as if she
is presenting it to the intended audience (e.g., parents at a Portfolio
Night). Both students can benefit as the older student provides feedback
and encouragement and may increase her own self-efficacy for the task
through modeling and tutoring the younger student.
providing models. Teachers provide models of good portfolios that
illustrate how the product itself can effectively communicate with an
audience through the way it is constructed. Teachers can also model the
process of communication by walking through how he or she would share a
portfolio with a specific audience.

Evaluation: If the portfolio is to be used for evaluation, how and when


should it be evaluated?
As with all of the elements of portfolios described above, how and when
evaluation is addressed varies widely across teachers, schools and
districts. Take, for example,
Evaluation vs. Grading
Evaluation refers to the act of making a judgment about something.
Grading takes that process one step further by assigning a grade to that
judgment. Evaluation may be sufficient for a portfolio assignment. What
is (are) the purpose(s) of the portfolio? If the purpose is to
demonstrate growth, the teacher could make judgments about the evidence
of progress and provide those judgments as feedback to the student or
make note of them for her own records. Similarly, the student could selfassess progress shown or not shown, goals met or not met. No grade needs
to be assigned. On a larger scale, an evaluation of the contents within
the portfolio or of the entire package may be conducted by external
bodies (e.g., community members, other educators, state boards) for the
purpose of judging completion of certain standards or requirements.
Although the evaluation is serious, and graduation might even hinge on
it, no classroom grade may be assigned.
On the other hand, the work within the portfolio and the process of
assembling and reflecting upon the portfolio may comprise such a
significant portion of a student's work in a grade or class that the
teacher deems it appropriate to assign a value to it and incorporate it
into the student's final grade. Alternatively, some teachers assign
grades because they believe without grades there would not be sufficient
incentive for some students to complete the portfolio. Ahh, but
What to Grade
Nothing. Some teachers choose not to grade the portfolio because they
have already assigned grades to the contents selected for inclusion.
The metacognitive and organizational elements. But the portfolio is more
than just a collection of student work. Depending on its purpose,
students might have also included reflections on growth, on strengths and
weaknesses, on goals that were or are to be set, on why certain samples
tell a certain story about them, or on why the contents reflect
sufficient progress to indicate completion of designated standards. Some
of the process skills may also be part of the teacher's or school's or

district's standards. So, the portfolio provides some evidence of


attainment of those standards. Any or all of these elements can be
evaluated and/or graded.
Completion. Some portfolios are graded simply on whether or not the
portfolio was completed.
Everything. Other teachers evaluate the entire package: the selected
samples of student work as well as the reflection, organization and
presentation of the portfolio.
How to Grade/Evaluate
Most of the portfolio assignments I have seen have been evaluated or
graded with a rubric. A great deal of personal judgment goes into
evaluating a complex product such as a portfolio. Thus, applying a
rubric, a tool which can provide some clarity and consistency to the
evaluation of such products, to the judgment of quality of the story
being told and the elements making up that story makes sense. Moreover,
if the portfolio is to be evaluated my multiple judges, application of a
rubric increases the likelihood of consistency among the judges.
Examples of Portfolio Rubrics
What might a portfolio rubric look like? If the focus of the grading is
primarily on whether the samples of student work within the portfolio
demonstrate certain competencies, the criteria within the rubric will
target those competencies. For example,
Evaluating competencies
HYPERLINK "http://www.ele.uri.edu/advising/portfoliochk.html" Electrical
and computer engineering portfolio rubric
Or, Completing requirements
HYPERLINK
"http://www.und.edu/dept/honors/web_assets/pdfs/SHP
%20evaluation%20form.pdf" Sophomore honors program portfolio rubric - to
gain admission
Meeting standards
HYPERLINK "http://www.idhsaa.org/regforms/PortfolioDualEnrollment.pdf"
State of Idaho portfolio rubric
Evaluating the portfolio as a whole
HYPERLINK "http://www.slvhs.slv.k12.ca.us/srportfolio/rubric.htm" Senior
exit portfolio rubric - very detailed criteria
HYPERLINK
"http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/eportfoliorubric.html"
Electronic portfolio rubric - very detailed criteria

Who evaluates
The more we can involve students in the assessment process, the more
likely they will take ownership of it, be engaged in it, and find it
worthwhile. So, it makes sense to involve students in the evaluation
process of their portfolios as well. They have likely engaged in some
self-assessment in the reflection or goal-setting components of the
portfolio. Additionally, students are capable of evaluating how well
their portfolio elements meet standards, requirements, or competencies,
for their own portfolios or those of their peers. Furthermore, older
peers could make excellent judges of the work of younger students. Crossgrade peer tutoring has demonstrated how well the older and younger
students respond to such interactions.
Obviously, the classroom teacher, other educators, review board members,
community members, etc. can all serve as judges of student work. If
multiple judges are used, particularly if they are not directly familiar
with the student work or assignments, training on a rubric should be

provided before evaluation proceeds. The evaluators should be familiar


with and clear on the criteria and the levels of performance within the
rubric. A calibration session, in which the judges evaluate some sample
portfolios and then share ratings to reach some consensus on what each
criteria and level of performance within the rubric means, can provide a
good opportunity for judges to achieve some competence and consistency in
applying a rubric.

Can I do Portfolios Without all the Fuss?


Oh, what fun would that be! Actually, the answer is a qualified "yes."
Portfolios do typically require considerable work, particularly if
conferencing is involved. But with most anything, including assessment, I
recommend that you start small.
Here's a quick, easy way to get started if any of the above thoughts has
either encouraged you or not discouraged you from considering assigning
portfolios in your little world. The following describes just one
possible way to get started.
Step 1. Depending on the age of your students and other considerations,
have students select two pieces of their work over the course of a
quarter (or three or four over a semester). Decide (with your students or
without) upon one or more criteria by which the selection will be guided
(e.g., their best work). To limit management time, don't wait for the end
of the quarter for students to make those selections. Otherwise, all
their work will have to be collected along the way. Instead, if you want
to keep it simple, tell your students ahead of time that they will be
selecting two or more pieces matching certain criteria, and that you will
ask them to do it at the point each sample is completed.
Step 2. At the time a student selects a sample to be included in his
portfolio, require the student to complete a brief reflection sheet and
attach it to the sample.
Step 3. Depending on the age of your students, ask your student to save
that sample and the attached reflection sheet until the end of the
quarter or semester, or collect it and store it yourself at that point.
Step 4. At the end of the quarter or semester, ask your students to
reflect upon the samples one additional time by describing what they
liked best about their work, or by identifying strengths and weaknesses,
or by setting one or two goals for the future.
There, that wasn't too painful. Okay, you ask, that was relatively
simple, but did it really accomplish anything? Good question. If you
don't think so, don't do it. On the other hand, it could possibly have a
few benefits worth the effort. First, if nothing else it gave you some
experience working with portfolios. If you want to pursue portfolios in a
more elaborate manner, at least you are now more familiar with some of
the issues involved. Second, if you think developing self-assessment
skills in your students is a worthwhile goal, you have also begun that
process. Even a little reflection on your students' part may be more than
some of them typically give to their work. Finally, you may have opened,
even if it is just a little bit, a new avenue for you and your students
to communicate with their parents about their performance, their
strengths and weaknesses, and their habits. Any of those reasons may be
sufficient to try your hand at portfolios. Good luck!
Pengertian Portofolio
Pengertian Portofolio, Secara etimologi, portofolio berasal dari dua
kata, yaitu port (singkatan dari report) yang berarti laporan dan folio

yang berarti penuh atau lengkap. Jadi portofolio berarti laporan lengkap
segala aktivitas seseorang yang dilakukannnya (Erman S. A., 2003 dalam
Nahadi dan Cartono, 2007). Secara umum portofolio merupakan kumpulan
dokumen seseorang, kelompok, lembaga, organisasi, perusahaan atau
sejenisnya yang bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan perkembangan suatu
proses dalam mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan.
Terdapat beberapa macam portofolio. Dalam kesenian misalnya, portofolio
berarti kumpulan hasil karya terbaik dari seorang seniman yang sengaja
diadakan untuk keperluan galeri pameran. Dalam dunia pendidikan
portofolio adalah kumpulan hasil karya seorang siswa sebagai hasil
pelaksanaan tugas kinerja yang ditentukan guru atau oleh siswa bersama
guru. Portofolio dalam pendidikan adalah bagian dari usaha dalam mencapai
tujuan belajar atau mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum.
Sehingga tidak setiap kumpulan karya siswa disebut sebagai portofolio.
Paulson (1991) dalam Nahadi dan Cartono (2007) mendefinisikan portofolio
sebagai kumpulan pekerjaan siswa yang menunjukan usaha, perkembangan dan
kecakapan mereka dalam satu bidang atau lebih. Kumpulan ini harus
mencakup partisipasi siswa dalam seleksi isi, kriteria isi, kriteria
seleksi, kriteria penilaian, dan bukti refleksi diri.
Menurut Gronlund (1998 : 159) portofolio mencakup berbagai contoh
pekerjaan siswa yang tergantung pada keluasan tujuan. Apa yang harus
tersurat, tergantung pada subjek dan tujuan penggunaan portofolio. Contoh
pekerjaan siswa ini memberikan dasar bagi pertimbangan kemajuan
belajarnya dan dapat dikomunikasikan kepada siswa, orang tua serta pihak
lain yang tertarik berkepentingan.
Portofolio dapat digunakan untuk mendokementasikan perkembangan siswa.
Kerena menyadari proses belajar sangat penting untuk keberhasilan hidup,
portofolio dapat digunakan oleh siswa untuk melihat kemajuan mereka
sendiri terutama dalam hal perkembangan, sikap keterampilan dan
ekspresinya terhadap sesuatu.
Portofolio mencakup berbagai contoh pekerjaan siswa yang tergantung pada
keluasan tujuan. Contoh pekerjaan siswa ini memberikan dasar bagi
pertimbangan bagi kemajuan belajarnya dan dapat dikomunikasikan dengan
siswa, orang tua serta pihak lain yang berkepentingan. Sehingga
portofolio dapat digunakan untuk mendokumentasikan perkembangan siswa
dalam setiap kegiatan dan proses pembelajaran. Secara umum, dalam dunia
pendidikan portofolio merupakan kumpulan hasil karya siswa atau catatan
mengenai siswa yang didokumentasikan secara baik dan teratur. Portofolio
dapat berbentuk tugas-tugas yang dikerjakan siswa, jawaban siswa atas
pertanyaan guru, catatan hasil observasi guru, catatan hasil wawancara
guru dengan siswa, laporan kegiatan siswa dan karangan atau jurnalyang
dibuat siswa.
Portofolio adalah kumpulan hasil karya seorang siswa, sebagai hasil
pelaksanaan tugas kinerja, yang ditentukan oleh guru atau oleh siswa
bersama guru, sebagai bagian dari uasaha mencapai tujuan belajar, atau
mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum.
Portofolio dalam arti ini, dapat digunakan sebagai instrumen penilaian
atau salah satu komponen dari instrumen penilaian, untuk menilai
kompetensi siswa, atau menilai hasil belajar siswa. Portofolio demikian
disebut juga portofolio untuk penilaian atau portofolio penilaian.
Pengertian Penilaian Portofolio
Penilaian portofolio merupakan satu metode penilaian berkesinambungan,
dengan mengumpulkan informasi atau data secara sistematik atas hasil
pekerjaan
seseorang
(Pomham,
1984).

Aspek yang diukur dalam penilaian portofolio adalah tiga domain


perkembangan psikologi anak yaitu kognitif, afektif dan psikomotorik.
Penilaian Portofolio
Portofolio dapat diartikan sebagai suatu wujud benda fisik, sebagai suatu
proses sosial pedagogis, maupun sebagai ajektif. Sebagai suatu wujud
benda fisik portofolio adalah bundel, yaitu kumpulan atau dokumentasi
hasil pekerjaan peserta didik yang disimpan pada suatu bundel. Misalnya
hasil tes awal (pre-test), tugas, catatan anekdot, piagam penghargaan,
keterangan melaksanakan tugas terstruktur, hasil tes akhir (post-test)
dan sebagainya. Sebagai suatu proses sosial pedagogis, portofolio adalah
collection of learning experience yang terdapat di dalam pikiran peserta
didik baik yang berwujud pengetahuan (kognitif), keterampilan (skill),
maupun sikap (afektif). Adapun sebagai suatu ajektif portofolio
seringkali dihubungkan dengan konsep pembelajaran atau penilaian yang
dikenal dengan istilah pembelajaran berbasis portofolio atau penilaian
berbasis portofolio.
Portofolio
Sebagai
benda
fisik
(bundle
atau
dokumen)
Sebagai
suatu
proses
social
Sebagai adjective (Pembelajaran portofolio, assesmen portofolio)
Portofolio sebagai hasil pelaksanaan tugas kinerja, yang ditentukan oleh
guru atau oleh siswa bersama guru, sebagai bagian dari usaha mencapai
tujuan belajar, atau mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum.
Portofolio dalam arti ini, dapat digunakan sebagai instrument penilaian
atau salah satu komponen dari instrument penilaian, untuk menilai
kompetensi siswa, atau menilai hasil belajar siswa. Portofolio demikian
disebut juga portofolio untuk penilaian atau asesmen portofolio.
Berdasarkan
pengertian
tentang
evaluasi,
penilaian,
asesmen
dan
portofolio, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa asesmen portofolio dalam
pembelajaran kimia dapat diartikan sebagai suatu usaha untuk memperoleh
berbagai informasi secara berkala, berkesinambungan, dan menyeluruh
tentang proses, hasil pertumbuhan, perkembangan wawasan pengetahuan,
sikap, dan keterampilan peserta didik yang bersumber dari catatan dan
dokumen pengalaman belajarnya di dalam pembelajaran kimia. Dalam konteks
penilaian, asesmen portofolio juga diartikan sebagai upaya menghimpun
kumpulan karya atau dokumen peserta didik yang tersusun secara sistematis
dan terorganisir yang diambil selama proses pembelajaran, digunakan oleh
guru dan peserta didik dalam mata pelajaran tertentu (Surapranata S dan
Hatta M, 2004 dalam Nahadi danCartono, 2007).
Portofolio siswa untuk penilaian atau assesmen portofolio merupakan
kumpulan produksi siswa, yang berisi berbagai jenis karya seorang siswa,
misalnya:
Hasil proyek, penyelidikan, atau praktik siswa yang disajikan secara
tertulis
atau
dengan
penjelasan
tertulis.
Gambar atau laporan hasil pengamatan siswa, dalam rangka melaksanakan
tugas
untuk
mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
Analisis situasi yang berkaitan atau relevan dengan mata pelajaran yang
bersangkutan.
Deskripsi dan diagram pemecahan suatu masalah dalam mata pelajaran yang
bersangkutan.
Laporan hasil penyelidikan tentang hubungan antara konsep-konsep dalam
mata
pelajaran
atau
antar
mata
pelajaran.
Penyelesaian
soal-soal
terbuka.
Hasil tugas pekerjaan rumah yang khas, misalnya dengan cara yang berbeda

dengan cara yang diajarkan di sekolah, atau dengan cara yang berbeda dari
cara
pilihan
teman-teman
sekelasnya.
Laporan
kerja
kelompok.
Hasil kerja siswa yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan alat rekam vidio,
alat
rekam
audio
dan
computer.
Fotokopi surat piagam atau tanda penghargaan yang pernah diterima oleh
siswa
yang
bersangkutan.
Hasil karya dalam mata pelajaran yang bersangkutan, yang tidak ditugaskan
oleh guru (atas pilihan siswa sendiri, tetapi relevan dengan mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan).
Cerita tentang kesenangan atau ketidaksenangan siswa terhadap mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
Cerita tentang usaha siswa sendiri dalam mengatasi hambatan psikologis,
atau usaha peningkatan diri, dalam mempelajari mata pelajaran yang
bersangkutan.
Laporan tentang sikap siswa terhadap pelajaran.
Untuk menerapkan asesmen portofolio dibutuhkan suatu rubrik atau pedoman
terperinci penilaian. Asesmen portofolio hendaknya tidak hanya ditekankan
kepada keberhasilan siswa dalam memperoleh jawaban yang diinginkan oleh
guru, tetapi lebih ditekankan pada proses berfikir siswa yang terdapat
atau tersirat dalam isi portofolio. Penilaian berbasis kompetensi
mempunyai prinsip belajar tuntas (mastery learning), siswa tidak
diperkenankan
mengerjakan
pekerjaan
berikutnya
sebelum
mampu
menyelesaikan pekerjaan dengan prosedur yang benar, dan hasil yang baik.
Salah satu model yang cocok dengan prinsip tersebut adalah model asesmen
portofolio.
Model asesmen portofolio menggunakan acuan penilaian kriteria, yang
intinya adalah bahwa:
Semua anak memiliki kemampuan yang sama dan bisa belajar apa saja, hanya
waktu yang diperlukan untuk mencapai kemampuan tertentu berbeda.
Standar
ketuntasan
harus
ditentukan
terlebih
dahulu.
Hasil penilaian;lulus atau tidak lulus.
Aspek yang diukur dalam asesmen portofolio adalah tiga ranah perkembangan
psikologi anak yaitu kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotorik.
1. Prilaku kognitif
Berdasarkan taksonomi kognitive Bloom, terdapat enam tingkatan kognitif
berfikir:
Pengetahuan (knowledge) : kemampuan mengingat (misal mengingat rumus)
Pemahaman (comprehension) : kemampuan memahami (menyimpulkan suatu
paragraph)
Aplikasi (application) : kemampuan penerapan (misalnya menggunakan
informasi atau pengetahuan yang diperolehnya untuk memecahkan masalah).
Analisis (analysis) : kemampuan menganalisis suatu informasi yang luas
menjadi bagian-bagian kecil (misalnya menganalisis bentuk, jenis atau
arti)
Sintesis (synthesis) : kemampuan menggabungkan beberapa informasi menjadi
kesimpulan
(misalnya
memformulasikan
hasil
penelitian).
Evaluasi (evaluation) : kemampuan mempertimbangkan mana yang baik untuk
mengambil tindakan tertentu.
2. Prilaku afektif
Mencakup penilaian perasaan, tingkah laku, minat, kesukaan, emosi dan
motivasi.
3. Prilaku psikomotorik

Mencakup penilaian keahlian. Penilaian psikomotorik adalah penilaian


pembelajaran yang banyak menggunakan praktek seperti agama, kesenian,
olahraga, sains dan bahasa, sementara itu untuk mata pelajaran yang tidak
terdapat kegiatan praktek, tidak terdapat penilaian psikomotoriknya.
Bentuk instrument dan jenis tagihan yang digunakan untuk assesmen
portofolio adalah tes tertulis (obyektif dan non-obyektif), tes lisan
(wawancara),
tes
perbuatan
(lembar
pengamatan),
non-tes
(angket,
kuisioner), dan hasil karya (daftar cek, produk dan laporan.
Model Pengembangan PenilaianPortofolio
Posted
on
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\o
"18:30"
7
Agustus
2008
by
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"https://akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/author/akhmadsudrajat/" \o "Lihat
semua pos milik AKHMAD SUDRAJAT" AKHMAD SUDRAJAT
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"https://akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/2008/08/07/penilaianportofolio/" \l "comments" \o "Komentar pada Model Pengembangan
PenilaianPortofolio" 11 Komentar
HYPERLINK
"https://akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/2008/08/07/penilaianportofolio/" A. Apa yang yang dimaksud dengan Penilaian portofolio?
Penilaian portofolio adalah satu metode penilaian berkesinambungan,
dengan mengumpulkan informasi atau data secara sistematik atas hasil
pekerjaan seseorang (Pomham, 1984). Seluruh hasil belajar peserta didik
(hasil tes, hasil tugas perorangan, hasil praktikum atau hasil pekerjaan
rumah) dicatat dan diorganisir secara sistematik. Depdiknas (2004)
menyebutkan bahwa Kumpulan hasil karya seorang siswa, sebagai hasil
pelaksanaan tugas kinerja, yang ditentukan oleh guru atau oleh siswa
bersama guru, sebagai bagian dari uasaha mencapai tujuan belajar, atau
mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum
B. Apa fungsi penilaian portofolio?
Fungsi penilaian Portofolio yaitu sebagai alat untuk mengetahui kemajuan
kompetensi yang telah dicapai peserta didik dan mendiagnosis kesulitan
belajar peserta didik, memberikan umpan balik untuk kepentingan perbaikan
dan penyempurnaan KBM. Kumpulan hasil pekerjaan peserta didik dapat
berupa: (1) puisi; (2) karangan; (3) gambar/tulisan; (4) peta/denah; (5)
desain; (6) paper; (7) laporan observasi; (8 ) laporan penyelidikan; (9)
laporan penelitian; (10) laporan eksperimen; (11) sinopsis;(12) naskah
pidato/kotbah; (13) naskah drama;(14) doa; (15) rumus;(16) kartu ucapan;
(17) surat; (18 ) komposisi musik; (19) teks lagu; (20) resep masakan.
C. Bagaimana langkah-langkah dalam merencanakan Penilailain Portofolio?
Agar terarah, pengunaan portofolio harus dilakukan dengan perencanaan
yang sistematis, melalui enam langkah di bawah ini:
Menentukan maksud atau fokus portofolio
Menentukan aspek isi yang dinilai
Menentukan bentuk, susunan, atau organisasi portofolio
Menentukan penggunaan portofolio
Menentukan cara menilai portofolio
Menentukan bentuk atau penggunaan rubrik
Ada beberapa hal yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam pemilihan isi
portofolio, misalnya: siapa yang memilih, bagaimana memilih, bagaimana
melibatkan siswa, bagaimana peranan guru, bagaimana kriteria eksternal,
kapan harus dipilih, apa yang perlu dilakukan oleh guru terhadap setiap
isi.
D. Bagaimana menilai Portofolio

Untuk menilai portofolio harus lebih dulu tersedia rubrik penilaian.


Penilaian
portofolio
hendaknya
tidak
hanya
ditekankan
kepada
keberhasilan siswa dalam memperoleh jawaban yang diinginkan oleh guru,
tetapi lebih ditekankan kepada proses berpikir siswa yang terdapat atau
tersirat dalam isi portofolio.
Salah satu cara penilaian portofolio, atau pembuatan rubrik, adalah cara
dengan menggunakan kriteria berikut:
Bukti terjadinya proses berpikir.
Mutu kegiatan atau penyelidikan
Keragaman pendekatan
Bagaimana mengembangkan penilaian portofolio? Tautan di bawah ini berisi
tentang Model Pengembangan Penilaian Portofolio yang telah disiapkan oleh
Depdiknas (2004)
Defining Portfolio Assessment
What is a portfolio?
A student portfolio is a systematic collection of student work and
related material that depicts a student's activities, accomplishments,
and achievements in one or more school subjects. The collection should
include evidence of student reflection and self-evaluation, guidelines
for selecting the portfolio contents, and criteria for judging the
quality of the work. The goal is to help students assemble portfolios
that illustrate their talents, represent their writing capabilities, and
tell their stories of school achievement... (Venn, 2000, pp. 530-531)
Two Types of Portfolios:
Process and product portfolios represent the two major types of
portfolios. A process portfolio documents the stages of learning and
provides a progressive record of student growth. A product portfolio
demonstrates mastery of a learning task or a set of learning objectives
and contains only the best work... Teachers use process portfolios to
help students identify learning goals, document progress over time, and
demonstrate learning mastery... In general, teachers prefer to use
process portfolios because they are ideal for documenting the stages that
students go through as they learn and progress (Venn, 2000, p. 533).
Steps in the Portfolio Assessment Process
First, the teacher and the student need to clearly identify the portfolio
contents, which are samples of student work, reflections, teacher
observations, and conference records. Second, the teacher should develop
evaluation procedures for keeping track of the portfolio contents and for
grading the portfolio... Third, the teacher needs a plan for holding
portfolio conferences, which are formal and informal meetings in which
students review their work and discuss their progress. Because they
encourage reflective teaching and learning, these conference are an
essential part of the portfolio assessment process (Venn, 2000, p. 540).
Advantages of Portfolio Assessment
Promoting student self-evaluation, reflection, and critical thinking.
Measuring performance based on genuine samples of student work.
Providing flexibility in measuring how students accomplish their learning
goals.
Enabling teachers and students to share the responsibility for setting
learning goals and for evaluating progress toward meeting those goals.
Giving students the opportunity to have extensive input into the learning
process.

Facilitating cooperative learning activities, including peer evaluation


and tutoring, cooperative learning groups, and peer conferencing.
Providing a process for structuring learning in stages.
Providing opportunities for students and teachers to discuss learning
goals and the progress toward those goals in structured and unstructured
conferences.
Enabling measurement of multiple dimensions of student progress by
including different types of data and materials. (Venn, 2000, p. 538)
Disadvantages of Portfolio Assessment
Requiring extra time to plan an assessment system and conduct the
assessment.
Gathering all of the necessary data and work samples can make portfolios
bulky and difficult to manage.
Developing a systematic and deliberate management system is difficult,
but this step is necessary in order to make portfolios more than a random
collection of student work.
Scoring portfolios involves the extensive use of subjective evaluation
procedures such as rating scales and professional judgment, and this
limits reliability.
Scheduling individual portfolio conferences is difficulty and the length
of each conference may interfere with other instructional activities.
(Venn, 2000, p. 538)
From: Venn, J. J. (2000). Assessing students with special needs (2nd
ed.).
Upper
Saddle
River,
NJ:
Merrill.

Portfolio Assessment
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolioassessment/" Collect It!
By Linda Fernsten
Updated on Dec 23, 2009
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolioassessment/" \l "A" ASSUMPTIONS AND PROCEDURES
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolioassessment/" \l "B" KEY ELEMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolioassessment/" \l "C" TYPES OF PORTFOLIOS
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolioassessment/" \l "D" BENEFITS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student
learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. Considered a
form of authentic assessment, it offers an alternative or an addition to
traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams. Portfolio
assessment gives both teachers and students a controlled space to
document, review, and analyze content leaning. In short, portfolios are a
collection of student work that allows assessment by providing evidence
of effort and accomplishments in relation to specific instructional goals
(Jardine, 1996). At its best, portfolio assessment demands the following:
clarity of goals, explicit criteria for evaluation, work samples tied to
those goals, student participation in selection of entries, teacher and
student involvement in the assessment process, and self-reflections that
demonstrate students' metacognitive ability, that is, their understanding
of what worked for them in the learning process, what did not, and why.
These elements enhance the learning experience and the self-understanding
of the student as learner.

ASSUMPTIONS AND PROCEDURES


Portfolio assessment is not defined by a single procedure, nor is there a
single best way to use portfolios. However, the following components are
generally assumed integral. The portfolio itself is a container of some
sort, for example, a folder, crate, file, or virtual space for online
portfolios.
The
selected
contents
should
demonstrate
student
accomplishments over time. All selections and parts are authentic in that
the included pieces provide evidence that the goals and objectives of the
curriculum have been met, with added student reflections that review the
process and /or products of learning. Participants in the portfolio
assessment process (instructors, students and parents or administrators,
if applicable), should be aware of assessment standards in advance.
Depending on the type of portfolio, the contents may vary widely.
Possible contents include writing samples that may vary in genre,
content, and style, laboratory reports, journals, taped performances,
recordings,
art,
research
papers,
projects,
photos,
interviews,
conferences, tests, quizzes, observations, and reflections.
In some schools, material from a semester's or year's portfolio is
digitalized and stored for future reference as a record of student
accomplishments over a specified time. Colleges requiring licensure for a
profession may require students to keep evidence of each standard met in
an online or physical portfolio, ensuring ready access to reviewers or
accrediting agencies that all work has been completed. Because a
portfolio contains a variety of artifacts that provide evidence of work
completed, it is particularly useful in these assessment circumstances.
KEY ELEMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Clear criteria for evaluation, including what must be included in the
portfolio and rubrics for evaluation, are vital to successful portfolio
assessment. When teachers develop unambiguous assessment criteria, they
necessarily use a shared discourse, clarify beforehand any unfamiliar
vocabulary (Rodgers, 2002), and assure that they and students have a
mutual understanding regarding the theoretical foundations of the task
before it takes place. Understanding these criteria can help reduce or
eliminate criticism about subjectivity or unfairness of grading, a common
criticism of those who prefer standardized assessments. The use of
comprehensive
rubrics
that
present
structured
information
about
organization, required components, length and content of entries and
reflections, in addition to any specific assignment rubrics that clearly
outline the goals, obligations, and constraints of particular entries,
are valuable. The more precise and comprehensive the rubric, the more
objective the assessment. Through explicit direction, instructors should
make clear all guiding principles or policies for what may or may not be
included in the portfolio.
Reflective pieces require students to articulate and review components of
the portfolio and are a part of a comprehensive assessment. Reflections
allow students the time and space to analyze their achievement in
relation to class standards, evaluate their final products, and determine
growth as well as needs (Fernsten & Fernsten 2005). The metacognitive
exercise of figuring out how they know what they know about the learning
that has taken place can be an invaluable learning tool and helps
participants take responsibility for their own learning.
TYPES OF PORTFOLIOS
There are a variety of portfolio types, each designed to help assess
either the process or the products of learning.

Showcase portfolios. Showcase portfolios highlight the best products over


a particular time period or course. For example, a showcase portfolio in
a composition class may include the best examples of different writing
genres, such as an essay, a poem, a short story, a biographical piece, or
a literary analysis. In a business class, the showcase portfolio may
include a resume, sample business letters, a marketing project, and a
collaborative assignment that demonstrates the individual's ability to
work in a team. Students are often allowed to choose what they believe to
be their best work, highlighting their achievements and skills. Showcase
reflections typically focus on the strengths of selected pieces and
discuss how each met or exceeded required standards.
Process portfolios. Process portfolios, by contrast, concentrate more on
the journey of learning rather than the final destination or end products
of the learning process. In the composition class, for example, different
stages of the processan outline, first draft, peer and teacher
responses, early revisions, and a final edited draftmay be required. A
process reflection may discuss why a particular strategy was used, what
was useful or ineffective for the individual in the writing process, and
how the student went about making progress in the face of difficulty in
meeting requirements. A process reflection typically focuses on many
aspects of the learning process, including the following: what approaches
work best, which are ineffective, information about oneself as a learner,
and strategies or approaches to remember in future assignments.
Evaluation portfolios. Evaluation portfolios may vary substantially in
their content. Their basic purpose, however, remains to exhibit a series
of evaluations over a course and the learning or accomplishments of the
student
in
regard
to
previously
determined
criteria
or
goals.
Essentially, this type of portfolio documents tests, observations,
records, or other assessment artifacts required for successful completion
of the course. A math evaluation portfolio may include tests, quizzes,
and written explanations of how one went about solving a problem or
determining which formula to use, whereas a science evaluation portfolio
might also include laboratory experiments, science project outcomes with
photos or other artifacts, and research reports, as well as tests and
quizzes. Unlike the showcase portfolio, evaluation portfolios do not
simply include the best work, but rather a selection of predetermined
evaluations that may also demonstrate students' difficulties and
unsuccessful struggles as well as their better work. Students who reflect
on why some work was successful and other work was less so continue their
learning as they develop their metacognitive skills.
Online or e-portfolios. Online or e-portfolios may be one of the above
portfolio types or a combination of different types, a general
requirement being that all information and artifacts are somehow
accessible online. A number of colleges require students to maintain a
virtual portfolio that may include digital, video, or Web-based products.
The portfolio assessment process may be linked to a specific course or an
entire program. As with all portfolios, students are able to visually
track and show their accomplishments to a wide audience.
BENEFITS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Portfolio assessment research substantiates the idea that students
greatly benefit from assessments that go beyond simple letter grades and
involve participants in the evaluation process. By taking part in the
development of their portfolios, analyzing the criteria for what
constitutes good work, and learning to evaluate their own work through

guided reflective practices, students grow and develop in their knowledge


and understandings. Portfolio assessment is part of a substantial body of
research documenting the student benefits that emerge from an awareness
of the processes and strategies involved in learning. (Hamp-Lyons &
Congdon, 2000; Martin-Kniep, Cunningham, Feige, 1998)
The benefits of portfolio assessment are numerous. To begin with, they
are a more individualized way of assessing students and have the
advantage of demonstrating a wide range of work. They may also be used in
conjunction
with
other
types
of
required
assessments,
such
as
standardized or norm referenced tests. Often, portfolio contents are
selected collaboratively, allowing students an opportunity to make
decisions about their work and encouraging them to set goals regarding
what has been accomplished and what needs further work, an important
skill that may serve them well in life endeavors.
Portfolio assessment can promote a dialog between teacher and students
about the individualized nature of the work. Too often, students may have
papers or projects returned with a number or letter grade only and fail
to understand what might be necessary for improvement. Required
reflections in conjunction with conferencing reduce the possibility that
students will be unclear about the assessment or what must be done to
make improvements. This one-to-one aspect is an additional bonus for
those students who may be too shy to initiate conversations with
instructors as well as for those who enjoy speaking about their work and
may better understand what worked and what did not through a verbal
exchange.
Most importantly, portfolio assessments provide an authentic way of
demonstrating skills and accomplishments. They encourage a real world
experience that demands organization, decision making, and metacognition.
Used in a thoughtful, carefully planned way, portfolio assessment can
foster a positive outlook on learning and achievement.
See
also:
HYPERLINK
"http://www.education.com/reference/article/classroom-assessment/"
Classroom Assessment
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fernsten, L., & Fernsten, J. (2005). Portfolio assessment and reflection:
Enhancing learning through effective practice. Reflective Practice 6(2),
303309.
Hamp-Lyons, L., & Condon, W. (2000). Assessing the portfolio: Principles
for practice, theory, and research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Jardine, A. S. (1996). Key points of the authentic assessment portfolio.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 31(4), 252253.
Martin-Kniep, G.O., Cunningham, D. & Feige, D. M. (1998). Why am I doing
this?: Purposeful teaching through portfolio assessment. Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann.
Rodgers, C. R. (2002). Voices inside schools, seeing student learning:
Teacher change and the role of reflection. Harvard Educational Review
72(2), 230253.
Copyright 2003-2009 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
What
is
Portfolio
Assessment?
HYPERLINK
"http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/1-1.html"
Go back to Part 1

Part

2:1
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HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-3.html" 2:3
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Portfolio assessment is the systematic, longitudinal collection of
student work created in response to specific, known instructional
objectives and evaluated in relation to the same criteria. Assessment is
done by measuring the individual works as well as the portfolio as a
whole against specified criteria, which match the objectives toward a
specific purpose. Portfolio creation is the responsibility of the
learner, with teacher guidance and support, and often with the
involvement of peers and parents. The audience assesses the portfolio.
Portfolios have generated a good deal of interest in recent years, with
teachers taking the lead in exploring ways to use them. Teachers have
integrated
portfolios
into
instruction
and
assessment,
gained
administrative support, and answered their own as well as student,
administrator, and parent questions about portfolio assessment. Concerns
are often focused on reliability, validity, process, evaluation, and
time. These concerns apply equally to other assessment instruments. There
is no assessment instrument that meets every teacher's purpose perfectly,
is entirely valid and reliable, takes no time to prepare, administer, or
grade, and meets each student's learning style.
Foreign language educators need to able to choose and/or design
assessments that meet their most important instructional and assessment
needs and which they have the resources to implement and evaluate. Below
are some strengths of portfolio assessment, seen in contrast to
traditional forms of assessment. Traditional assessment vs Portfolio
assessment
Traditional
Portfolio
Measures student's ability at one time
Measures student's ability over time
Done by teacher alone; student often unaware of criteria
Done by teacher and student; student aware of criteria
Conducted outside instruction
Embedded in instruction
Assigns student a grade
Involves student in own assessment
Does not capture the range of student's language ability
Captures many facets of language learning performance

Does not include the teacher's knowledge of student as a learner


Allows for expression of teacher's knowledge of student as learner
Does not give student responsibility
Student learns how to take responsibility
Why

use

portfolio

assessment?

HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/1-1.html" Go back to Part 1

Part

2:

HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-1.html" 2:1


2:2
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-3.html" 2:3
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-4.html" 2:4
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/3-0.html" Go on to Part 3
Portfolios are a form of alternative/authentic assessment in which a
student's progress is measured over a period of time in various language
learning contexts. Portfolios can include evidence of specific skills and
other items at one particular time and language performance and progress
over time, under different conditions, in all four modalities (reading,
writing, listening, and speaking) or all three communication modes
(interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational). Using a combination of
testing instruments lends validity and reliability to the portfolio.
Portfolio assessment is closely linked to instruction, which has two
educational benefits. First, linking assessment to instruction means that
you are sure that you are measuring what you have taught. Second,
portfolios reveal any weaknesses in instructional practices. For example,
if the purpose of the portfolio is linked to making progress toward all
areas of the National Standards, and, at the end of the marking period,
there are no works related to oral communication in the portfolio, the
teacher may decide to incorporate more oral communications work into the
curriculum.
This
is
a
way
of
providing
for
HYPERLINK
"http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/6-4.html" systemic validity.
Portfolio assessment is by nature incorporated fully into instruction:
there is no time lost on assessment. Assessment is a true learning
experience, and not external to the learning process.
Student assessment portfolios promote positive student involvement. As
students create their portfolios, they are actively involved in and
reflecting on their own learning. Increased metacognition has a positive
impact on a student's self-confidence, facilitates student use of
learning strategies, and increases the student's ability to assess and
revise work. Student motivation to continue studying and succeeding in
language learning tends to grow in such an environment.
Portfolios offer the teacher and student an in-depth knowledge of the
student as a learner. This means that the teacher can individualize

instruction for the student. Weak areas can be strengthened and areas of
mastery built upon. Learners are involved in this process of tracking
their learning and can take control of their learning.
Using portfolios introduces students to an evaluation format with which
they may need to become familiar as more schools and districts adopt
portfolio assessment.
Using assessment portfolios gives the teacher opportunities to involve
parents in their children's language learning. Parental involvement is an
important factor in educational success. Portfolio assessment and the
National
Standards
for
Foreign
Language
Learning
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/1-1.html" Go back to Part 1
Part

2:

HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-1.html" 2:1


HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-2.html" 2:2
2:3
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/2-4.html" 2:4
HYPERLINK "http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/3-0.html" Go on to Part 3 This
project links portfolio assessment with the National Standards for
Foreign Language Learning. The Standards were developed as a reflection
of the best foreign language teaching practices in the country and to
provide a goal toward which foreign language learning is directed. They
do not, however, compose a curriculum. This allows teachers and schools
great flexibility in working toward the Standards within the existing
instructional environment.
We have linked portfolio assessment with the Standards because many
school districts and states are moving toward implementing portfolio
assessment and seeking ways to adapt existing curricula to reflect the
Standards. Portfolios can provide educators with a concrete performance
measurement of what students can do in the language. The contents serve
as progress indicators toward the Standards. However, as a prelude to
measuring students' progress towards the Standards, educators need to
evaluate whether and to what extent instructional practices and curricula
reflect the Standards. This manual contains worksheets teachers can use
to assess the extent to which their own classroom practices reflect the
Standards
(
HYPERLINK
"http://www.nclrc.org/portfolio/formForeignLanguageStandardsChecklist.htm
l" Teacher's Foreign Language Standards Checklist and
HYPERLINK
"javascript:alert('This%20form%20is%20not%20yet%20available');" Teacher's
Assessment Check: Responsiveness to Standards). It also contains a
checklist for students to assess which Standards they have met through
doing
a
particular
language
learning
task
(
HYPERLINK
"javascript:alert('This%20form%20is%20not%20yet%20available');" Student's
Foreign Language Standards Checklist).
An abbreviated version of the Standards follows. Information on ordering
a complete copy is given in the annotated references. Portfolio
LAST UPDATED: 11.04.13

A portfolio is a compilation of student work assembled for the purpose of


(1) evaluating coursework quality and academic achievement, (2) creating
a lasting archive of academic work products, and (3) determining whether
students
have
met
HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/learningstandards/" \o "Learning Standards" learning standards or academic
requirements
for
courses,
grade-level
promotion,
and
graduation.
Advocates of student portfolios argue that compiling, reviewing, and
evaluating student work over time can provide a richer and more accurate
picture of what students have learned and are able to do than more
traditional
measures,
such
as
HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/standardized-test/"
\o
"Standardized
Test"
standardized tests or final exams, that reflect only what a student knows
at a specific point in time.
Portfolios can be a physical collection of student work that includes
materials such as written assignments, journal entries, completed tests,
artwork, lab reports, physical projects (such as dioramas or models), and
other material evidence of student learning progress and academic
accomplishment,
including
awards,
honors,
certifications,
and
recommendations.
Portfolios
may
also
be
digital
collections
or
presentations that include the same documents and achievements as
physical portfolios, but that may also include additional content such as
student-created videos, multimedia presentations, spreadsheets, websites,
photographs, or other digital artifacts of learning. Online portfolios
are often calleddigital portfoliosore-portfolios. In some cases, blogs
or online journals may be maintained by students and include ongoing
reflections related to learning activities and progress. Portfolios may
also be presentedpublicly or privatelyto parents, teachers, and
community
members
as
part
of
a
HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/demonstration-of-learning/" \o "Demonstration of
Learning"
demonstration
of
learningor
HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/capstone-project/" \o "Capstone Project" capstone
project.
Portfolios may be used in day-to-day instruction to help students reflect
on their own work products and academic progress. By closely monitoring
learning progress over time using portfolios, both teachers and students
can highlight academic strengths, identify learning weaknesses, and
recognize accomplishments and growth. Portfolios are also used to keep
parents and other adults more informed about what students are doing and
learning in the classroom. Advocates may also argue that portfolios help
to keep parents engaged in their childs education and more informed
about
changes
in
learning
progress,
HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/curriculum/"
\o
"Curriculum"
curriculum,
or
testing, for example. In some schools, portfolios are a way for students
to critique and assess their own work, usually as an extension of the
process of deciding what will be included in their portfolios. HYPERLINK
"http://edglossary.org/rubric/" \o "Rubric" Rubrics or other instruments
may also be used to structure and facilitate the self-reflection process.
Portfolios are used at the elementary-, middle-, and secondary-school
levels. At the secondary level, students may create a portfolio of work
for a specific class, or they may maintain a comprehensive portfolio of
work from all the courses they completed over their four years of high
school. In some cases, portfolios become part of a students formal
transcript and may be used in job and college-admissions applications.
Debate

While the concept is not typically controversial, skepticism, criticism,


and debate may arise if portfolios are viewed as burdensome, add-on
requirements rather than as central organizing tools for a students
academic career. Portfolios may also be viewed negatively if they are
poorly executed, if they tend to be filed away and forgotten, if they are
not actively maintained by students, if they are not meaningfully
integrated into the schools academic program, or if educators do not use
them to inform the instruction of students. In other words, how
portfolios are actually used or not used in schools, and whether they
produce desired educational results, will likely determine how they are
perceived.
HYPERLINK
"http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/"
\t
"_blank"
The
Glossary
of
Education
Reform
by
HYPERLINK
"http://www.greatschoolspartnership.org/"
\t
"_blank"
Great
Schools
Partnership
is
licensed
under
a
HYPERLINK
"http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" \t "_blank" Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Using Portfolios in Program Assessment
On this page:
What is a portfolio?
Portfolios as a data-collection method for assessment
Advantages and disadvantages
Creating and designing portfolios
Questions to ask before adopting portfolios
E-Portfolios
Links: universities implementing portfolios; online portfolios
E-portfolio software and review
1. What is a portfolio?
A portfolio is a systematic collection of student work that represents
student activities, accomplishments, and achievements over a specific
period of time in one or more areas of the curriculum. There are two main
types of portfolios:
Showcase Portfolios: Students select and submit their best work. The
showcase
portfolio
emphasizes
the
products
of
learning.
Developmental Portfolios: Students select and submit pieces of work that
can show evidence of growth or change over time. The growth portfolio
emphasizes the process of learning.
STUDENTS' REFLECTIVE ESSAY: In both types of portfolios, students write
reflective essays or introductory memos to the faculty/assessment
committee to explain the work and reflect on how the collection
demonstrates their accomplishments, explains why they selected the
particular
examples,
and/or
describes
changes
in
their
knowledge/ability/attitude.
2. Portfolios as a data-collection method for assessment
Portfolios can be created for course assessment as well as program
assessment. Although the content may be similar, the assessment process
is different.
Course PortfolioProgram PortfolioCourse portfolios contain products of
student learning within a course, within a single term.Program portfolios
draw from several courses, extracurricular activities, internships, and
other experiential learning related to the program. Program portfolios
can serve the same purpose as an exit exam: provide evidence of the
cumulative effect of the program.Students include items from a single

course.Students select items from multiple courses and may be required to


submit items from co-curricular activities, internships, employment,
etc.Students write a reflective essay or cover memo to explain the
portfolio and their learning.Students write a reflective essay or cover
memo to explain the portfolio and their learning.All students in a single
course participate.All students in the program participate.Course
instructor scores portfolio by using a scoring rubric(s).Multiple faculty
members, not the instructor, score the portfolio by using a scoring
rubric(s).Usually
every
item
and
every
students
portfolio
is
scored.Either all portfolios or a sample of portfolios is scored. In some
cases, particular items are scored from the portfolio. 3. Advantages and
disadvantages
Advantages of a portfolio
Enables
faculty
to
assess
a
set
of
complex
tasks,
including
interdisciplinary learning and capabilities, with examples of different
types of student work.
Helps faculty identify curriculum gaps, a lack of alignment with
outcomes.
Promotes faculty discussions on student learning, curriculum, pedagogy,
and student support services.
Encourages student reflection on their learning. Students may come to
understand what they have and have not learned.
Provides students with documentation for job applications or applications
to graduate school.
Disadvantages of a portfolio
Faculty time required to prepare the portfolio assignment and assist
students as they prepare them. Logistics are challenging.
Students must retain and compile their own work, usually outside of
class. Motivating students to take the portfolio seriously may be
difficult.
Transfer students may have difficulties meeting program-portfolio
requirements.
Storage demands can overwhelm (which is one reason why e-portfolios are
chosen).
4. Using portfolios in assessment
TIP:
START
SMALL.
Showcase portfolio: Consider starting with one assignment plus a
reflective essay from a senior-level course as a pilot project. A faculty
group evaluates the "mini-portfolios" using a rubric. Use the results
from the pilot project to guide faculty decisions on adding to or
modifying
the
portfolio
process.
Developmental portfolio: Consider starting by giving a similar assignment
in two sequential courses: e.g., students write a case study in a 300level course and again in a 400-level course. In the 400-level course,
students also write a reflection based on their comparison of the two
case studies. A faculty group evaluates the "mini-portfolios" using a
rubric. Use the results to guide the faculty members as they modify the
portfolio process.
Suggested steps:
Determine the purpose of the portfolio. Decide how the results of a
portfolio evaluation will be used to inform the program.
Identify the learning outcomes the portfolio will address.
Tip: Identify at least 6 course assignments that are aligned with the
outcomes the portfolio will address. Note: When planning to implement a

portfolio requirement, the program may need to modify activities or


outcomes in courses, the program, or the institution.
Decide what students will include in their portfolio. Portfolios can
contain a range of items--plans, reports, essays, resume, checklists,
self-assessments, references from employers or supervisors, audio and
video clips. In a showcase portfolio, students include work completed
near the end of their program. In a developmental portfolio, students
include work completed early and late in the program so that development
can be judged.
Tip: Limit the portfolio to 3-4 pieces of student work and one reflective
essay/memo.
Identify or develop the scoring criteria (e.g., a rubric) to judge the
quality of the portfolio.
Tip: Include the scoring rubric with the instructions given to students
(#6 below).
Establish standards of performance and examples (e.g., examples of a
high, medium, and low scoring portfolio).
Create student instructions that specify how students collect, select,
reflect, format, and submit.
Tip: Emphasize to students the purpose of the portfolio and that it is
their responsibility to select items that clearly demonstrate mastery of
the
learning
outcomes.
Emphasize to faculty that it is their responsibility to help students by
explicitly tying course assignments to portfolio requirements.
Collect Tell students where in the curriculum or co-curricular
activities they will produce evidence related to the outcomes being
assessed.
Select Ask students to select the evidence. Instruct students to label
each piece of evidence according to the learning outcome being
demonstrated.
Reflect Give students directions on how to write a one or two-page
reflective essay/memo that explains why they selected the particular
examples, how the pieces demonstrate their achievement of the program
outcomes,
and/or
how
their
knowledge/ability/attitude
changed.
Format Tell students the format requirements (e.g., type of binder, font
and
style
guide
requirements,
online
submission
requirements).
Submit Give submission (and pickup) dates and instructions.
A faculty group scores the portfolios using the scoring criteria. Use
examples of the standards of performance to ensure consistency across
scoring sessions and readers.
Tip: In large programs, select a random sample of portfolios to score
(i.e., do not score every portfolio).
Share the results and use them to improve the program.
5. Questions to consider before adopting a portfolio requirement
What is the purpose of the portfolio requirement? To document student
learning?
Demonstrate
student
development?
Learn
about
students
reflections on their learning? Create a document useful to students? Help
students grow through personal reflection on their personal goals?
Will portfolios be showcase or developmental?
When and how will students be told about the requirement, including what
materials they need to collect or to produce for it?
What are the minimum and maximum lengths or sizes for portfolios?
Who will decide which materials will be included in portfolios- -faculty
or students?

What elements will be required in the portfolio- -evidence only from


courses in the discipline, other types of evidence, evidence directly
tied to learning outcomes, previously graded products or clean copies?
Will students be graded on the portfolios? If so, how and by whom?
How will the portfolios be assessed to evaluate and improve the program?
What can be done for students who have inadequate evidence through no
fault of their own? (E.g., transfer students)
What will motivate students to take the portfolio requirement seriously?
How will the portfolio be submittedhard copy or electronic copy?
Who owns the portfoliosstudents or the program/university? If the
program/university owns them, how long will the portfolios be retained
after the students graduate?
Who has access to the portfolios and for what purposes?
How will student privacy and confidentiality be protected?
6. E-portfolios (electronic portfolios)
Traditional portfolios consist of papers in a folder. Electronic or "eportfolios" consist of documents stored electronically. Electronic
portfolios offer rich possibilities for learning and assessment, with the
added dimension of technology.
Critical considerations
What about an electronic portfolio is central to the assessment?
Who is the audience for the portfolio? Will that audience have the
hardware, software, skills, time, and inclination to access the portfolio
electronically?
Does the institution have the hardware and software in place to create
portfolios electronically? If not, what will it cost and who will install
it? Does the institution have the IT/technical staff to support eportfolios?
What is the current level of computer skills of the students and faculty
members involved in this project? Who will teach them how to use the
technology necessary to create and view electronic portfolios?
E-Portfolio Advantages:
Easy to share with multiple readers simultaneously.
Allows for asynchronous use for both students and faculty.
Allows for multi-media product submissions.
Offers search strategies for easy access to materials.
Makes updating entries easier.
Creating navigational links may help students see how their experiences
interrelate.
Provides students the opportunity to improve as well as demonstrate their
technology skills.
Allows faculty to remain in touch with students after graduation if the
portfolio can become students professional portfolio.
E-Portfolio Disadvantages:
Time is needed to master the software. Students may not have sufficient
computer skills to showcase their work properly.
Faculty and students may be reluctant to learn a new software program.
Requires IT expertise and support for both students and faculty.
Cost associated with developing an in-house platform or the purchase of a
commercial product may be expensive.
Cost associated with maintaining portfolio software. Ongoing support and
training are necessary.
An external audience may not have access to proprietary software.
Proprietary software may hinder portability.

Requires large amounts of computer space.


Privacy and security. Who will have access to the portfolio?
7. Links to universities implementing portfolios
Truman
State
University:
HYPERLINK
"http://assessment.truman.edu/components/portfolio/"
http://assessment.truman.edu/components/portfolio/
Penn
State:
HYPERLINK
"http://portfolio.psu.edu/"
http://portfolio.psu.edu/
Alverno
College:
HYPERLINK
"http://ddp.alverno.edu/"
http://ddp.alverno.edu/
University of Denver:
HYPERLINK "https://portfolio.du.edu/pc/index"
https://portfolio.du.edu/pc/index
Introduction to Using Portfolios in the Classroom
by Charlotte Danielson and Leslye Abrutyn
HYPERLINK "http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/197171.aspx" Table of
Contents
Chapter 1. The Types of Portfolios
As more and more educators use portfolios, they increasingly recognize
that the process has the power to transform instruction. Some teachers,
however, are confused by the many types of portfolios, their different
uses, and the practical issues surrounding storage, ownership, and the
like.
The three major types of portfolios are: working portfolios, display
portfolios, and assessment portfolios. Although the types are distinct in
theory, they tend to overlap in practice. Consequently, a district's
program may include several different types of portfolios, serving
several different purposes. As a result, it is important for educators to
be clear about their goals, the reasons they are engaging in a portfolio
project, and the intended audience for the portfolios.
Working Portfolios
A working portfolio is so named because it is a project in the works,
containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. It
serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more
permanent assessment or display portfolio.
A working portfolio is different from a work folder, which is simply a
receptacle for all work, with no purpose to the collection. A working
portfolio is an intentional collection of work guided by learning
objectives.
Purpose
The major purpose of a working portfolio is to serve as a holding tank
for student work. The pieces related to a specific topic are collected
here until they move to an assessment portfolio or a display portfolio,
or go home with the student. In addition, the working portfolio may be
used to diagnose student needs. Here both student and teacher have
evidence of student strengths and weaknesses in achieving learning
objectives, information extremely useful in designing future instruction.
Audience
Given its use in diagnosis, the primary audience for a working portfolio
is the student, with guidance from the teacher. By working on the
portfolio and reflecting on the quality of work contained there, the
student becomes more reflective and self-directed. With very young
children, however, the primary audience is the teacher, with the
participation of the student.

Parents may be another important audience of a working portfolio, since


it can help inform parent/teacher conferences. The portfolio is
particularly useful for those parents who do not accept the limitations
of their child's current skills or do not have a realistic picture of the
way their child is progressing compared with other children. In such
situations, evidence from a portfolio can truly speak a thousand words.
In addition, a portfolio can serve to document the progress a student has
made, progress of which a parent may be unaware.
Process
A working portfolio is typically structured around a specific content
area; pieces collected relate to the objectives of that unit and document
student progress toward mastery of those objectives. Therefore,
sufficient work must be collected to provide ample evidence of student
achievement. Because diagnosis is a major purpose of the working
portfolio, some of the pieces included will show less than complete
understanding and will help shape future instruction.
The working portfolio is reviewed as a whole and its pieces
evaluatedeither periodically or at the end of the learning unit. Some
pieces may be shifted to an assessment portfolio to document student
acquisition of instructional objectives. Other pieces may be moved to a
student's own display (or best works) portfolio or celebration of
individual learning. Still other pieces are sent home with the student.
As students move pieces from a working portfolio into either an
assessment or display portfolio, they describe the reasons for their
choices. In this process of selection and description, students must
reflect seriously on their work and what it demonstrates about them as
learners. As students and their teachers look through the portfolio, they
set short-term objectives for achieving certain curriculum goals. The
portfolio thus provides evidence of strengths and weaknesses and serves
to define the next steps in learning.
Display, Showcase, or Best Works Portfolios
Probably the most rewarding use of student portfolios is the display of
the students' best work, the work that makes them proud. Students, as
well as their teachers, become most committed to the process when they
experience the joy of exhibiting their best work and interpreting its
meaning. Many educators who do not use portfolios for any other purpose
engage their students in the creation of display portfolios. The pride
and sense of accomplishment that students feel make the effort well
worthwhile and contribute to a culture for learning in the classroom.
Purpose
The purpose of a display portfolio is to demonstrate the highest level of
achievement attained by the student. Collecting items for this portfolio
is a student's way of saying Here's who I am. Here is what I can do.
A display portfolio may be maintained from year to year, with new pieces
added each year, documenting growth over time. And while a best works
portfolio may document student efforts with respect to curriculum
objectives, it may also include evidence of student activities beyond
school (a story written at home, for example).
There are many possibilities for the contents of a display portfolio. The
benefits of portfolios were first recognized in the area of language
arts, specifically in writing. Therefore, writing portfolios are the most
widely known and used. But students may elect to put many types of items
in their portfolio of best worksa drawing they like, a poem they have

written, a list of books they have read, or a difficult problem they have
solved.
Audience
Since the student selects her or his own best works, the audience for a
display portfolio is that student and the other important individuals,
such as parents and older siblings, to whom the student chooses to show
the portfolio. Other audiences include a current teacher or next year's
teacher, who may learn a lot about the student by studying the portfolio.
In addition, a student may submit portfolios of best works to colleges or
potential employers to supplement other information; art students have
always used this approach. The contents of these portfolios are
determined by the interests of the audience and may include videos,
written work, projects, resums, and testimonials. The act of assembling
a display portfolio for such a practical purpose can motivate high school
students to produce work of high quality.
Process
Most pieces for a display portfolio are collected in a working portfolio
of school projects. Sometimes, however, a student will include a piece of
work from outside the classroom, such as a project from scouts or a poem
written at home. Students select the items to be included in a display
portfolio. Their choices define them as students and as learners. In
making their selections, students illustrate what they believe to be
important about their learning, what they value and want to show to
others.
Assessment Portfolios
The primary function of an assessment portfolio is to document what a
student has learned. The content of the curriculum, then, will determine
what students select for their portfolios. Their reflective comments will
focus on the extent to which they believe the portfolio entries
demonstrate their mastery of the curriculum objectives. For example, if
the curriculum specifies persuasive, narrative, and descriptive writing,
an assessment portfolio should include examples of each type of writing.
Similarly, if the curriculum calls for mathematical problem solving and
mathematical communication, then the display portfolio will include
entries documenting both problem solving and communication, possibly in
the same entry.
Purpose
The primary purpose of an assessment portfolio is to document student
learning on specific curriculum outcomes. As such, the items in the
portfolio must be designed to elicit the knowledge and skill specified in
the outcomes. It is the assessment tasks that bring the curriculum
outcomes to life; only by specifying precisely what students must do and
how well they must do it do these statements of learning have meaning.
Assessment portfolios may be used to demonstrate mastery in any
curricular area. They may span any period of time, from one unit to the
entire year. And they may be dedicated to one subject or many subjects.
For example, a teacher may wish to have evidence that a child has
sufficient skills in a content area to move to the next level or grade.
The criteria for moving on and the types of necessary evidence must be
established. Then the portfolio is compiled and assessed.
Audience
There are many possible audiences for an assessment portfolio, depending
on its specific purpose. One audience may be the classroom teacher, who
may become convinced that the objectives of an instructional unit have

been mastered or who may decide to place a student in advanced classes or


special sections. Alternatively, the audience may be the school district
or even the state, seeking documentation of student learning, and
permitting a student to move to the high school or receive a diploma. A
secondary, though very important, audience is always the student, who
provides evidence of significant learning.
Process
There are eight basic steps in developing an assessment portfolio system.
Since portfolio entries represent a type of performance, these steps
resemble the principles for developing good performance assessments.
Determine the curricular objectives to be addressed through the
portfolio.
Determine the decisions that will be made based on the portfolio
assessments. Will the assessments be used for high-stakes assessment at
certain levels of schooling (for example, to enable students to make the
transition from middle school to high school)?
Design assessment tasks for the curricular objectives. Ensure that the
task matches instructional intentions and adequately represents the
content and skills (including the appropriate level of difficulty)
students are expected to attain. These considerations will ensure the
validity of the assessment tasks.
Define the criteria for each assessment task and establish performance
standards for each criterion.
Determine who will evaluate the portfolio entries. Will they be teachers
from the students' own school? Teachers from another school? Or does the
state identify and train evaluators?
Train teachers or other evaluators to score the assessments. This will
ensure the reliability of the assessments.
Teach the curriculum, administer assessments, collect them in portfolios,
score assessments.
As determined in Step 2, make decisions based on the assessments in the
portfolios.
Challenges
Assessment portfolios raise many important practical and technical
issues, particularly if they are used for high-stakes decisions.
Portfolios can be used to establish that students have mastered the
essential elements of the curriculum, and high school graduation can be
contingent on demonstrating this mastery. In cases like this, it is
essential that the procedures used to evaluate student work in the
portfolio meet standards of validity and reliability.
How will student products be evaluated if student writing or mathematical
problem solving is included in the portfolio? How will practitioners be
sure that the products are good enough, that the work is of high quality?
By what criteria will student work be judged? To answer these questions,
educators develop scoring guides, or rubrics, with clear criteria and
descriptions of different levels of performance. And to ensure interrater agreement, they collect samples of student work at the different
levels (called anchor papers) and conduct training sessions for
assessors.
But even in a classroom environment where the stakes are lower,
assessment portfolios are more formal affairs than those designed to
diagnose learning needs (working portfolios) or to celebrate learning
(best works portfolios). In an assessment portfolio, the content matters
and it must demonstrate and document what students have learned. The

origin of an assessment portfolio may be quite external to the student


and his world. The mandate may come from outside the classroomfor
instance, via curriculum committees and board action, or directly from
the state department of education. Moreover, the eventual owner of the
portfolio's contents may be someone other than the student. In addition,
the selection process is more controlled and dictated, since the
portfolio entries must document particular learning outcomes. And there
may be no opportunity for the student to show off his or her portfolio.
Innovative Uses of Portfolios
A major contribution of portfolios is that they allow students to
document aspects of their learning that do not show up well in
traditional assessments. Some examples follow.
Community Service
Community service is now required in many schools. Since this type of
activity is not well suited to traditional assessments such as tests and
quizzes, portfolio assessment provides an excellent vehicle for assessing
the goals of a community service curriculum. Students can collect
examples of service, select the best ones, reflect on their experiences,
and determine future goals. The entries in such a portfolio might include
research, narrative summaries of activities performed, pictures, videos,
projects, and the like. The community, in addition to the school, may be
an audience for this portfolio.
Interdisciplinary Unit
An interdisciplinary unit of study that includes many different content
areas is often difficult to evaluate using traditional methods of
assessment. A portfolio can provide a way to include many types of work
that indicate proficiency in various disciplines. Entries might show
evidence of growth in a single content area or a combination of areas.
The cumulative effect of work in many disciplines, all relating to a
single theme or topic, can be illuminating to the student as well as to
others. An interdisciplinary unit on the rainforest, for example, could
culminate in a portfolio containing samples of student accomplishment in
writing, math, social studies, and art.
Subject Area Portfolios
Student learning in some areas is greatly enhanced through the use of
portfolios to document learning. Portfolios are well established in
writing. But there are many other excellent applications of the
technique. A foreign language portfolio could have cultural artifacts
relating to religion, art, and celebrations, as well as evidence of
written and spoken proficiency in the language. A social studies
portfolio could have interviews, projects, models, and reports. And art
portfolios are well recognized as the optimal means of capturing the best
of student performance in the arts, with drawings, slides, and examples
of music composed or performed.
College Admission
Many colleges now request samples of student work from candidates for
admission. Portfolios of best works are well suited to this purpose.
Anything may be included in such a portfolio, including written work,
videos, or projects, and the contents may be customized to suit the
purposes of the student and the institution. The goal of assembling a
portfolio for college admission has the additional benefit of providing
powerful motivation for students during their high school years.
Employment

Some employers request samples of work from prospective employees. As


with portfolios prepared for college admissions, students can use
employment portfolios to document those features of their preparation
that they believe would best convince an employer of their expertise in
areas such as basic skills, problem solving and adaptability, and
collaborative work skills. This movement toward employment portfolios is
being fueled, in large part, by the national school to work movement,
through which employers are insisting on a better-educated workforce
(U.S. Dept. of Labor 1991).
Skill Area Portfolios
It is often desirable to demonstrate that students have acquired skills
in specific areas, such as public speaking, problem solving, or the use
of technology. Because these are assessment portfolios, attention must be
paid to establishing relevant criteria, setting acceptable standards of
performance, and selecting pieces that meet those standards. Because
these skills also cut across disciplines, educators must determine
whether students may demonstrate the skills in any manner they choose, or
whether specific tasks will be established for them.
Summary
Portfolios may take many different forms and may be used for many
different purposes. They may be used to diagnose, document, or celebrate
learning. Regardless of their primary purpose or audience, they have the
power to transform the learning environment in the classrooms where they
are used. The magic of portfolios lies not in the portfolios themselves,
but in the process used in creating them and the school culture in which
documented learning is valued.
Copyright 1997 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development. All rights reserved. No part of this publicationincluding
the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief
quotations in critical reviews or articlesmay be reproduced or
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Pengertian Portofolio, Secara etimologi, portofolio berasal dari dua
kata, yaitu port (singkatan dari report) yang berarti laporan dan folio
yang berarti penuh atau lengkap. Jadi portofolio berarti laporan lengkap
segala aktivitas seseorang yang dilakukannnya (Erman S. A., 2003 dalam
Nahadi dan Cartono, 2007). Secara umum portofolio merupakan kumpulan
dokumen seseorang, kelompok, lembaga, organisasi, perusahaan atau
sejenisnya yang bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan perkembangan suatu
proses dalam mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan.

Terdapat beberapa macam portofolio. Dalam kesenian misalnya, portofolio


berarti kumpulan hasil karya terbaik dari seorang seniman yang sengaja
diadakan untuk keperluan galeri pameran. Dalam dunia pendidikan
portofolio adalah kumpulan hasil karya seorang siswa sebagai hasil
pelaksanaan tugas kinerja yang ditentukan guru atau oleh siswa bersama
guru. Portofolio dalam pendidikan adalah bagian dari usaha dalam mencapai
tujuan belajar atau mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum.
Sehingga tidak setiap kumpulan karya siswa disebut sebagai portofolio.
Paulson (1991) dalam Nahadi dan Cartono (2007) mendefinisikan portofolio
sebagai kumpulan pekerjaan siswa yang menunjukan usaha, perkembangan dan
kecakapan mereka dalam satu bidang atau lebih. Kumpulan ini harus
mencakup partisipasi siswa dalam seleksi isi, kriteria isi, kriteria
seleksi,
kriteria
penilaian,
dan
bukti
refleksi
diri.
Menurut Gronlund (1998 : 159) portofolio mencakup berbagai contoh
pekerjaan siswa yang tergantung pada keluasan tujuan. Apa yang harus
tersurat, tergantung pada subjek dan tujuan penggunaan portofolio. Contoh
pekerjaan siswa ini memberikan dasar bagi pertimbangan kemajuan
belajarnya dan dapat dikomunikasikan kepada siswa, orang tua serta pihak
lain
yang
tertarik
berkepentingan.
Portofolio dapat digunakan untuk mendokementasikan perkembangan siswa.
Kerena menyadari proses belajar sangat penting untuk keberhasilan hidup,
portofolio dapat digunakan oleh siswa untuk melihat kemajuan mereka
sendiri terutama dalam hal perkembangan, sikap keterampilan dan
ekspresinya
terhadap
sesuatu.
Portofolio mencakup berbagai contoh pekerjaan siswa yang tergantung pada
keluasan tujuan. Contoh pekerjaan siswa ini memberikan dasar bagi
pertimbangan bagi kemajuan belajarnya dan dapat dikomunikasikan dengan
siswa, orang tua serta pihak lain yang berkepentingan. Sehingga
portofolio dapat digunakan untuk mendokumentasikan perkembangan siswa
dalam setiap kegiatan dan proses pembelajaran. Secara umum, dalam dunia
pendidikan portofolio merupakan kumpulan hasil karya siswa atau catatan
mengenai siswa yang didokumentasikan secara baik dan teratur. Portofolio
dapat berbentuk tugas-tugas yang dikerjakan siswa, jawaban siswa atas
pertanyaan guru, catatan hasil observasi guru, catatan hasil wawancara
guru dengan siswa, laporan kegiatan siswa dan karangan atau jurnalyang
dibuat
siswa.
Portofolio adalah kumpulan hasil karya seorang siswa, sebagai hasil
pelaksanaan tugas kinerja, yang ditentukan oleh guru atau oleh siswa
bersama guru, sebagai bagian dari uasaha mencapai tujuan belajar, atau
mencapai
kompetensi
yang
ditentukan
dalam
kurikulum.
Portofolio dalam arti ini, dapat digunakan sebagai instrumen penilaian
atau salah satu komponen dari instrumen penilaian, untuk menilai
kompetensi siswa, atau menilai hasil belajar siswa. Portofolio demikian
disebut juga portofolio untuk penilaian atau portofolio penilaian.
Pengertian

Penilaian

Portofolio

Penilaian portofolio merupakan satu metode penilaian berkesinambungan,

dengan mengumpulkan informasi atau data secara sistematik atas hasil


pekerjaan
seseorang
(Pomham,
1984).
Aspek yang diukur dalam penilaian portofolio adalah tiga domain
perkembangan psikologi anak yaitu kognitif, afektif dan psikomotorik.
Penilaian

Portofolio

Portofolio dapat diartikan sebagai suatu wujud benda fisik, sebagai suatu
proses sosial pedagogis, maupun sebagai ajektif. Sebagai suatu wujud
benda fisik portofolio adalah bundel, yaitu kumpulan atau dokumentasi
hasil pekerjaan peserta didik yang disimpan pada suatu bundel. Misalnya
hasil tes awal (pre-test), tugas, catatan anekdot, piagam penghargaan,
keterangan melaksanakan tugas terstruktur, hasil tes akhir (post-test)
dan sebagainya. Sebagai suatu proses sosial pedagogis, portofolio adalah
collection of learning experience yang terdapat di dalam pikiran peserta
didik baik yang berwujud pengetahuan (kognitif), keterampilan (skill),
maupun sikap (afektif). Adapun sebagai suatu ajektif portofolio
seringkali dihubungkan dengan konsep pembelajaran atau penilaian yang
dikenal dengan istilah pembelajaran berbasis portofolio atau penilaian
berbasis
portofolio.
Portofolio
*
*
*

Sebagai
benda
fisik
Sebagai
suatu
Sebagai adjective (Pembelajaran

(bundle

atau
proses
portofolio, assesmen

dokumen)
social
portofolio)

Portofolio sebagai hasil pelaksanaan tugas kinerja, yang ditentukan oleh


guru atau oleh siswa bersama guru, sebagai bagian dari usaha mencapai
tujuan belajar, atau mencapai kompetensi yang ditentukan dalam kurikulum.
Portofolio dalam arti ini, dapat digunakan sebagai instrument penilaian
atau salah satu komponen dari instrument penilaian, untuk menilai
kompetensi siswa, atau menilai hasil belajar siswa. Portofolio demikian
disebut juga portofolio untuk penilaian atau asesmen portofolio.
Berdasarkan
pengertian
tentang
evaluasi,
penilaian,
asesmen
dan
portofolio, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa asesmen portofolio dalam
pembelajaran kimia dapat diartikan sebagai suatu usaha untuk memperoleh
berbagai informasi secara berkala, berkesinambungan, dan menyeluruh
tentang proses, hasil pertumbuhan, perkembangan wawasan pengetahuan,
sikap, dan keterampilan peserta didik yang bersumber dari catatan dan
dokumen pengalaman belajarnya di dalam pembelajaran kimia. Dalam konteks
penilaian, asesmen portofolio juga diartikan sebagai upaya menghimpun
kumpulan karya atau dokumen peserta didik yang tersusun secara sistematis
dan terorganisir yang diambil selama proses pembelajaran, digunakan oleh
guru dan peserta didik dalam mata pelajaran tertentu (Surapranata S dan
Hatta
M,
2004
dalam
Nahadi
danCartono,
2007).
Portofolio siswa untuk penilaian atau assesmen portofolio merupakan
kumpulan produksi siswa, yang berisi berbagai jenis karya seorang siswa,
misalnya:
1. Hasil proyek, penyelidikan, atau praktik siswa yang disajikan secara

tertulis
atau
dengan
penjelasan
tertulis.
2. Gambar atau laporan hasil pengamatan siswa, dalam rangka melaksanakan
tugas
untuk
mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
3. Analisis situasi yang berkaitan atau relevan dengan mata pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
4. Deskripsi dan diagram pemecahan suatu masalah dalam mata pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
5. Laporan hasil penyelidikan tentang hubungan antara konsep-konsep dalam
mata
pelajaran
atau
antar
mata
pelajaran.
6.
Penyelesaian
soal-soal
terbuka.
7. Hasil tugas pekerjaan rumah yang khas, misalnya dengan cara yang
berbeda dengan cara yang diajarkan di sekolah, atau dengan cara yang
berbeda
dari
cara
pilihan
teman-teman
sekelasnya.
8.
Laporan
kerja
kelompok.
9. Hasil kerja siswa yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan alat rekam vidio,
alat
rekam
audio
dan
computer.
10. Fotokopi surat piagam atau tanda penghargaan yang pernah diterima
oleh
siswa
yang
bersangkutan.
11. Hasil karya dalam mata pelajaran yang bersangkutan, yang tidak
ditugaskan oleh guru (atas pilihan siswa sendiri, tetapi relevan dengan
mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan).
12. Cerita tentang kesenangan atau ketidaksenangan siswa terhadap mata
pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
13. Cerita tentang usaha siswa sendiri dalam mengatasi hambatan
psikologis, atau usaha peningkatan diri, dalam mempelajari mata pelajaran
yang
bersangkutan.
14.
Laporan
tentang
sikap
siswa
terhadap
pelajaran.
Untuk menerapkan asesmen portofolio dibutuhkan suatu rubrik atau pedoman
terperinci penilaian. Asesmen portofolio hendaknya tidak hanya ditekankan
kepada keberhasilan siswa dalam memperoleh jawaban yang diinginkan oleh
guru, tetapi lebih ditekankan pada proses berfikir siswa yang terdapat
atau tersirat dalam isi portofolio. Penilaian berbasis kompetensi
mempunyai prinsip belajar tuntas (mastery learning), siswa tidak
diperkenankan
mengerjakan
pekerjaan
berikutnya
sebelum
mampu
menyelesaikan pekerjaan dengan prosedur yang benar, dan hasil yang baik.
Salah satu model yang cocok dengan prinsip tersebut adalah model asesmen
portofolio.
Model asesmen
intinya

portofolio

menggunakan acuan
adalah

penilaian

kriteria, yang
bahwa:

* Semua anak memiliki kemampuan yang sama dan bisa belajar apa saja,
hanya waktu yang diperlukan untuk mencapai kemampuan tertentu berbeda.
*
Standar
ketuntasan
harus
ditentukan
terlebih
dahulu.
*
Hasil
penilaian;lulus
atau
tidak
lulus.
Aspek yang diukur dalam asesmen portofolio adalah tiga ranah perkembangan
psikologi
anak
yaitu
kognitif,
afektif,
dan
psikomotorik.
1.

Prilaku

kognitif

Berdasarkan taksonomi kognitive Bloom, terdapat enam tingkatan kognitif


berfikir:

* Pengetahuan (knowledge) : kemampuan mengingat (misal mengingat rumus)


* Pemahaman (comprehension) : kemampuan memahami (menyimpulkan suatu
paragraph)
* Aplikasi (application) : kemampuan penerapan (misalnya menggunakan
informasi atau pengetahuan yang diperolehnya untuk memecahkan masalah).
* Analisis (analysis) : kemampuan menganalisis suatu informasi yang luas
menjadi bagian-bagian kecil (misalnya menganalisis bentuk, jenis atau
arti)
* Sintesis (synthesis) : kemampuan menggabungkan beberapa informasi
menjadi
kesimpulan
(misalnya
memformulasikan
hasil
penelitian).
* Evaluasi (evaluation) : kemampuan mempertimbangkan mana yang baik untuk
mengambil
tindakan
tertentu.
2.

Prilaku

afektif

Mencakup penilaian perasaan, tingkah laku, minat, kesukaan, emosi dan


motivasi.
3.

Prilaku

psikomotorik

Mencakup penilaian keahlian. Penilaian psikomotorik adalah penilaian


pembelajaran yang banyak menggunakan praktek seperti agama, kesenian,
olahraga, sains dan bahasa, sementara itu untuk mata pelajaran yang tidak
terdapat kegiatan praktek, tidak terdapat penilaian psikomotoriknya.
Bentuk instrument dan jenis tagihan yang digunakan untuk assesmen
portofolio adalah tes tertulis (obyektif dan non-obyektif), tes lisan
(wawancara),
tes
perbuatan
(lembar
pengamatan),
non-tes
(angket,
kuisioner),
dan
hasil
karya
(daftar
cek,
produk
dan
laporan.
Jenis

Jenis

Portofolio

Jenis-jenis Penilaian Portofolio, Evaluasi, asesmen atau penilaian


portofolio merupakan suatu bentuk penilaian yang sesungguhnya atau
otentik (Collins, 1988 dalam Nahadi dan Cartono, 2007). Hal ini
disebabkan karena pada asesmen portofolio sumber informasi yang dijadikan
pertimbangan dalam bentuk pekerjaan siswa yang dikoleksi secara
sistematis. Dengan demikian perkembangan kemampuan siswa dapat dilihat
secara mudah. Sumber informasi berupa hasil pekerjaan siswa dikumpulkan
dalam
berbagai
bentuk
diantaranya:
1.
Hasil
kerja
laboratorium
dalam
wujud
laporan
hasil
kerja.
2. Hasil pelaksanaan tugas oleh peserta didik misalnya buku tugas, buku
PR,
buku
kerja,
kliping,
foto
atau
gambar.
3.
Hasil
ulangan
harian
atau
semester.
4. Penghargaan tertulis misalnya sertifikat mengikuti lomba baik tingkat
sekolah,
kecamatan,
kabupaten,
atau
provinsi.
5.
Daftar
kehadiran
6.
Catatan
pribadi
atau
anekdik
7. Catatan tentang peringatan yangdiberikan guru ketika peserta didik
melakukan
suatu
kesalahan.
8.
Audio
visual
9.
Buku
aktivitas

Dari
berbagai
jenis
asesmen
portofolio
yang
ada,
guru
dapat
mengumpulkannya sesuai dengan tujuan yang hendak dicapai, tingkatan siswa
dan jenis kegiatan yang dilakukan. Pada hakikatnya asesmen portofolio
dapat dibedakan kedalam dua bentuk yang banyak dikenal dewasa ini, yaitu
tinjauan proses (process oriented) dan tinjauan hasil (product oriented).
Perbedaan kedua bentuk portofolio tersebut dijelaskan sebagai berikut:
1.

Tinjauan

Proses

Portofolio proses (process oriented) adalah jenis portofolio yang


menekankan pada tinjauan bagaimana perkembangan peserta didik dapat
diamati dan dinilai dari waktu ke waktu. Pendekatan ini lebih menekankan
pada bagaiman peserta didik belajar, berkreasi, termasuk mulai dari draf
awal, bagaiman proses awal terjadi dan waktu sepanjang peserta didik
dinilai. Hal yang diniali mencakup kemampuan awal, proses, dan akhir
suatu
pekerjaan
yang
dilakukan
peserta
didik.
2.

Tinjauan

Hasil

Portofolio ditinjau dari hasil (product oriented) adalah jenis portofolio


yang menekankan pada tinjauan hasil terbaik yang telah dilakukan peserta
didik, tanpa memperhatikan bagaimana proses untuk mencapai evidence itu
terjadi. Portofolio semacam ini bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan dan
merefleksikan kualitas prestasi yang telah dicapai. Dalam beberapa
literatur dapat ditemukan bahwa portofolio tampilan (show portofolios)
dan portiofolio dokumentasi (documentary portofolios) merupakan contoh
portofolio
produk.
a.

Portofolio

penampilan

Portofolio pemampilan (show Portofolios) adalah bentuk yang digunakan


evidence terbaik yang dikerjakan oleh peserta didik ataupun kelompok
peserta didik. Portofolio bentuk ini dirancang untuk menunjukan evidence
peserta didik yangterbaik dalam satu kompetensi dasar atau indikator
pencapaian hasil belajar dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Portofolio
penampilan sangat berguna untuk penilaian yang bergantung kepada seberapa
tepat isi portofolio telahg mengacu pada kompetensi dasar atau indikator
pencapaian
hasilbelajar
yang
telah
ditentukan
dalam
kurikulum.
b.

Portofolio

dokumentasi

Portofolio dokumentasi (documentary portofolios) adalah bentuk yang


digunakan untuk koleksi evidence peserta didik yang khusus digunakan
untuk penilaian dalam portofolio dokumentasi, hanya evidence peserta
didik yang terbaik yang diseleksi yang akan diajukan dalam penilaian.
Asesmen portofolio dokumentasi dalam portofolio kimia misalnya, tidak
hanya berisi tentang hasil akhir laporan praktikum peserta didik, tetapi
juga berbagai macam draf dan komentar peserta didik terhadap laporannya
tersebut.
Termasuk
proses
sampai
dihasilkannya
laporan
praktikum
tersebut.
Bentuk-bentuk

Penilaian

Portofolio

Dari kedua jenis asesmen portofolio tersebut dalam pelaksanaannya asesmen

portofolio terbagi kedalam beberapa bentuk instrumen eavaluasi atau tes.


Adapun bentuk-bentuk asesmen portofolio diantaranya sebagai berikut:
1. Cacatan anekdotal, yaitu beruoa lembaran khusus yang mencatat segala
bentuk kejadian mengenaiperilaku siswa, khususnya selama berlangsungnya
proses pembelajaran. Lembaran ini memuat identitas yang diamati, waktu
pengamatan
dan
lembar
rekaman
kejadiannya.
2. Ceklist atau daftar cek, yaitu daftar yang telah disusun berdasarkan
tujuan
perkembangan
yang
hendak
dicapai
siswa.
3. Skala penilaian yang mencatat isyarat tujuan kemajuan perkembangan
siswa.
4.
Respon-respon
siswa
terhadap
pertanyaan
5. Tes skrinning yang berguna untuk mengidentidfikasi keterampilan
siswasetelah pengajaran dilakukan, misalnya: tes hasil belajar, PR, LKS,
dan laporan kegiatan lapangan.
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