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PREFACE:

In a Sanskrit poem the Goddess of fortune is said to appear


mysteriously like the milk in coconut high up in the tree and
disappear like the rind inside the nut which comes out when
swallowed by the elephant. So also does the civilization in any
land. But it is being more and more felt that India & China are
exceptions, for they are alone in the old world with complex
communal life and primitive institution somewhat possess that
vital elixir which made them survive the ‘Diseases’ of the
civilizations which carried away Sumer & Assur, Egypt and
Crete, Greece & Rome and will still make them further into the
future as pointed out by Panchanan Mitra.[1]

Hence Prehistoric Archeology becomes vital not only for a


proper understanding of the steps and processes of human
progress, but also to understand the visible demonstration of
how step by step from small beginning, things in the human
world actually came to be so. One aim of this compilation is to
provide a platform for such a discussion.

INTRODUCTION:
To examine ancient cultures that did not have writings of any
kind, one has to rely entirely on material remains for evidence.
Apart from the physical remains, examining the art imprints left
behind by the human ancestors can be a major source of
information on the Pre-historic Environment, Culture, Custom,
Beliefs and Living Being. Various theories exist as regards to
the meaning and function of rock art. The problem of analyzing
rock art, is the risk of interpreting its meaning and function in a
subjective way is very high. Visual art is an expression of
human experience. It articulates the artist's concern through
colour, form and composition and at the same time
communicates with the viewer at different levels resulting in
multiple readings. It is this that makes a work of art intriguing
and fascinating at the same time.

A work of art provides interesting data for analyzing and


understanding the social context of its creation, which
otherwise would have been completely missed in the normal
material culture. It is the quality of the painting or engraving or
of small figurines of portable art objects of the pre-historic
period, that makes them unique and valuable in reading the
cultural behavior of the past.

1/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD:

1.1 DEFINITION:
Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least
half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods,
namely the Prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and
the Historic (after writing). Modern humans evolved in Africa
and have lived on our planet for about 1,50,000 years.
However, they learnt writing only about 5,000 years ago
(3,000 B.C.)

The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron


ages. The Stone Age is further divided into:
•Paleolithic & Mesolithic Period - represented a nomadic,
hunting-gathering way of life (50,000-25,000 B.C)*
•Neolithic Periods - represented a settled, food-producing
way of life. (25,000-6,000 B.C)*
•Chalcolithic Period – represents the introduction of
Copper.(6000-1000 B.C)*
*The time line for each of these period vary widely across the
world.

The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8,000


years ago (6,000 B.C.), brought about dramatic changes in the
economy, technology and demography of human societies.

Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially


on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild
plant and animal food resources. The introduction of
agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile
soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which
had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of
isolation.

The first urbanization took place during the Bronze Age in the
arid and semi-arid region of North-West India in the valleys of
the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by
the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed.

Cultural changes take place at an uneven pace in different


regions, in many parts of the world, particularly in India,
prehistoric ways of life have survived more or less unchanged
into modern times. [4]

2/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.2 UNDERSTANDING HUMAN EVOLUTION
Human evolution is dependant on many factors, to
understand a glimpse of it, I have tried to look at the Earth
time line, in relation to the rise and fall of culture through the
1.2.1 Earth Time-Line & Cultures Paleolithic Period.

* * * *

Fig:1 – The graph shows the relation between the various ice age and the succeeding Paleolithic Culture
in Europe. Each of these culture is differentiated from the other with the stone tools and artifacts
indigenous to each. The name for each of these culture is derived from typical site observed containing the
physical remains of these cultures.
Understanding Fig:2 & Fig:3, it is evident that, though Homo
sapiens have survived through climatic odds, evolution has
been fastest during stable climatic conditions.

Fig:2 – Geological Time-Line

Fig:3 – Human Development Time-line 3/95


PLATE 1 – TIME-LINE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.2.2 Climate Change & Civilization:
The climate conditions on this planet naturally undergo
sudden shifts several times per thousand-year period. Clearly,
anthropogenic changes like those responsible for global
warming are likely to bring the next major shift closer. How
much would such a change affect our present civilization is a
question to speculate on.

Looking at the past, It is now thought that the Younger Dryas*


led the Natufian* communities of southwest Asia to abandon
their nomadic hunting and gathering and develop labor
intensive agriculture. The cooling of the Younger Dryas
caused harvests of wild resources to dwindle below the level
necessary for subsistence. The Natufians abandoned their
nomadic culture, and established permanent settlements in
areas where they could cultivate previously wild cereals. The
development of agriculture entails permanently localized
settlement that we call civilization (literally, the “culture of the
city”)[5]. These early farming communities grew in population
and socio-economic complexity until they were hit by another
abrupt climate change around 6400 B.C. This was the last
major climate event related to the melting of the continental ice
sheets.

Fig:4 – .Looking at the climatic change over the world in the past 15,000 years, also helps us understand
the development in the various culture and shift in the location of the civilizations in search of warm lands.

4/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.2.2 Climate Change & Civilization:
Climatic changes have caused effects in disappearance of
entire civilizations like:

1. Early agricultural settlements in the Levant and


Mesopotamia. (3000 - 1000 B.C.)
2. Late Uruk urban society of southern
Mesopotamia (5600 - 3900 B.C.)
3. The Akkadian Empire of Mesopotamia (2350 -
2050 B.C.)
4. The Harappan civilization of the Indus valley.
(3000 - 1000 B.C.)
5. Early Bronze Age civilizations of Palestine,
Greece and Crete. (3650 - 1000 B.C)
6. Moche civilization in northern coastal Peru.
(100 - 800 A.D.)
7. Tiwanaku civilization of the Central Andes.
(400 - 1000 A.D.)
8. Classic Mayans 250 - 900 A.D.
9. Anasazi culture in the 13th century in Northern
America. (900 - 1150 A.D.)

Modern civilization, with its technological ingenuity, may be


more capable of withstanding an abrupt climate change event
than were these ancient civilizations.

However, if abrupt climate change happens at a time when


modern civilization is already suffering from resource depletion
— particularly the depletion of its hydrocarbon energy base —
the effect of such a double impact upon our civilization could
be very grave indeed. In the past, when abrupt climate change
rendered one area uninhabitable, people could migrate to
another area. In today's world, would it be feasible?

5/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.2.2.1 The Indian Context:
The Fig 5 & Fig 6, help us understand the geological extent of
the land and also the prevalent geological features during the ,
Paleocene and the present South Asia, which has been the
major reason for the culture rise and decline.

Fig 5: Geological condition of India and Neighboring Areas in the Paleocene era.

Sources:
Pleistocene rainforest based on
Pelz, 1999, extent of glaciers:
Carlton 1985, active sand dunes:
Dawson 1992.
Fig 6: Present India
6/95
PLATE 2 – GEOLOGICAL INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.3 PRE-HISTORIC SITES - INDIA
The pattern of human settlements and nature of economic
adaptation was largely conditioned by geological,
palaeontological and geomorphological conditions that
prevailed at the time of occupation.

1.3.1 Central India


Evidence of Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic & Chalcolithic
cultures along with transitional and transformational phases is
very significant to understand the development process of the
cultures. The longest Quaternary geological and cultural
sequences has been worked in the valleys of the Belan & the
Son.

Considering the Vindhyas, lying to the south of Ganga &


Yamuna rivers, has been fairly well investigated &
documented. In the Western Parts of Vindhyas Known as
Baghekhand, rivers like, Belan, the Adwa, the Tons, the Son,
the Chambal, the Paisuni and their tributaries are perennial
source of water. This creates a natural habitat for a variety of
animals and plants in the river valleys, in turn making the
conditions favorable for the human settlement.

Evidences of rock paintings, bruising, portable artifacts carved


on stone, bones and ostrich egg shell pieces though very
meager in number, form an additional source of information.
These early forms of applied art reflecting an aesthetic taste,
are of extreme importance in the absence of absolute dates.

In the sandstone regions of Central India, Rock Paintings were


found on the walls or ceilings of Shelters as well as on cliff wall
cavities or any other suitable place where they could withstand
the effects of different weathering agengies.
Important localities representing rock art sites in Central India
are:
•Bhimbetka
•Jaora
•Kathotia
•Firengi
•Gumpha Maser
•Lakhajoar
•Adamgarh and
•Panchmarhi

7/95
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.3.2 South India
The geomorphological setting of the rock art sites of South
India are strikingly different from that of Central India. To a
large extent, rock art of South India represented by rock
bruising with examples of paintings as well. The paintings are
generally found on the shelter walls of projected ceiling hoods
and invariably in niches developed by natural weathering.
Among the several south indian sites, the better known are
•Kupgallu
•Maski
•Piklihal
•Edakal cave
•Tekkalakota &
•Badami.

Prehistoric Rock Art Sites

Present Day Important City


Fig 7: Map showing some of the rock art sites in Central and South India, along with some important
cites of the present days
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PLATE 3 – PRE-HISTORIC SITES, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.4 PRE-HISTORIC SITES - WORLD
Franco-Cantabrian cave arts in the Northern Spain &
Southern France, are the most famous corpus of Upper
Paleolithic cave art. We have large numbers of Middle
Paleolithic rock art motifs, mostly from Australia, the incidence
of lower Paleolithic cases remain very rare, and confirmed
cases of it are limited to India. The first middle Paleolithic sea
farers who reached Australia around 60,000 years ago, might
have brought the rock art tradition with them.

The rock arts in Australia being precisely similar to the


southern Asia, suggest their origin there. It consists exclusively
of simple Petroglyphs, among which the cupules (cup marks)
predominate to the point of excluding almost other types.

Oldest rock art of Africa - Southern most part of the continent,


North America, South America, Europe also mostly consist of
cupules.[6]

9/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.4.1 Africa
There are two Paleolithic or Early Stone Age industries in
Africa. the Oldowan and the Acheulian. The Oldowan dates
from 2.5myr to 1myr (25,00,000 B.C. to 10,00,000 B.C.).
These sites are found all over Africa. The Acheulian sites date
around 1.4myr (14,00,000 B.C.)

The Oldowan shows, stool tool assemblage characterized by


the production of small sharp flakes from cobble sized cores.

The Acheulian shows a shift towards use of large flakes


detached from giant cores. Hand sized tools with sharp edges,
hand sized tools with pointed edges and small flakes and
hammer stones are the main tools.

In the early Acheulian deliberate shaping of the stone to


produce a pre-determined shape, indicate of a more complex
behavior compared to the Oldowan.[2]

Fig 8: Engraved pattern on Stone, 70,000


B.C., Cape Town South Africa

Fig 9: Engraved Bovine, 6000 B.C, Africa

10/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.4.2 Europe
European Lower Paleolithic has a greater than wanted
importance due to the discipline of prehistory originating from
Europe. A division along ecological lines into Mediterranean
Europe and temperate Europe is probably significant with
Mediterranean Europe occupied by around 1myr and
temperate Europe only by around 500 kyr. (10,00,000 B.C to
5,00,000 B.C). During the glacial periods temperate Europe
was abandoned to colonize the Mediterranean Europe only to
be recolonized during the interglacial periods.[2]

The prehistoric sites have also been found along


Mediterranean Europe, Western Europe France, Britain,
Germany

Fig 10: Rock Painting of a horse 17000 B.C. Lascaux


caves, Dordogne, France

Fig 11: Venus of Laussel 20,000 to 18,000 B.C.


Limestone Figure of Height 43 cms. Drodgne France.

11/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.4.3 Middle East
The middle east is one of the areas that was continuously
occupied from an early period. it connects Africa, which is
considered as the place from where humans originated and
migrated to both Europe and Asia.
There are two possible routes of migration,
• Nile valley and then the Levant on the
Mediterranean coast
• Horn of Africa across the narrow entrance of the
Red Sea via Arabia.

Fig 12:
Archaeological sites found to 2003 predating
approx. 100,000 years.
1.Shuwayhitiyah archaeological site
2.Dawadmi archaeological site
a. the Sinai, Egyptian, Nile valley or
northern migration route
b. the Arabian or southern
migration route
c. the onward route east
d. the onward route north and west

Fig 13: Prehistoric Rock Paintings in Latmos


(Besparmak) Mountains- Bafa Lake

The Latmos Mountains in the hinterland of the westcoast of


Turkey near Milet were one of the holy mountains of Asia
Minor.
In nearly all of the representations humans are shown-
hunters and animals and other figures, these paintings have a
distinctive style with heads depicted as a flattened 'M'.

12/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD
1.4.4 South Asia
Evidence of lower Paleolithic is abundant in India. The
Acheulian in India has been divided on the basis of typology,
into an earlier and later phase. The typological and
technological character of the early Acheulian in India closely
resembles that of the earliest sites in Africa. Dating of Indian
sites is scanty but the available dates do suggest a similar age
for the Indian Early Acheulian.

The late Acheulian phase in peninsular India is best


represented by assemblages recovered from the Bhimbetka
caves. Bifaces form a small proportion of an assemblage
which has a large number of retouched flake tools. Retouched
flake tools are almost absent from the early Acheulian.

The Indian sub-continent is one of the areas where hominins


dispersed in the Lower Pleistocene. Homo erectus in Java
most probably arrived from the Indian Subcontinent as the
fossil and fauna associated with Homo erectus in java
originates in India.

While tools are abundant in India, and fossils absence the


reverse is the case in Java. Ecological factors seem to be
more important than geographic factors In the distribution of
Lower Paleolithic technologies.

13/95
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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2. ORIGIN:

2.1 GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF INDIA

The geological history of India started with the geological


evolution of rest of the Earth i.e. 4.57 bya (billion years ago).
India has a diverse geology. Different regions in India contain
rocks of all types belonging to different geologic periods. (Ref:
Plate - 5)

India's geographical land area can be classified into-


Deccan Trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan.

Firstly, the Deccan Trap covers almost all of Maharashtra, a


part of Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra
Pradesh marginally. It is believed that the Deccan Trap was
formed as result of sub-aerial volcanic activity associated with
the continental deviation in this part of the Earth during the
Mesozoic era. That is why the rocks found in this region are
generally igneous type.

The Gondwana and Vindhyan include within its fold parts of


Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal,
Andhra Pradesh, parts of Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir,
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttaranchal.

The Gondwana Supergroup forms a unique sequence of


fluviatile rocks deposited in Permo-Carboniferous time.
Damodar and Sone river valley and Rajmahal hills in the
eastern India are depository of the Gondwana rocks.

Fig 14: Once a part of supercontinent Pangea, The Indian craton was attached to Madagascar and
southern Africa on the south west coast, and Australia along the east coast.
The Indian Plate then drifted northward toward the Eurasian Plate, at a pace that is the fastest movement
of any known plate.

14/95
PLATE 4 – GEOLOGICAL HISTORY, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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2. ORIGIN

e
e f f

b a
b a d
d

c c

a. Indian Plate
b. African Plate
c. Australian Plate
d. South American Plate
e. North American Plate
f. Eurasian Plate

Fig 15: The sequence of maps show how a large supercontinent, known as Pangaea has fragmented
into several pieces, each being part of a mobile plate of the lithosphere. These pieces are the Earth's
current continents. The time sequence traces the paths of the continents to their current positions

15/95
PLATE 5 – GEOLOGICAL HISTORY, WORLD
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2. ORIGIN

Fig 16: the Geological Map shows the Geological formations that
is of Present India, 1999

16/95
PLATE 6 – GEOLOGICAL MAP OF INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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2. ORIGIN

Fig 17: The Natural Vegetation Map is indicative of the present vegetation across the country, though
the natural vegetation might have been very different during the pre-historic era, it might still help us
understand the conditions which the prehistoric man favored for occupation.

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PLATE 7 – NATURAL VEGETATION MAP OF INDIA
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2. ORIGIN
2.2 RACES & CULTURES IN THE PRE-HISTORIC INDIA

2.2.1Austro Asiatic
In Indian sub-continent Austro Asiatic tribe in their primitive
forms are represented by the Kols of the Mundas, the Khasis
including those from the islands of Nicobar.
Austro-asiatic tribe mainly consisted of food gatherers and
hunters without clans or clan totemism. With population
increase, migrations and clan dispersal, group totemism
evolved in Chota Nagpur District, which is now known as the
Birhor tribe. In the tribes of Southern & Central India, Vedids
allied with Australian aborigines are found .[8]

Fig 18: Austro Asiatic Population

2.2.2The Paleo-Mongoloid People


These people speak a dialect of the Sino-Tibetan family who
are found largely among the Sub-Himalayan regions (now
represented by the Nagas, the Bodos, and the Kuki Chins etc.
Entered from the N.E Frontier still concentrated in the Eastern
States of India (Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh etc.
and some penetrated in Bihar & Orissa.[8]

Fig 19: Paleo-Mongoloid People


18/95
PLATE 8 – RACES & CULTURES IN INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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2. ORIGIN
2.2.3 Dravidians
The Dravidian race consists predominantly of South Indians.
They are characterized by their dark complexion, large
foreheads and dark hair and eyes. According to experts, this
race arrived in India around 3000 B C. Their religion was
based on the worship of nature.
The Malers, the Oraons, the Gonds and the Khonds are some
of the tribes considered Dravidians.
With the decline in Indus Valley Civilization, the Dravidians
established a rich culture in south and central India. Their
contribution to the development of language and literature is
immense.[8]

Fig 20: Dravidian Population

2.2.4 Indo Aryan


Are supposed to have been the last to come to India.
Entered India around 1st millennium B.C. either by sea or
along the coastal land route as far as Coorg, Mysore, Tamil
Nadu, Andhra as well as Bengal. [8]

Fig 21: Aryan Migration Route to India

19/95
PLATE 8 – RACES & CULTURES IN INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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2. ORIGIN
2.3 RACES & CULTURES IN THE PRE-HISTORIC WORLD
In the famous address to the Asiatic Society of Bengal,
Calcutta in 1786, the President Sir William Jones, had drawn
attention to the striking similarities between Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, German and Keltic languages. Similarities in these
languages could be explained only through common
parentage.

The science of comparative philology and all the European


languages except the Basque, Finnish, Magyar & Turkish
were comprised in what was called as the Indo-Germanic
group. As Sanskrit happened to possess a grammatical
mechanism more complicated than others, it has been
considered the mother or at least the eldest sister of the Aryan
languages.

Sanskrit
The mother of all present-day European languages originated
in India. Indo-European Language subfamilies are:
• Indo-Iranian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Persian)
• Hellenic (Greek)
• Armenian (Western Armenian, Eastern Armenian)
• Balto-Slavic (Russian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian)
• Albanian (Gheg, Tosk)
• Celtic (Irish Gaelic, Welsh)
• Italic (Latin, Spanish, Italian, French)
• Germanic (German, English, Danish, Dutch,
Swedish, Norwegian)
• Anatolian (extinct) (Hittite)
• Tocharian (extinct) (Tocharian A, Tocharian B)

The traces of prehistoric man and his cultures are being


unearthed in India for over 50 years and yet no systematic
historical treatment has been offered of them.

20/95
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3. PREHISTORIC SETTLEMETNS IN INDIA:

3.1 PALEOLITHIC SITES IN INDIA

3.1.1 Lower Paleolithic: [198,000 B.C]


The early human colonization of South Asia is represented
largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The
oldest known tools, comprising simple cores and flakes, have
been reported from the Shiwalik hills at Riwat, near Rawalpindi
An Early Acheulian assemblage
in Pakistan. They have been dated to two million years.
from the central Narmada Basin,
peninsular India.
The earliest reliable stone tool assemblages belong to two
distinct cultural and technological traditions, namely (i) the
Sohanian and (ii) the Acheulian.

3.1.1.1 Sohanian Culture*:


The Sohanian culture is named after the river Sohan (or
Soan), a tributary of the Indus, and was found at a number of
sites in the Shiwalik Hills in North-West India and Pakistan.
Sohanian populations inhabited the flat surfaces of the
Shiwalik frontal range and the latter the duns or valleys of the
Himalayan flank.

3.1.1.2 Acheulian Culture*:


The Acheulian tradition cannot be older than 200,000 B.P.
(198,000 B.C.) because it is only around this time that the
Shiwalik range or hills became sufficiently stable to support
human population. Remains of the culture suggest Acheulian
occupation from the duns or valleys of the Himalayan flank to
down south till near Chennai. The areas devoid of the
Acheulian occupation are the Western Ghats and the coastal
region running parallel to them, North-East India and the
Ganga plains. [9]

21/95
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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA

Fig 23: Palaeolithic Sites in India, some of the newer sites have been on the older ones. This has
created problem with regards to dating.

22/95
PLATE 9 – PALAEOLITHIC SITES IN INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
3.1.1.2 Acheulian Culture
Acheulian hunter-gatherers camped along lakes and pools in
the wide flood plains of shallow meandering streams, on the
surfaces of extensively exposed older gravel beds and on
stable sand dunes.

Faunal remains have been preserved in Acheulian bearing


gravels in peninsular rivers like the
• Chambal,
• Son,
• Mahanadi,
• Narmada,
• Godavari and
• Krishna rivers and their tributaries

These comprise wild boar (Sus namadicus), cattle (Bos


namadicus), elephant (Elephas hysudricus and Stegodon
insignisganesa), and horse (Equus namadicus. These animals
indicate the existence of both forest and open grassland
Fig 24: Sus namadicus environments and the availability of plentiful water round the
year.

There is little doubt that all these animals formed a source of


food for the Acheulian populations but whether they were
hunted or scavenged or exploited can be ascertained only
when their remains are found in association with
archaeological material in undisturbed occupation contexts.

Fig 25: Bos namadicus, Prehistoric Art, Lascaux, France,

According to the Paleontologisk Museum, University of Oslo, aurochs* evolved in India some two million
years ago, migrated into the Middle East and further into Asia, and reached Europe about 250,000 years
ago. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from a different group of aurochs at the edge of
the Thar Desert in India; this would explain zebu resistance to drought.
Cave painting of aurochs, (Bos primigenius primigenius),`

Fig 26: Equus namadicus is a prehistoric equid, known from equid remains dating to the Pleistocene
excavated in deposits of the Narmada river, in India. It is contemporary and possibly even identical to,
Equus sivalensis.
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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
3.1.2 Middle Paleolithic Site In India:[38,000 To 8000 B.C.]
The Acheulian culture slowly evolved into the middle
Paleolithic by shedding some of the tool types and by
a. incorporating new forms and new techniques of making them.
b.
c.
In Western Europe, the Near East, North Africa and central
d. Asia, the middle Paleolithic culture is associated with the
physical remains of Neanderthal man (Homo sapiens
neanderthalensis). Though no physical remains of
Fig 27: Stone tools retrieved from the Neanderthal man have been found in India, stone tools very
Narmada valley. a. Side Scraper, b. similar to those found with this hominid species in Europe and
Levallois point, c. Double Scraper, d. other Regions occur widely in the subcontinent.
Transverse Scraper
The middle Paleolithic culture developed during the upper
Pleistocene, a period of intense cold and glaciation in the
northern latitudes. Areas bordering glaciated regions
experienced strong aridity. That is perhaps the reason why
middle Paleolithic sites are comparatively sparse. In general,
however, the middle Paleolithic populations occupied the
same regions and habitats as the preceding Acheulian
populations.
Fig 28: Part of Stone Beads at
Bhimbetka, human burial area
suggesting beginning of Symbology

Fig 29: The cobble is of a conspicuously reddish Jasperite and has the
natural form of a head, wit`h distinctive ‘staring eyes’ and a ‘mouth’
(Bednarik 1998). Suggesting existence of structure for symbolism as
we perceive.
3.1.3 Upper Paleolithic Site In India: [28,000 To 8000 B.C]
The upper Palaeolithic culture developed during the later part
of the upper Pleistocene. The climate of this period was
characterized by extreme cold and aridity in the high altitudes
and northern latitudes. In northwest India extensive formation
of sand sheets and sand dunes took place and the drainage
became almost totally defunct due to the westward shift of
river courses.

Geomorphic data suggests that the vegetation cover over


most of the country thinned out during this period. Coastal
areas of southeastern Tamil Nadu, Saurashtra and Kutch
developed quartz and carbonate dunes as a result of the
lowering of the sea level. During terminal Pleistocene
southwesterly monsoons became weak and the sea level
decreased by scores of meters.
Fig 30: Stone Tools dating to Upper
Paleolithic Period, India 24/95
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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
3.2 MESOLITHIC SITES IN INDIA [8000 B.C to 1 A.D]
The upper Paleolithic period was succeeded by the
Mesolithic. The subsistence economy of this period continued
to be based on hunting and gathering. There was a marked
growth in human population as is attested by the significantly
increased number of sites witnessed in the form of human
habitation or painting.

Similarly, in the arid and semi-arid regions of western


Rajasthan and Gujarat, Mesolithic artifacts are extensively
present in the sand dunes.

Similarly, shallow querns and grinding stones also occur at


several sites. These new technological elements led to
enhanced efficiency in hunting, collection and processing
of wild plant foods. Heavy-duty tools like choppers and
core scrapers have been found occasionally at Mesolithic
sites in Orissa and along the West Coast.

Bored stones (Ref. Fig 28) which had already appeared during
the upper Paleolithic became common during the Mesolithic
periods. These are believed to have been used as weights in
digging sticks and as net sinkers.

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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA

Fig 31: Mesolithic Sites in India, stability in the climate over the earth’s surface ensured faster
development, along with increase in the population, which is evident with the increase in the number of
sites.

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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
3.3 NEOLITHIC SITES IN INDIA [4000 B.C. – 2000 B.C.]
More than a thousand sites covering all parts of the country
except the West Coast, including Kerala have been
excavated. These sites can be divided into two culture groups,
namely Neolithic and Chalcolithic. Elsewhere in the World the
Neolithic period preceded the Chalcolithic period but in India
the two flourished simultaneously during fourth to second
millennia B.C.

A typical Neolithic site is that of Mehrgarh in the province of


Baluchistan, which has been dated to 7000 B.C. People lived
in mud brick huts which had their own hearths and they buried
their dead in designated burial pits. They cultivated wheat and
barley. They also had learnt to domesticate cow sheep and
goat.

Both groups of cultures represent farming based, settled


village way of life but Chalcolithic represents a more
developed stage.

3.3.1 Subsistence
While the subsistence base of both groups is fairly similar –
being based on the following compositions:
• Combination of plant agriculture,
• Animal husbandry,
• Hunting,
• Gathering,
• Fishing and
• Fowling – the role of individual components differs from
one culture to the other.
Fig 32: Figurine period 3000 BC The Neolithic cultures have a comparatively restricted
distribution, being confined to the
• Kashmir valley,
• The Northern Vindhyas,
• Middle Ganga valley and
• Eastern, northeastern and
• South India.

3.3.2 Tool
With respect to technology, the main component in the
Fig 33: At Hiregudda (Karnataka, Neolithic cultures consists of ground or polished stone tools
Bellary District, South-Central India) like
rock-art spans a • Axes,
Mesolithic/Neolithic/Megalithic (and • Adzes,
beyond) temporal frame (i.e. 10,000 • Wedges and
years until the present): • Chisels

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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
3.3.3 Neolithic Sites In South India:
Remarkable but less well investigated are South India's late
prehistoric remains, which include enigmatic monuments
dating to the Neolithic and Iron Age periods. Especially
notable are the Neolithic ashmounds, and the diverse array of
megaliths, many of which were created during the early Iron
Age.

Fig 34: Kupgal ashmound, with The ashmound phenomenon is focused on the semi-arid
Hiregudda peak in granitic region of the southern Deccan, where a great number
background and recent rock art on stone of Neolithic-period mounds of burnt cowdung, in some cases
in foreground up to 30 feet high, can be found (Ref. Fig 34).

Both functional and ritual interpretations have been proposed


for the ashmounds, but the activities that led to their creation
remain enigmatic. These activities came to an end sometime
in the middle or late Neolithic period.

The megaliths as in Fig 35 & Fig 36 are found all across the
south Indian peninsula, and many, though not all, seem to
mark human burials.

Neolithic peoples seem to have settled primarily on the


Fig 35: Brahmagiri cist and stone circle plateaus atop the large granitic hills. Pot shreds, animal
(from Wheeler 1948) bones, ground stone axes, querns, grinding hollows, stone
enclosures and terraces on the tops and slopes of the hills
confirm settlement.

Fig 36: Shiddalamattigudda Megalith,


(between Choudamagudda and
Hiregudda)

Fig 37: Neolithic groundstone axes


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3. PRE-HISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA

Fig 38: Neolithic India saw rise of different


Cultures which have been classified
according to their geographical location, as
this factor formed a major inspiration for the
development of the respective culture.

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4. PREHISTORIC ART FORMS:

4.1 IMPORTANCE OF PREHISTORIC ART STUDY

In a society devoid of phonetic writings, forms of graphic


representation are very meaningful for the preservation and
communication of thoughts and ideas. All rock art
embodiments of semiotic expressions bear great meaning for
their authors.

Rock art may also be viewed as a means of symbolism. It


certainly reflects the aesthetic taste developed by the
prehistoric community. Though some of the art forms are
highly abstract as symbolic, while others are rich in descriptive
details.

Symbols are often material representation of abstract concept.


There are no visual obvious association between the symbol
and the entity which it represents. Typical non-iconic or pre-
figurative art is far more likely to be symbolic that their iconic
or figurative counterparts. Therefore its best to interpret to rock
art within the context of the host culture and not on the basis
of visual similarities with other cultures across space and time,
unless an unbroken link can be established.

4.2 NATURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ROCK ART – INDIA

The vast corpus of rock art in India is confined to Sandstone


and Granite pocket, stretching from the southern parts of
Kerala to the High Altitudes of the Ladakh and Zanskar
Valleys in the North and from Gujarat in the West to Assam &
Manipur in the East.

Largest concentration of rock art are confined to the Vindhya


Ranges of Madhya Pradesh. Equally important paintings and
engravings were reported from Southern Deccan in the
extensive granite wilderness of Krishna – Tungabhadra Doab.

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.3 ART FORMS:

4.3.1 Upper Paleolithic [28,000 To 8000 B.C]


Continuity of culture from the Upper Paleolithic to present
times is especially seen in the sphere of religion. At the site of
Baghor II in the Son valley archaeologists found rectangular
stone rubble platform with a triangular stone with natural
concentric circles installed in the centre. Similar stones
installed on stone platforms are today worshipped as mother
Fig 39: Baghor I, Mother Goddess, goddesses by tribal communities in the area. The Baghor
triangular stone with laminated structure probably represented the earliest shrine in India and
concentric circles. suggests a remarkably long continuity of mother goddess
worship (Ref. Fig 39). The earliest evidence of art, in the form
of ostrich egg shell pieces engraved with cross-hatched
designs from Patne (Sali 1989), comes from this period (Ref.
Fig 45)

It is interesting to note that the present tribal inhabitants of the


area, specially the Kols and Baigas worship this type of
colorful natural stone with concentric laminations as the
mother goddess (Ref. Fig 40).

4.3.2 Mesolithic [8000 B.C to 1 A.D]


Fig 40: Possible, Shrine of Mother Another significant feature of the Mesolithic period is art,
Goddess, worshiped by tribals of the mostly in the form of paintings. Several thousand rock shelters
region in the Vindhyan sandstone hills in Central India contain
enormous quantities of paintings on their walls, ceilings and in
niches. They are found in both inhabited and uninhabited
shelters.

The paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments


which were produced from nodules found in rocks and earth.
Pieces of haematite used for producing pigment have been
found at Bhimbetka and other sites. The paintings mostly
depict wild animals and hunting scenes. There are also
scenes of fishing, plant food and honey collecting, social and
religious life (Ref. Fig 42)

The paintings throw a light not only on the aesthetic


sensibilities and artistic creativity of the Mesolithic people but
also on their behavior with respect to hunting and food
gathering techniques, dwellings, their social and religious
activities and contemporary fauna.

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

Fig 41: Rock Art Sites In India, Nov 2005

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.3.3 Sites With Rock Art - India

India has the third largest concentration of Prehistoric rock art,


after Australia and Africa. ' the present map of rock art sites
were mainly discovered in the late 20th century.[9]

There are many rock art sites available in remotest places


hidden beneath dense of woods or inaccessible mountainous
terrain. There are some 754 rock shelters in and around
Bhimbetka. In the Betwa region some 157 rock shelters are
found . In Mrizapur there are around 250 rock shelters. in
Uttarakhand especially in the Kumaon areas. There are
around sixty-eight sites have been found in this region.

In Orissa in the western districts of Sambalpur, Sundergarh


etc. one can find rock art sites which can be considered as an
extension of the Chottanagpur and Chhattisgarh.

In Bihar, rock paintings were reported in the Kaimur range,


Patesar, Jhania Pahar etc. Rock engravings are found in
Singhbhum district.

In the Western India Gujarat remains rich in rock art sites. The
sites are hemmed in Baroda, Bhavnagar districts and
alongside the Aravalli range.

In Maharastra Inamgaon, Chandrapur and in Nasik one can


find rock art sites. In deep south one can find rock art sites in
various places in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka.

Even rock art sites are reported in the north-eastern belt of


Garo hills of Assam, Bengal, Manipur etc.

Similarly in the northern most India rock art sites and


petroglyphs are found in Leh, Kargil, Dras in Ladak. [9]

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.3.3 Sites With Rock Art - India

PLACES WITH PAINTINGS:


Uttar Pradesh
Almora, Mirzapur
Madhya Pradesh
Gwalior, Pahargarh, Kota, Bhanpura, Sagar, Bhimbetka,
Raigarh
Kerala
Munnar

PLACES WITH ENGRAVING & PAINTINGS:


Orissa
Sambalpur
Madhya Pradesh
Pachmarhi
Karnataka
Bellary

PLACES WITH ENGRAVINGS


Kashmir
Gilgit, Kargil, Leh
Kerala
Edakal cave, Tenmalai, Perumkadavila
Goa
Curdi, Cazur, Usmaligol
Maharashtra
Dui, Mumbai

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.4 ROCK ART TECHINIQUES & LOCATIONS


The map (Plate No. 12) showing rock paintings sites in India
locates most of them in the peninsular sandstone area. The
rock pictures are found on the walls and ceilings of rock
shelters of varying sizes and depths. In every case they are
placed in that part of the hollow which is accessible to daylight.

Fig 42: Cave painting at 4.4.1 Location:


Bhimbetka cave The rock shelters are formed of weathered rock shelves which
in turn are horizontally laid sandy sediments , metamorphosed
into tough orthoquartite. When man appeared on the scene
millions of years later he found shelter under these rock
structures and in the hollow which he must have shared with a
variety of animals. One of the basic precondition for life in the
rock shelters was the availability of water.

4.4.2 Painting Technique:


The most commonly used materials for preparing pigments in
all the style periods was iron-oxide. This material, called Geru
Fig 43: Animal Motifs at in India, is abundantly found wherever a lateritic deposit has
Pachmari come to surface. The oxide applied to the shelter walls started
to react chemically with the mineral content of the rock and
oxidization within the rock caused the colour to penetrate.
Thus the picture remains visible even after the original
pigment had eroded.

4.4.3 Bruising Technique:


The engravings or better the bruising were executed by
rubbing down the crystalline particles standing out from the
granite surface, not unlike the sand particle on sand paper.
Thus whenever the artist wanted to execute a line he had only
to smooth down the rock surface with a stone and a white line
would appear against the dull-brown background of the rock.
In course of time the colour of the bruised part also changed to
the same brown tint. But once executed, bruising are easily
visible due to their smooth texture, surrounded as they are by
Fig 44 Acheulian petroglyphs in
the rough natural granite surface. These bruising can
Bhimbetka.
withstand all weathering agencies, even on an unprotected
rock surface.[20]

Fig 45: Engravings on ostrich eggshell


fragment from Patne, Maharashtra. Upper
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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.4.4 Rock Painting Characteristics Mesolithic Period


The common features witnessed in the rock paintings of this
period are :
• The paintings may have been considered as means of
influencing themselves or their environment.
• The decorative value of this form of expression
• Abstract paintings can be considered as a step towards
symbolism and writing.

Observations:
• The ‘S’ shaped positions of the dancers bodies and the
intricate positioning of the legs and arms indicate to
dance.
• The heads of the dancers are kidney shaped. Often
there is a small circle in front of the mouth, doubtless
indicates that the person is singing.
• Head-dresses is another feature in the art forms.
• Hunting was a social act, and killing was a communally
shared assets. For this reason single hunter is rarely
depicted.
• Depiction of women also became more frequent. And
according to the economic structure they were food
gatherer.
• An x-ray style in which the internal organs are depicted
with accuracy is rare.

In an ethnological or archaeological context, we often think of


the hunting and gathering economy as being synonymous with
primitive culture. Yet the picture are evidence of codified socio-
religious expression and group organization. This cultural
organization undoubtedly reflects a highly economical harvest
of the environment in accordance with the cycle of the
seasons, a way of life we can suitably call protoagriculture.[12]

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4. PRE-HISTORIC ART FORMS

4.4.5 Rock Paintings Characteristics Chalcolithic Period


The paintings of the hunters and gatherers which clearly
depict a microlithic-using culture, abruptly give way to pictures
of a very different style with new technological innovations and
achievments.

• Chalcolithic period portrays the lifestyle of Pastoralists


and agriculturists.

• Apart from animals of wild species we now find sheep,


goats and domesticated cattle yoked together.

• Bullock carts representation became frequent.

• Hunting depiction became quiet rare.

• Procession of animals was typical of the Chalcolithic


period.

• In Chalcolithic paintings concept of God or ruler is


clearly visible. And when ever one of these god or ruler
appears, there is a depiction of Phallus Cult.

It is possible that the rock shelters in this period had come to


serve a cultic purpose only while the artists who painted their
walls lived in settlements close by and visited them as
herdsmen or for religious purposes.

The new social situation demanded a complementary socio-


religious system, one which could level the basic differences
between such antagonistic group interests as feudal lords and
traders, bankers and artisans, cultivators and landless
laborers.

At this point the Indian art split up into two distinct differently
trends. One trend was courtly art and the other the age –old
folk art which is the direct descendent of pre-historic art. And
this is also the beginning of Historic Epoch.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1 BHIMBETKA CAVES:


The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetaka lie 45 km south of Bhopal at
the southern edge of the Vindhyachal hills. South of these rock
shelters are successive ranges of the Satpura hills. The entire
area is covered by thick vegetation, has abundant natural
resources in its perennial water supplies, natural shelters, rich
forest flora and fauna, and bears a significant resemblance to
similar rock art sites such as Kakadu National Park in
Australia, the cave paintings of the Bushmen in Kalahari
Desert, and the Upper Paleolithic Lascaux cave paintings in
France.

5.1.1 Cave Art Span


The cave art spans 7 different periods in history:

• Upper Paleolithic (Old Stone Age: 1,000,000BC to 15,000


Fig 46: Rock Overhangs forming BC): green and dark red, linear paintings of huge figures of
Natural shelter animals such as bisons, bears, tigers, and rhinoceroses.
• Mesolithic (between Paleolithic & Neolithic): smaller,
stylized figures with linear decoration on the body, hunting
scenes showing weapons, dances, and musical instruments
give an idea of Mesolithic life.
• Chalcolithic: these drawings reveal that the cave dwellers
had come in contact with the agricultural communities of the
Malwa plains.
• Early Historic: pictures of Yaksha, tree gods and magical sky
chariots.
• Medieval: geometric, linear and more schematic but they
show degeneration and crudeness in their artistic style
Fig 47: Forest Around the Shelter
5.1.2 Tools For Painting:
The artists used crude chipped stone tools to more refined
ones. But more significant is their prowess with twig-brushes
that they dipped into gheru, magnesium, charcoal, plant
extracts and animal fat for oil to paint their world upon these
cave walls.[12]

Fig 48: Natural Rock Shelter

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.3 Art Depiction


In addition to animals there are human figures and hunting
scenes, giving a clear picture of the weapons they used:
barbed spears, pointed sticks, bows and arrows. The
depiction of communal dances, birds, musical instruments,
mother and child pregnant women, men carrying dead
animal drinking and burials appear in rhythmic
movement.

Fig 49: Bull with Patterns Elephants, sambar, bison and deer. Paintings on another rock
show a peacock, a snake, a deer and the sun. Rhinoceros,
tigers, wild buffalo, bears, antelopes, boars, lions, elephants,
lizards are some the other depicted animals.

Most of the Mesolithic Rock Paintings deal with the relation of


men to animals. Generally this is a hunter-prey relationship.
Even so, there is a whole group of pictures where animal
signifies more than just prey.

The jungles of India provide a rich variety of plants, fruits and


Fig 50: Herd tuber which as the paintings show were exploited in the
Mesolithic period, just as they are still exploited by the tribal
population, in the shortage of the cultivated grains and pulses.

Important tree and plant species with edible flowers, fruit and
seeds, edible roots and tubers in Bhimbetka Forests present
today are as follows:
Bassia latifolia – Mahua
Buchanania latifolia – Achar
Diosphyros tomentosa – Tendu
Aegle marmelos – Bel
Erythrina indica – Bhandara
Ficus glomerata – Gular
Phyllanthus emblica – Aonla
Fig 51: Procession of Horse Riders Zizyphus jujuba – Ber
Tamarindus indica – Imli
Zizyphus xylopera – Ghator
Gardenia latifolia – Papda
Phoenix sylvestris –Khajur
Anona squamosa – Sitaphal

Edible tubers: Semal Kand, Safed Musli, Potia Kand,


karhari Kakhera, Menar, Kand & Khalula. [12]

Fig 52: Dancers in a Row

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5 Soil Stratification In The Caves

Fig 53: Stratification of trench II in auditorium cave, Bhimbetka according to V.S. Wakankar, with the position
of the two petroglyphs shown

1. Loose blackish ashy earth with historic finds


2. Blackish Greyish Soil with Chalcolithic
3. Grayish Reddish Soil with Mesolithic Microlith
4. Reddish Soil with Middle Paleolithic tools
5. Reddish soil with Acheulian - II
6. Reddish Soil with Archeological - I
7. Reddish Soil Archeological Sterile
8. Reddish Soil and Laterite with cobble tools.[6]

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PLATE 13 – SOIL STRATIFICATION
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

Fig 54: Section through one of the Cave


Daraki Chattan (Chambal Valley, Madhya Pradesh)as status on 2004
Generalized section view of the entrance of Daraki - Chattan, showing the spatial relationships of the
exfoliated areas on the southern wall, the outermost wall cupules, the six sediment layers, and the
principal features contained in them, such as exfoliated slabs bearing cupules. The engraves boulders
‘E’ and the excavated in-situ cupule are shown. Status as on 2004.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5 Sketch Drawings – Bhimbetka Cave


To understand the style of the paintings, the paintings have
been demonstrated in sketch form

5.1.5.1 Animal Depiction

a. b.

c.
d.

e. f.

Description of schematized X-Ray body patterns in


Chalcolithic Rock Paintings;
a. Ramchaja 15Cms, Antelope with Foetus
b. Ramchaja 30Cms, Bovid
c. Ramchaja 15Cms, Antelope ? With Foetus
d. Ramchaja 40Cms, Rhinoceros g.
e. Ramchaja 15Cms, Antelope with two Foetus
f. Satkunda 25Cms, Historic, Antelope with Foetus
g. Bhimbetka 60Cms, Historic, Bovid with Foetus

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PLATE 15 – SKETCH DRAWING
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.1 Animal Depiction

Fig 55: Kathotia, Mesolithic (left bovid 20 Cms)


A hunting Scene. A Mesolithic Painting, there are distinctly two different styles in one composition.
Mesolithic artists frequently used visible animals of an older composition.
• The deer and the bovid behind the hunter have a pattern similar to the brickwork.
• The hunter seems to be using his knee to string his bow, and his arrows are placed behind him,
which do look a lot like harpoon.
• The bovid has been hit by the arrow at its chest.
• The bird depicted, could be a ostrich, peacock or a fowl.

Fig 56: Lakhjor, Mesolithic 100 Cms


painting.
Elephant with spiral-like body fitting
suggesting digestive system starting with
food pipe from mouth and ending in a
square filled with a spiral, indicating
intestine.
43/95
PLATE 16 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.1 Animal Depiction

Fig 57: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic, 90Cms


Deified Boar with geometric body
decorations which hardly show any
elements of anatomical details.

Fig 58: Kathotia, Mesolithic, 150Cms Fig 59: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic, 70Cms
(big bird)
Bovid with a geometric body design
Three birds. The bigger bird one looks which could have been derived from
very much like an ostrich. But the four actual anatomical details.
toes would then be anatomically
incorrect. The smaller birds are
hornbills.

Fig 60: X-Ray style of Aquatic Animals


a. Lakhajoar, Mesolithic 50Cms. Two fishes, left a.
fish with spines and other bones.
b. Lakhajoar, Mesolithic 100 Cms. Fish. Intestines
are a meandering line.

44/95
PLATE 17 – SKETCH DRAWING b.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.1 Animal Depiction

Fig 70: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic, 200Cms


Deified Boar. This picture belongs to what is probably the earliest strata of Indian Rock
Paintings. Pictures executed in three colors are extremely rare. This one is barely visible now.

Fig 80: Jaora, Mesolithic, left Elephant , 60 Cms.


Two elephants trampling through high grass or bamboo, being attacked by hunters in elaborate outfit
and holding big bundles of microlith-tipped arrows. This painting is one of the rare Mesolithic groups in
White.

45/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.2 Representation of Earth

Fig 81: Jaora, Mesolithic 50 Cms.


Design is a typical Mesolithic intricate patterns. To the top, water is indicated with wavy lines, water
plants & fish. On the right and lower borders, stylized water birds can be seen, to the right, five flying
birds indicate the air. This painting can be understood as a symbolic depiction of the Mesolithic cosmos.
The design could denote earth.

Fig 82: Kanjadei, Historic 40 Cms.


Is this structure a Wishing Tree or a Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum ) Plant
or an Alter?

46/95
PLATE 19 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.3 Hunting Scene

Fig 83: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic (Rhino, 30 Cms.)


Rhino hunt. Three hunters try to push their microlith-tipped spears into the body of the animal
which is already bleeding,(the dots in front of the animal).
To the right is a strange figure larger than the hunters, from whom the spears are seized.

Fig 84: Mesolithic, 10-15 Cms. Hunter a. b.


in different style.
a. Kathotia
b. Bhimbetka
c. Muni ki Pahar
d. Bhimbetka
Elaborate headdresses, body
ornaments group organization. The
hunting scene paintings provide us
with a great amount of technological
information. c. d.

47/95
PLATE 20 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.3 Hunting Scene

Fig 85: Kathotia , Mesolithic 20 Cms.


Three hunters two aiming arrows, and the third carries a frequently depicted object which could be trap.

Fig 86: Lakhajoar , Mesolithic 60 Cms.


Masked hunter with bow and arrow in one hand, and spear in the other, following a strange creature with a
similar mask.

Fig 87: Joar , Mesolithic 20 Cms.


Masked man following an animal with very similar mask

48/95
PLATE 21 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.3 Hunting Scene

a.

f.
e. d.

g. b. c.

h.

Fig 88: Lakhajoar, Mesolithic Women With Basket 30 Cms.


In this group humans and animals are depicted in two different styles.
a. Use of frame trap is evident. The upper most deer is entangles in the trap. The second one is
near the farmers snout.
b. The trapped dear is a second cervid which seems to have been speared to death. A javelin or
arrow lies between his legs, the dots beside it indicate blood. It seems as if the women is trying to
drag it away by its antlers. The spiral shape of the body filling is a variation of the X-Ray showing
intestine.
c. the second animal following it has also been hit by an arrow, and the red dots indicate the blood.
d. behind an antelope has been hit by and arrow, and it has been showing turning behind, and is
crying in pain.
e. The tiny stick like figure standing here belongs to an earlier painting.
f. Chief of the hunt, carries a basket which could be the symbol for plenty.
g. The big woman here is unique in style as is her inclusion in the painting of a hunting scene. The
meaning of the two children in her basket is a puzzle. The small animal on her head could be a
pet or animal that had fallen prey to the hunter’s arrows.
h. A small hunter is seen aiming an arrow set with Microlith.

49/95
PLATE 22 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.3 Hunting Scene

Fig 89: Kharwai, Mesolithic Women With Basket 30 Cms.


• Monkeys fleeing the hunters.
• Hunters use Microlith sets of arrows
• Beehive or a trap

Fig 90: Lakhajoar, Mesolithic 120 Cms.


Fishing Scene
50/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.4 Food Gathering Scene

Fig 91: Joar, Mesolithic 12 Cms.


Women engaged in killing Rats. The rat hole is shown in X-Ray.
The women to the left of the hole excavates the rat hole with the help of a digging stick and has already
killed a number of rats.
The excavated material is shown by dots below her feet.
Two woman to the right are engaged in digging something. There are four V-Shaped basket and a
digging stick around the scene of action.

There are very few paintings showing food gathering,


though some images do show, women carrying food items,
from the jungle in baskets.

Fig 92: Joar, Mesolithic 100 Cms.


Woman ? Carrying a basket filled with rats. This painting is in
the same shelter as the rat collecting group above image.

51/95
PLATE 24 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.5 Procession or Migration

g.
f.
c.
e.
b.

d.
a.
Fig 93: Satkunda, Chalcolithic, first cow 15 Cms.
This design has probably on a latter date been adopted in Pottery design

g. h.

m.
i. j.
k.
Fig 94: Ramchaja, Chalcolithic, Deer on the right 30 cms.
a. Cows
Animals in Procession b. A Tree With Bird,
c. Flying Birds
d. Fowls
e. Humans
f. A Wishing Tree
g. An Antelope.
h. Deer
j. Bear
k. Boar
l. Ostrich
m. Tortoise

52/95
PLATE 25 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.6 Settlement

Fig 95: Lakhajoar, Mesolithic, Figure on extreme right 15 cms


A group of dancers belonging to the earliest rock-painting style. The green colour indicates these to be
an early time painting.
Mesolithic paintings show a number of paintings in which dancers lose balance. The last man here has
lost balance, though the reason for the same is not clear, but then the jungle produced intoxicating
juices, like from Mahua. Consumption of the same could be the reason for the dancers losing balance.

Fig 96: Kathotia, Mesolithic, Figure on the Left 20 Cms.


Dancers with elaborate outfits.

53/95
PLATE 26 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.6 Settlement

Fig 97: Lakhajoar, Mesolithic, Person 12 Cms.


A woman, A man and a child in a Hut like structure, eating. The whole arrangement of the table looks
very organized. Fish is also an item of diet. The round object in the middle could be the same foodstuff
being prepared by the woman. To the right of the man are two containers probably made of earth. The
double line in the foreground could be a stone arrangement to hold the vertical posts of the structure.

Fig 98: Lakhajor, Mesolithic 30 Cms.


Man with antler mask holding a staff or a bow in
his hand. This drawing belongs to an early strata
of Mesolithic Art.

54/95
PLATE 27 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.7 Others

Fig 99: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic 100 Cms.


The masked dancer holds trident-like staff
incidentally also the symbol of Siva in his left
hand. Both arms are profusely decorated.
Depiction of Shaman or wizard named Nataraja,
Lord of Dance by Wakankar.

55/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.1.5.7 Others

Fig 100: Bhimbetka, Mesolithic 25 Cms,


Women

Fig 101: Chatur bhoj Nath Nulla, Chalcolithic


draught animals 5 Cms. Each.
Chariot and warriors painted in two colours.

5.1.5.8 Comments
The gathering and processing of food is well
documented. But the fruits and plants are not
detailed enough for us to tell what species they are.
The material for the basket nets and garments are
not clear.
But the ethnological studies of Indian tribes tell us
about a large number of crafts which could have
been practiced in the Mesolithic Period.
Tribal people in Eastern India fashion almost all their
requirements from bamboo and cane
The tribal population of the Central India would have
starved for months had they not known how to
harvest the jungle produce.

56/95
PLATE 29 – SKETCH DRAWING
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.2 ROCK ENGRAVINGS AT GOA


The discovery of rare Stone Age rock carvings at Kajur,
Pansaimol of Pirla village in Sanguem taluka and Mauxi in
Sattari taluka has brought Goa on the map of Rock Art in
India.

5.2.1 Art Depiction


The pecularity of carvings in the Usgalimol is that they are
engraved on very hard laterite platform, consisting of strong
iron contents. Hence they are unique in nature. This exciting
site totally admeasuring about 5000 Sq.M lies on the bank of
Kushavati River and gets submerged occasionally during
monsoon every year.
This rock art is full of carvings depicting the symbols of:
•Fertility Cult
•Religious cosmology
•Triskelion
•Zoo-Morphs like Zebu bull, Deer, Gaur
•Scenes of Mating Animals
•Large animal hoof
•Scenes of chasing animals
•Animals in sitting posture
•Bison with Wound Marks
•X-Ray type Animals
•Figure of Labyrinth
•Figures of Mother and child

5.2.2 Tools For Engraving:


Most probably, the engravings are carved by especially
prepared sharp pointed hard stone tools. Therefore, taking into
account the rude forms of animal carvings at this prehistoric
site, it indicates that weapons used for intricate carvings were
of ferruginous stones which are available in the area in
abundance.

The totally exposed portion of the site includes over 100


figures, big and small. There is still a possibility of more
carvings lying under the mud layer of the site.

Though there is a difference of opinion on the antiquity of


Pansaimol site, Dr. A. Sundara, Retd. Professor of Karnataka
University and an Eminenet Rock-Art Researcher has
comprehensively attributed the site to Mesolithic Period. The
site is considered to be about 8000 to 9000 years old, i.e.
7000-6000 B.C.

57/95
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.2.3 Cupules
Cupules are some of the most ancient form of rock art in
the World. in Indian Subcontinenet cpules are found mostly
at locations where prehistoric sites or lithic assemblage
have already been discovered.
Cupules are rounded percussion marks made on bedrock
as well as Rock blocks. Bhimbetka (Madhya Pradesh),
Daraki Chattan (Chambal Valley), Ajmer (Rajasthan), are
known for its large amount of cupule marks.

Appearance of cupules has been witnessed in various sites


close to the sea in Goa. 12 Cupules on the Laterite surface
have been witnessed in the Goa University, they are
arranged in two parallel lines of 6 cupules in each row. The
total length of this linear format is 36 cm.

At a distance of 100 M, some 40 cupules were noticed.


These usually occur along small seasonal stream that flow
through the ground dissecting the bedrock. Cupules were
either round or square in shape.

At a distance of 2 Kms from the Goa University, exploration


revealed 16 cupules, eight in a row of two. Adjacent to the
linear cupules are 4 pairs of Footmark like Grooves. These
grooves are interconnected by thin channels. There is a
natural pond on the site where the rainwater gets collected
and stays for a long period. the vegetation in the area
mainly comprises of shrubs and grassy patches for feeding
livestock such as cattle.

Comments:
• Availability of pasture lands and water resources, for
grazing animals.
• Sea is close-by indicating dependency on marine
resources.
• No evidences of habitation near-by suggest nomadic
life.
• Hilly terrain, dense vegetation, along with swampy
area would make habitation here difficult for a long
time, suggesting small camps, only during favorable
seasons, like summer and winter.
• Either stone or metal implements must have been
used to produce these cupules and the other
engravings, only a careful exploration would reveal
such tools.[13]

58/95
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

Fig 102: Map of Goa Showing Present day important cities and Sites with Pre-historic Sites

59/95
PLATE 30 – MAP OF GOA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4 Rock Art
5.2.4.1 Rock Art Site

d. e.
b. c.
a.
Fig 103: Panoramic view of Rock Engravings At Cazur, Goa
a. Agricultural Land, b. Circular Seating, c. Stone Carving, d. Mountains with caves, e. Stream from the
mountains

c. d.

a.
b.

Fig 104: Panaromic View of Rock Engravings At Pansaimol, Sanguem Taluka, Goa
a. River Kushavati, b. Carved Surface, c. Areca Nut Plantation, d. Dense Vegetation

Fig 105: Abandoned Mine Site adjoining the


Pansaimol Rock Art Site.

With the discovery of the Archelogical


Importance of this place, Mining activity in
the vicinity has been abandoned.

Fig 106: the carved Stone at the Cazur Rock


Art Site.

A small plant growing along the crevice in


the stone is causing further damage to the
already exposed Rock Art.
60/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.2 Animal Depiction

Fig 107: Cazur, 2 Cms, Zebu bull

Fig 108: Cazur, 10 Cms, Deer

Fig 109: Pansaimol, 1M, X-ray Bovine

Fig 110: Pansaimol, 90 Cms, Peacock


61/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
Rock Art of India - A Pre-Historic Saga C.E..P.T UNIVERSITY, DEEPANWITA RAY LA8207
5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.2 Animal Depiction

Fig 111: Pansaimol, 2 Cm, Tiger /


Dog

Fig 112: Pansaimol, 2 M, Elephant

Fig 113: Pansaimol, 2 M, Animal

The engravings at this two locations is different considering the tools and the medium of engraving, but
the themes depicted are very similar.
Hence one can speculate that these engravings have been done by different cultures during different
time-period, but also suggest continuous occupation of these locations.

62/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.3 Migration or Procession

b.

b.

a.
c.

Fig 114: Carved Rock, Cazur, Goa


a. Symbology of the Fertility Cult
b. Interesting Symbology
c. Animals in Procession

63/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.4 Settlement – Meeting Area - Cazur

Fig 115: Prehistoric Meeting Area, used Present times, by the locals

Fig 116: View of the Seating Area.


These stones are not Laterite stone, which is found locally, hence suggest these stones being
brought from somewhere else.

Fig 117: Four Tier Stone Placement Fig 118: Strategic Stone placement to act as Seat.
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.4 Settlement – Fertility Cult, Pansaimol

Fig 119: 1.5M, Mother Goddess/


Mother with Placenta

Fig 120: 2 Cm, Symbology

Fig 121: 5 Cms, Dancing Lady


65/95
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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5.2.4.4 Settlement – Fertility Cult, Pansaimol

Fig 122: Deer-4Cm, Large animal hooves


and smaller deer

Fig 123: 2 Cm, Symbology

Fig 124: Deer-5Cm, Deer, large animal


hoof & Symbology
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART
5.2.4.4 Settlement – Fertility Cult, Pansaimol

Fig 125: Pansaimol, 2M, Labyrinth,


Beyond the labyrinth the river Kushavati is seen. There are two rectangles excavation which is thought to
be historic excavation

Fig 126: Pansaimol, 2Cm, Symbology ` Fig 127: Pansaimol, 2M, Smbology, along one of the
excavation of the bed-rock.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.2.5 Comments
Since no tools and lithic assemblage have been found in Goa,
it is assumed that the people here lead a nomadic life, and
never actually settled here, but migrated here periodically may
be from Karnataka, where also similar carvings are found.

The Western Ghats of Goa, must have been a difficult place


for the nomads to Settle for long. With plenty of wild animals,
and dense vegetation, survival along the Ghats must have
been difficult.

The Pass across the Ghat from Karnataka to the Goa at Curdi
is where the engravings have been found in abundance. This
pass was used till late Gupta period, tempt one to believe that
prehistoric men also used it.

The reason for this periodic migration, might have been many,
but the presence of favorable conditions for some part of the
year, abundance of natural resources, dependence on the sea
could be a few of them.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3 ROCK ART AT KERALA


The tradition of painting on walls began in Kerala with the pre-
historic rock paintings found in the Anjanad valley of Idukki
district. Archaeologists presume that these paintings belong to
different periods from Upper Paleolithic period to early historic
period. Substantial Rock engravings dating to the Mesolithic
period have also been discovered in Kerala, at Edakkal in
Wayanad.

Fig 128:.Megalithic Period, Ezhuthu 5.3.1 Sites of rock painting :


Guha, District Idukki, Kerala 5.3.1.1 Attala:
Paintings showing giant human and Located at 10°14’N latitude 77°09’E longitude.
animal figures, superimposed over Situated near the village of Kavakudi in the west part of
each other, painted in white and red Marayoor township in the Marayoor Panchayat of Devikolam
Taluk of Idukki District. About 94 painted motifs. Massive east
facing rock shelter in dramatic location 1500 meters above
bean sea level. Except for a few human and animal figures,
most of the paintings are of abstract designs

5.3.1.2 Ezhuthu guha:


Located at 10°15’N latitude 77°09’E longitude.
Situated in the Koodakavu Sandalwood Reserve Forest at
Marayoor in the Marayoor Panchayat of the Devikolam
Development Block in Idukki District, at an elevation of 1000
meters above mean sea level. About 90 painted motifs. The
most important rock art site in Kerala, receives a large number
of visitors and has been extensively vandalised during the 20
years or so since it was brought to wide public attention. A
painted rock shelter

5.3.1.3 Kovilkadavu:
Located at 10°15’N latitude 77°11’E longitude.
Dozens of Dolmens around the area of an old Siva temple at
Kovilkadavu on the banks of the Pambar, and rock paintings
on the south-western slope of the plateau overlooking the
river. About 10 painted motifs.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3.2 Sites Of Rock Carving :


5.3.2.1 Edakkal
Located at 11°12’N latitude 76°15’E longitude.
About 446 carved motifs.

5.3.2.2 Toberimala
Located at 11°12’N latitude 77°13’E longitude.
About 84 carved motifs
The Toberimala site is not a cave as such, but a west-facing
rock shelter with a prominent overhanging roof. There are thin
Fig 129: Engravings at Toberimala
linear engravings inscribed in the rough grained ceiling (which
There are a few geometrical designs slants at an angle of some 45 degrees) and in the northern
like triangle, circle, square and flower. wall, also 13 small cup-marks on one of nine boulders lying
inside the shelter, and cross-hatched marks on the outer wall
The designs are at the entrance wall
which may be an identification mark for the shelter.
like a few human figures, geometrical
patterns and sun symbols in the
5.3.2.3 Tenmalai
interior of the cave
Located at 08°58’N latitude 77°04’E longitude.
Situated at the foot of Chendurni Hill in Tenmalai Village
Panchayat and Anchal Block of the Pathanpuram Taluk of
Quilon District, 66 kms east of Quilon. One large, carved motif.
An east-facing rock shelter in which Mesolithic artefacts have
been excavated. The unusually large carving (about 1.75
meters long) is on the northern outer face of the shelter.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

Fig 130: Map of Kerala

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3.3 Edakkal Caves:


Situated on Ambukuthi Hills, Edakkal caves are 10 kilometers
from Sultanbathery, in Wayanad district.

Formed by a large split in a huge rock, the two natural rock


formations represent pictographic gallery of its kind. The caves
were formed by an earthquake 30,000 years ago.

Edakkal literally means 'a stone in between'.


The caves are located on an ancient route connecting the high
ranges of Mysore to the ports of Malabar.

5.3.3.1 Significance
They were probably created during the Neolithic period of the
Late Stone Age and date from about 1000BC. In addition to
the pictorial carvings, five ancient inscriptions have been
identified of which two have been deciphered.

Rock shelter at Edakkal, stone age people recorded their


disquiet and anxiety at the social changes brought about by
Iron Age technology.

The walls on both sides of the Edakkal rock shelter are


embroidered up to a height of over four meters, and down
below the present floor level of the cave with deeply carved
motifs and signs

Fig 131: Engraving Patterns

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3.3.2 Art Depiction


Crosses, triangles and tridents; squares, some with inner
crosses, and a rectangle divided into nine square-shaped
chambers; stars, wheels and quatrefoils; spirals, whorls and
volutes; plant motifs, pot-shaped items; various animals
including ones resembling foxes, dogs and dear; and the
unmistakable outline of an elephant have been identified.

There are many human figures. A good number of the men


have raised hair, of these the most elegant is the figure of a
man whose left hand is unnaturally long and reaching his feet.
He holds an angular object in his right hand and seems to be
wearing a tight garment that reveals an hour-glass torso.
Another man has a square-shaped head and spiral belly.
Some of the figures are wearing masks and heavy garments.

The figure of a woman is easily recognizable, her head is


simplified into a cross, and another cross is marked on her
hips, there is another, nicely drawn figure of a woman shown
standing on a platform. The most eye-catching and somewhat
formidable human figure is a life-size male shown standing in
frontal pose with raised arms and hair. His face, probably
masked, is at a height of the eye-level of the viewer, thus it
seems as if he is hindering the entry of outsiders. In 100 years
the present floor of the cave is some 40 centimeters higher it
used to be, thus the man below his knees is today buried in
the soil, and his face which is now at eye-level, once looked
down on the viewer. These are just some examples of the
many forms and figures that decorate the Edakkal cave.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3.3.3 Site Photograph

Fig 132: Cleft or rift approximately 96 feet by 22


feet, a 30 foot deep fissure caused by a piece of
rock splitting away from the main body .

Fig 133: Light Quality inside the cave Fig 134: The caves

Fig 135: View outside from the Cave Fig 136: View outside from the Cave
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.3.3.3 Site Photograph

a.
Fig 137: a. Man with Standing hair / with Mask

Fig 138: Man with Standing hair / with Mask


and the immense symbology that surround
him.

Fig 139 & 140: Patterns, consisting of lines, triangles, Circles with triangles in it. Square divided into nine
square and many more are engraved here in these caves.
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b.

Fig 141: b. Man or woman with extraordinarily


long arm

Fig 142: This engraving also has either


standing hair or mask as a headdress.

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA - JAMMU & KASHMIR

Fig 143: Engraved hunting scene on a stone


slab with two identical suns and dog Neolithic
Period. Location - Burzahom, District Srinagar,
J & K.

Fig 144: Engraved bird and ibex; perhaps Iron


Age. Location : Char, Zanskar, Ladakh, J&K.

Fig 145: Engraved ibex hunting; perhaps


protohistoric period. Location : Alchi, Ladakh,
J&K.

146: Engraved deer; perhaps Iron Age.


Location : Zanskar, Ladakh, J&K.
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA – MADHYA PRADESH

Fig 147: Bird figures. Location : Chambal, M.P.

Fig 148: Close viewof a stylized deer in white


outline; perhaps Neolithic Period. Chambal, M.P.

Fig 149: Close view of animal figures painted in


white which includes humped-bulls, etc.; perhaps
Chalcolithic Period. Location : Jhiri, District Raisen,
M.P.

Fig 150: A composition in deep red colour showing


a stylized human figure dragging an animal
(perhaps a cow). On the top right corner are two
human figures painted in light red ochre which are
perhaps earlier. Location : Jhiri, District Raisen,
M.P.
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA – UTTAR PRADESH

Fig 151: Unidentified animal figures painted in


red ochre; perhaps Mesolithic Period. Location
: Panchmukhi, District Mirzapur, U.P.

Fig 152: Engraved tree motif; perhaps historic


period. Location : Barechhina, District Almora,
U.P.

Fig 153: A stone pillar depicting cup-marks.


Location : Kafada-Nangaon, District Almora,
U.P.

Fig 154: Human figure painted in red ochre


with plumed head gear; perhaps Neolithic
Period. Location : Baga, District Mirzapur, U.P.

79/95
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA – MANIPUR

Fig 155: Engraved indeterminate object. Location


: Khoupum, District Tamenglong, Manipur

Fig 156: Engraved elongated animal figure.


Location : Khoupum , District Tamenglong, Manipur

Fig 157: View of megalithic cist. Location :


Khoupum, District Tamenglong, Manipur

Fig 158: Engraved game board and labyrinth.


Location : Khoupum, District Tamenglong, Manipur

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA – KERALA

Fig 159: Painting showing human and animal figures


in white; perhaps historic period. Location : Ezhuthu
Guha, District Idukki, Kerala

Fig 160: Paintings in white colour showing group of


human figures on what looks like a platform,
individual human figures, elephant-riders, trident and
other signs; historic period. Location : Attala, District
Idukki, Kerala.

Fig 161: Engraved motifs and symbols; perhaps


Neolithic Period. Location : Edakkal, District
Wynaad, Kerala.

Fig 162: Painting showing a deer painted in red ochre; perhaps Megalithic Period.
Location : Ezhuthu Guha, District Idukki, Kerala .
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.4 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF INDIA – KERALA

Fig 163: Two human figures and some


unidentified object painted in white colour.
(Based on black and white photograph.)
Location : Talappalli, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu

164: Painted figure of a buck, in red outline


and filled with white pigment, in front of fire,a
shield and spear; perhaps Iron Age. (Based
on black and white photograph.) Location :
Aiyyanarmalai, Tamilnadu

Fig 165: Masked human figure riding an animal, painted in red


ochre colour; perhaps Iron Age. (Based on black and white
photograph.) Location : Tamilnadu
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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.5 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF WORLD – AUSTRALIA

Fig 166: Australian Rock Art

Fig 167: Line sketch of the Animals

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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.5 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF WORLD – AFRICA

Fig 168: Crying Cows - Algeria

Fig 169: Great God of Sefar [6000 – 8000 B.C.] - Algeria

Fig 170: Bowman - Algeria

Fig 171: Fat Ladies - Chad 84/95


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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.5 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF WORLD – AFRICA

Fig 172: Women & Cattle - Chad

Fig 173: Rhinoceros, Rock Bruising – South Africa

Fig 174: Giraffe with 3 man [1000 - 500 B.C] - Namibia

Fig 175: San Painting, possibly a Shaman


in Trance - Zimbabwe

Fig 176: Dabous Giraffe - Niger 85/95


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5. DEMONSTRATION OF ROCK ART

5.5 PRE-HISTORIC ROCK ART OF WORLD – AMERICA

Fig 178: Rock Pertroglyph, Ontario, Canada

Fig 179: Such petroglyphs were photographed


near Bella Coola, British Columbia. Many of them
are thought to have been made between 5,000
and 10,000 years ago. Most petroglyphs are
carved on vertical surfaces however many of the
Bell Coola petroglyphs were carved on flat rock
outcrops.

Fig 180: Such petroglyphs were carved on rock


and filled with red ochre. The earliest
petroglyphs at this site date back to about 4200
BC and the more recent to about 500 BC. At the
time these petroglyphs were produced northern
Norway was occupied by a culture of hunter-
gatherers.

Fig 181: Petroglyph Rocks-Ontario Park


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6. COMMENTS:
India can be proud of being one of the three countries having
the richest treasures of rock art in the world, the other two
being Australia and South Africa. The spectrum of Indian
Rock Art is vast, both in thematic and stylistic contents. In
magnitude, vividness and richness it is outstanding and in
some aspects unique in the world forming an important
continuous cultural heritage of humanity. With its antiquity
ranging from the Paleolithic, down to historic times, it
constitutes visual documents of our ancestors, which are
fascinating as well as challenging in terms of their
interpretation.

Where European rock art was the product of the Upper


Paleolithic period and its subject matter mostly revolves
around the animal world. The Rock Art in India elaborate on
different topics, throwing light on the customs and culture
prevailing during different cultural periods.

Though reasons for the occurrence of rock art in various forms


is still open to speculation, all these works of art can be
regarded as an influence of the mental as well as the
physical environments in which they were created in.

There is some homogeneity in the rock art of different


geographical locations, yet the character of each region has its
own personality. There is no universal standard for the
interpretation of rock art. Subjectivity is always present,
leading it speculative identifications and interpretations.
Kenoyer(1987) rightly pointed out, that traditionally speaking,
objects or patterns of objects with no definite or identifiable
utilitarian function are by default symbolic function. Therefore
one has to be very cautious while interpreting any work related
to rock art. [2]

In the prehistoric period, these art forms acted as mean of


communication. This was the pioneer in the intension of man
to communicate. Further abstraction and symbolism, gave
rise to language.

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6. GLOSSARY*:

A
Acheulian:
Acheulian is the name given to an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture associated with
prehistoric hominines during the Lower Paleolithic era is the name given to an archaeological industry of
stone tool manufacture associated with prehistoric hominines during the Lower Paleolithic era.
Although this sect of hominines developed in Africa, the industry is named after the type site of Saint
Acheul, now a suburb of Amiens in northern France, where some of the first examples were identified in
the nineteenth century.

Aurignacian:
Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic located in Europe and southwest Asia. It
dates to between 32,000 and 26,000 BC. The name originates from the type site of Aurignac in the Haute
Garonne area of France.
Stone tools from the Aurignacian culture are, characterized by blades (rather than flakes, typical of mode
2 Acheulean and mode 3 Mousterian) from prepared cores. Also seen throughout the upper Paleolithic is
a greater degree of tool standardization and the use of bone and antler for tools such as needles and
harpoons.

Stone Tools - Aurignacian Cave painting of a bull and a horse; in Lascaux


Grotto, near Montignac, France, of Aurignacian Period

C
Chalcolithic Period
The Chalcolithic period or Copper Age period is a phase in the development of human culture in which
the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. The period is a transitional one
outside of the traditional three-age system (stone age, bronze age & iron age), and occurs between the
Neolithic and Bronze Age.
The Copper Age in the Middle East and the Caucasus begins in the late 5th millennium BC and lasts for
about a millennium before it gives rise to the Early Bronze Age. Transition from the European Copper
Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about a millennium later, between the late 4th and the late 3rd
millennia BC.
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G
Gravettian
A phase (c.28,000–23,000 ya) of the European Upper Paleolithic that is characterized by a stone-tool
industry with small pointed blades used for big-game hunting (bison, horse, reindeer and mammoth). It is
divided into two regional groups: the western Gravettian, mostly known from cave sites in France, and the
eastern Gravettian, with open sites of specialized mammoth hunters on the plains of central Europe and
Russia. Some early examples of cave art and the famous 'Venus' figurines were made by Gravettian
artists

H
Holocene

Venus Figurines of Gravettian Culture Stone Tools - Grevettian

I
Ibex
Is a species of wild mountain goats (genus Capra), distinguished by the
male's large recurved horns, which are transversely ridged in front. Ibex
are found in Eurasia, North Africa, and East Africa.

Male ibex are commonly larger and heavier than females, and their
most noticeable difference is the large size of their horns. Females grow
a pair of smaller, thinner horns which develop considerably more slowly
than the males'. Species of wild goats that are called ibex are:

Male Nubian Ibex


M
Mesolithic Period
The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between
the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age.
In Europe it began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch around 11,500 BP and ended with the
introduction of farming, the date of which varied in each geographical region.
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Mesozoic Era
The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon (Paleozoic, Mesozoic,
and Cenozoic). Lying between the Paleozoic and the Cenozoic, Mesozoic means 'middle animals‘. It is
often called the 'Age of the Reptiles', after the dominant fauna of the era.
The Mesozoic was a time of tectonic, climatic and evolutionary activity. The continents gradually shifted
from a state of connectedness into their present configuration; the drifting provided for speciation and
other important evolutionary developments. The climate was exceptionally warm throughout the period,
also playing an important role in the evolution and diversification of new animal species. By the end of the
era, the basis of modern life was in place

Microlith
A microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flint or chert,
usually about three centimetres long or less; They are typically one
centimetre long and half a centimetre wide when finished.

The latter type of microliths are called geometric microliths. They can be
formed as various kinds of triangles, lunate shaped, trapezes, etc. The
shape of the microlith can be used for dating.

Microliths were produced during the middle stone age Mesolithic (from
the end of the Ice Age (about 9200BC) until the introduction of
agriculture (8000BC)). Some types of microliths, such as trapezes, were
used in the Neolithic as well (the Linear Pottery culture and
Funnelbeaker culture.

Mousterian
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of
predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with
Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the
middle part of the Old Stone Age.
Mousterian technology is evolutionarily significant because it
partially replaced the function of the incisor teeth, leading to a
reduction of robustness of some of the facial features

Movius Line
Is a theoretical line drawn across northern India first proposed by the American archaeologist Hallam L.
Movius in 1948 to demonstrate a technological difference between the early prehistoric tool
technologies of the east and west of the Old World.
Movius then drew a line on a map of India to show where the difference occurred, dividing the tools of
Africa, Europe and western Asia from those of eastern Asia.

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N
Naufian Culture
The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. It was a Mesolithic culture, but
unusual in that it built stone architecture before the introduction of agriculture. The Natufian communities
are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region, which may have
been the earliest in the world. There is no evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, but people at
the time certainly made use of wild grasses. Animals hunted include the gazelles
Radiocarbon dates of 14,500–11,500 BP (12500 – 9500 B.C) place this culture just before the end of the
Pleistocene.

Neolithic Period
The Neolithic or "New" Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology beginning
about 10,000 B.C. in the Middle East that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic era
terminates with the rise of farming, which produces the Neolithic Revoluiton and ending when metal tools

The Neolithic era follows beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution"
and ending when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age (chalcolithic) or Bronze Age or
developing directly into the Iron Age, depending on geographical region.

P
Paleocene Epoch
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, "early dawn of the recent" is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65.5 ± 0.3
Ma to 55.8 ± 0.2 Ma (million years ago). It is the first epoch of the Palaeogene Period in the modern
Cenozoic era. As with most other older geologic periods, the strata that define the epoch's beginning and
end are well identified but the exact date of the end is uncertain.The Paleocene epoch immediately
followed the mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous, known as the K-T boundary
(Cretaceous - Tertiary), which marks the demise of the dinosaurs. The die-off of the dinosaurs left unfilled
ecological niches worldwide,

Paleolithic period
The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) means ‘old age of the stone’ and refers to a prehistoric era
distinguished by the development of the first stone tools. It covers the greatest portion of humanity's time
(roughly 99% of human history) on Earth, extending from 2.5 or 2.6 million years ago.

Petroglyph
These are images created by removing part of a rock surface
by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. Outside North
America, scholars often use terms such as "carving",
"engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to
such images.
The word comes from the Greek words petros meaning
"stone" and glyphein meaning "to carve"
Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock near Canyonlands National
Park, south of Moab, south eastern Utah, USA 91/95
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T
Triskelion
A triskelion or triskele is a symbol consisting of three interlocked spirals,
or three bent human legs, or any similar symbol with three protrusions
and a threefold rotational symmetry.

W
Wallace Line
Wallace line is a boundary that separates the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australia. West of
the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, mostly organisms related to
Australian species. The line is named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who noticed this clear dividing line
during his travels through the East Indies in the 19th century.
Weber Line
Weber Line is of supposed ‘faunal balance’ between the Oriental and the Australasian faunal regions.

Wallace's line between Australian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deep water of the Lombok
Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea
levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side.

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Willendorf:
Woman of Willendorf, is an 11.1 cm (4 3/8 inches) high statuette of a female
figure estimated to have been created between 24,000 BC – 22,000 BC. It
was discovered in 1908 by archaeologist Josef Szombathy at a Paleolithic
site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria near the city of Krems.
Material : Oolitic limestone
Created : 24,000 BC – 22,000 BC
Discovered : 1908 near Willendorf, by Josef Szombathy
Present location : Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

Y
Younger Drya
The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred
to as the Big Freeze, was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years) cold climate period following the
interstadial at the end of the Pleistocene between approximately 12,800 to 11,500 years Before Present,
and preceding the Preboreal of the early Holocene

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7. REFERENCES

1.Pre-historic Period
[1]
- Panchanan Mitra, Prehistoric India, Bharatiya Publishing
House, 1979.
[2]
- V.H. Sonawane, Man And Environment XXXIII(1): 1-13
(2008); Indian Society For Pre-historic & Quaternary Studies.
[3]
– Richard Bradley, Rock Art And The Prehistory Of The
Atlantic Europe.
[4]
- Robert Bruce Foote, Prehistoric & Protohistoric
antiquities of India
[5]
- http://www.fromthewilderness.com
[6]
- Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of India
Fig 1: http://jblstatue.com/acheulian.html
Fig 2: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/
Fig 3: http://geology.com
Fig 4: http://www.fromthewilderness.com
Fig 5: http://www.loris-conservation.org,
Fig6: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/terrestrial
Fig 7: Google Earth
Fig 8 & 9: http://zinken.typepad.com/palaeo
Fig 10: www.arthistory.sbc.edu/biblioprehist
Fig 11: http://www.andaman.org/chapter47
Fig 12: www.arthistory.sbc.edu/biblioprehist
Fig 13: http://trekearth.com/photos/35519/latmos_prehistoric

2. Origin
[7]
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_India
[8]
- Prachi Chopade, Adivasi life and response to Nature,
Dept of Landscape, C.E.P.T University, 2003.
Fig 14: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/geographical
Fig15: http://geology.com/pangea-continental-drift.gif
Fig 16: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/geographical
Fig 17: http://mapxl.com/indiamaps/natural- vegetation.html
Fig 18, 19, 20, 21: Prachi Chopade, Adivasi life and
response to Nature, Dept of Landscape, C.E.P.T University,
2003.

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3. Pre-historic Settlements in India
[9]
- Paper by V.N.Mishra, Pre-historic Human Colonizaton
in India ]J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001
[10]
- http://www.uclan.ac.uk/
[11]
- http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk
Fig 22: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/geographical
Fig 23, 31 & 38: Paper by V.N.Mishra on Pre-historic Human
Colonizaton in India ]J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. |
November 2001
Fig 24, 25 & 26: http://Wikipedia.org
Fig 27, 28, 29 & 30: http://www.semioticon.com
Fig 33: http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk
Fig 34 - 37: http://www.uclan.ac.uk/

4. Pre-Historic Art Forms


[6]
- Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of India.
[9]
- Paper by V.N.Mishra, Pre-historic Human Colonizaton
in India ]J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001
[12]
- Erwin Neumayer, Prehistoric Indian Rock Paintings,
Oxford University Press, 1983
Fig 39 & 40: Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of
India.
Fig 41: Paper by V.N.Mishra, Pre-historic Human
Colonizaton in India ]J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. |
November 2001
Fig 42 - 45: Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of
India.

5. Demonstration of Rock Art


[6]
- Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of India.
[12]
- Erwin Neumayer, Prehistoric Indian Rock Paintings,
Oxford University Press, 1983
[13]
- Cupule occurrences in Goa by Rohini & Abhijit
Archeological Survey of India, Goa Circle-2007
[14]
- www.indianrealtynews.com
[15] -
http://www.edakkal.com/html/wallCarvings.htm
Fig 46 - 48: http://asi.nic.in/images/wh_bhimbetka/images
Fig 49 - 52: http://www.shunya.net
Fig 53 & 54: Purakala 2005-Vol.14-15, Rock Art Society of
India.
Fig 54-101 - : Erwin Neumayer, Prehistoric Indian Rock
Paintings, Oxford University Press, 1983
Fig 102: http://www.goatourism.co.in
Fig 103 - 127: Courtesy, Mr. Uddipta Ray & Author
Fig 128 - 130: www.indianrealtynews.com
Fig 131 - : http://www.edakkal.com/html/wallCarvings.htm
Fig 132 - 136: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
Fig 137 - 142 - :http://lh6.ggpht.com/_zt49PcU9jCc
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Minat Terkait