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MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY:The word philosophy is made up of two Greek words, phil and sophia.
Phil means love and sophia means wisdom.
Philosophy then, means the love of wisdom.
It is the study which deals with the ultimate realities of the universe and the general
causes and principles of those things that human being observes and experiences.
Philosophy is an activity of criticism and clarification.
A person who desires to search for truth or wisdom is called a philosopher.

ETYMOLOGICAL MEANING OF EDUCATION:Education means to lead out or to bring up or to raise.
Educare means to lead out.
Educere means to educate or to bring up.
E means out of and duco means I lead out of i.e., educo means I lead out of
Education is the process of empowering the individual so as to enrich himself and the

DEFINITIONS :GANDHIJI :- by education I mean an all round drawing out of what is best in the
child and man - body, mind and spirit.
LOCKE AND ARISTOTLE:- Creation of a sound mind in a sound body.
NUNN:- Complete development of individuality.
NEHRUJI:- Enabling the individual to be a producer as well as a good citizen.

MEANING OF EDUCATION IN NARROW SENSE:Restricting the meaning of education to schools and colleges.


The sum total of all the experiences which we have from birth to death i.e., womb to

MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY:Educational philosophy or philosophy of education has developed as a new integrated
discipline of philosophy and education during the present century.
Philosophy of education is a field of inquiry, speculation and application in which
philosophical methods are applied to the study of a problem or issue in education.
Educational philosophy enables a teacher to solve many of the problems they face in
an efficient manner, it gives sufficient enlightenment to them


Ans) Philosophy and education are quite interdependent. This is quite obvious from
the following arguments.
1) Philosophy determines what is worth living and educational educates the man
to live a life which is worth living.
2) All educational movements in the history of education have gone a long way
to prove that they were led by the great philosophers.
3) Philosophy is considered as the theoretical site, while education is the practical
- philosophy is contemplative
- education is the dynamic
4) Philosophy decides the goals of life and education equips one with the means
of attaining these goals.
5) Philosophy clarifies and enlightens on many of the educational issues and the
6) Philosophy is the activity of clarification and criticism.
7) Philosophy conceives the type of individual and society to be created and
education helps/strives to develop such individuals and society.
8) Philosophy provides necessary zeal and inspiration to the teachers by taking
up educational task.
9) Philosophy indicates the values to the pursued in life and education inculcates
these values in the individual.
10) Philosophy has an impact on the aims, curriculum method of teaching, role of
teacher, role of student, discipline etc and also on educational policies,


Ans) Philosophy is divided into many different areas, including four that are
particularly important in the educative process.
1)METAPHYSICS (theory of reality or being):- Philosophy who believes in
materialism consider physical existence as reality. The metaphysical problem of
philosophy is whether the ultimate is in spiritual or material or physical. The
of education is to explain reality to the young.
2)EPISTEMOLOGY (theory of knowledge):_ Epistemology is to specify that
means of acquiring knowledge vary according to the beliefs of the several schools
philosophy. Knowledge is gained empirically through perceptual experience.
Knowledge is gained chiefly through reason. Knowledge is gained in some
by intuition. Knowledge is certified by an indisputable authority.
3)AXIOLOGY (theory of values):- It is a branch of philosophy that specifies the
nature of values, the kinds of values and the values worth possessing. As
is a quest for truth, so it is also a search for the good and the beautiful. This leads
philosophers and educators in the axiological dimension of education. All
and all forms of schooling are immersed in the value dimension of life.
4)LOGIC:- This phase of philosophy is clearly related to both epistemology and
axiology. It is related to epistemology, when ones final knowledge controls his
experience. Logic is also connected with axiology, since there are values which
distinctly logical. Logic referring to the correct reasoning, examines the rules of
inference, which enables us to move correctly from one argument to another.

The scope of educational philosophy also includes an analysis of different


of education from philosophical and sociological point of view.


Ans) Aims is a predetermined goal which the individual tries to achieve after
thinking, proper planning and successful methods. Aims of education refer to what
education should do.
The philosophical aims of education have the following characteristic. They are

Co relativities of philosophy of life.

Capable of being translated into activities.

Plausible and attainable.

Flexible and modifiable.

The out- growth of the existing conditions of life.

Means of effective living.

Aims of education according to the three western schools of Philosophy:

IDEALISM: Salvation / Moksha
Self realization involving realisation of spiritual, moral and social values.
Exploration of the ultimate and universal values
Acquisition of cultural and social heritage.
Ability to exercise moral, social, intellectual and spiritual virtues.
Unfoldment and divinity.
NATURALISM: Natural and spontaneous development of the individual.

Sublimation of native properties i.e., reduction, co-operation, and harmonious

world native impulses.
Equipping the individual the lifes struggle and survival.
Adjustment to environment.
Handing over of the heredity to enable to enhance the racial gains
Getting happiness through spontaneous activities etc.
PRAGMATISM: Growth and more growth.
Development of ability for effective and better living.
Utilization of the capacity to the fullest extent
Forging better state of society.
The aim of self- realization, supreme ideal of education. It aims at the
development of
the potentialities of the learners to the fullest possible extent. Self- realization is
conceived as the ability to attain the selfish ends but involves the production of a
pious and socially useful individual.
THE AIMS OF SOCIAL EFFICIENCY:The educational practice must be judged from the social efficiency it can develop.
the social efficiency, career competency, moral mastery, and the likes. The
education commission:no education is worth the name which does not inculcate
abilities necessary for living graciously and efficiently with ones allow men.
OTHERS AIMS GIVEN BY PHILOSOPHERS:There are many other aims of education which are determined by the
approach to the process of education such as encyclopedia aim or pansophic aim,

harmonious development, complete living and the likes. They indicate an eclectic
approach to the different philosophical approaches of education in determining
educational aim.


Ans) The philosophy of education is concerned with the clarification of
concepts like intelligence, understanding, discipline, creativity etc
It is concerned with the critical evaluation of arguments about such concepts
in the theory and practice of education.
Educational philosophy provides the educator with perspective from which he
can see new dimensions of the problems. The three- fold nature of educational
philosophy can be stated as follows.
THE SPECULATIVE NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY: The problems of education sometimes center round such theories as those
relating to the nature of man, society and the world.
Such problems can be solved by a reference either to formal philosophy or to
any other philosophical framework.
THE PRESCRIPTIVE NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY: The ends and means of education are prescribed by educational philosophy.
For example, the ends of education can be attained by following either a
democratic system of school administration or a totalitarian one.
This is an instance of political philosophy used in deciding the means.
Similarly, the question of individualizing instruction is to be decided by
reference to a social philosophy.

Educational philosophy examines the rationality and consistency of


ideas, the logic and adequacy of educational concept(such as freedom, adjustment,

growth, experience, etc) and help in the elimination of the inconsistencies in
educational theories.


Ans) The following specific aims of education are discussed here:
It has almost been widely accepted as the aim of education since the time of sophists
B.C. Knowledge is an instrument of education. Knowledge is essential for adjustment.
Knowledge is essential for growth of society. Knowledge is a basis of moral
mental food, Knowledge is a potential power, means of happiness and a valuable

2}VOCATIONAL AIM OF EDUCATION /bread and better aim :

It is the direct outcome of industrial scientific progress
I} balances individual capacity with social service
2} Balances economic and industrial progress
3} Reduces emphasis on verbalism
4} Education becomes a purposeful activity
5} Suitable for persons with lower intelligences


A comprehensive aim of school education
We want education by which character is formed
A man of character wills loftily and honestly
Various commissions-characters building an important aim
Need of the hour in India today
Teacher and school can play important role in importing education for character

4} COMPLETE LIVING AS AN AIM OF EDUCATION :Herbert Spencer expounded complete living as the true aim of education.
The aim is the result of science, utilization attitude, theory of evolution.

Education must strive to achieve-self preservation; earn living .Bringing up of

children, utilization of leisure.
Criticized on various ground arbitrary division of life requirement, too much stress on
science and biological existence


No single aim of education is enough .
Education should produce a well balanced personality
Supported by all progressive educationists-Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Gandhiji.
Limitations: vague term, curricular limitations. The aim is fairly convincing.


Ans) a) INDIVIDUAL AIMS OF EDUCATION:1) Rousseau believed that true education is something that happens from within.
2) Percy Nunn-the main purpose as education is to provide conditions under
which individuality is most completely developed.
3) G.Thompson -the function of education is to enable the individual to survive
and live out his complete life.
4) Modern thinkers-the ultimate good of the society lies in discovering the
hidden values of the individual.
1) Isolated individual a figment of imagination
2) Inherently defective.
3) Against spiritual nature of man.
4) Individual must be made fit for society.
5) The basis of individuals greatness is social.
6) Adverse effect on politics and economy.
EXTREME FORM:1) State- an idealized metaphysical entity.
2) Education for willing acceptance of authority.
3) The example of ancient Greece.

4) Example of Germany and Italy.

1) Individual, a non entity.
2) No scope for the free will of individual.
3) Individual to work only for the good of the state.
4) Narrow citizenship.
1. Making individual socially efficient.
2. Recent democratic trends.


Values are that which guide our behavior and put meaning into our existence.
1. According to R.B.Perry general theory of values says Any objective what
ever it be, acquires value when any interest, just as anything what so ever
becomes a target when anyone who so ever aims at it.
2 His relation of an object with its valuing subject.
3. According to John Dewey- To value means primarily to prize, to esteem, to
appraise, to estimate. It means the act of cherishing some thing, holding it dear
and also the act of passing judgment upon the nature and amount of its value
as compared with some thing else.
4. According to Allport- The term value means the relative prominence of the
subjects interest or the dominant interest in personality.
5. Values are mastermind, which give direction to ones strivings.
6. Values are the feelings.
7. Values are a determination or quality of an object.
8. Values are also described as an attitude.
9 Value is the act of cherishing something.
NEED FOR VALUES:1) Values oriented education is the need of the hour.
2) The whole education system should be so constructed as to include values
education to take the present generation out of the malady of value crisis.
3) The need for value has been emphasized by individual thinkers as well as
expert committees and commissions appointed by the government of India.
4) Value will help in developing positive social attitude.
5) Value is needed for developing moral qualities among the youth.
6) Value initiates a life long process.
7) Value is essential for developing democratic qualities such as dignity of
individual, social, brotherhood etc.
SUBJECTIVE THEORY OF VALUES- states that value lies only with the
subject (person) and not with the object.

OBJECTIVE THEORY OF VALUES.- states that value lies only with the
object and not with the subject.
COMBINED THEORY OF VALUES - states that value lies both with the
subject and the object.
Values have been classified in a variety of ways.
1) Plato, he Greek philosopher, classified values in terms of ultimate realities.
2) According to him, truth, goodness and beauty are the ultimate values which
man must seek and try to live by.
3) Ancient Indian thinkers have also advocated these values and declared satyam,
shiva, sundaram as the basis good life.
4) SOCIAL VAUES:- The satisfaction that we get from friendship love, family
and members in group are to be included in the social values.
5) MORAL VALUE:- these are satisfactions and dissatisfactions that accrue to be
individual in the course of his attempts to make right choices.
6) RELIGIOUS VALUES:- If an object by virtue of its relation to the divine, can
be called holy/sacred. it is said to have a religious value and the experience of
such object as divine is called a religious experience.
7) AESTHETIC VALUES:- Perceived object to which the adjectives beautiful
and ugly are relevant give rise in the observe to the kind of experience we call
8) ECONOMIC VALUES:- An object has economic value if it becomes a means
to satisfy material desires. Economic value is instrumental rather than
9) CHARACTER VALUES:- Under this we may include the whole range of
desirable personal and social virtue including justice, benevolence, self control
and truthfulness.



Plato laid the foundations for the Idealism
Idealism is old as Vedas.
Idealism contends that spiritual aspects are the chief aspects of human life.
According to Kathopanishad, an idealist is one who possesses supreme
knowledge by concentration of mind.

The mental or spiritual is higher than the material, physical world.

Ideal means perfected form of an idea or ideas.
Idealism shifts the emphasis from natural and physical facts of life to the
spiritual side of human experiences.
The word Idealism is derived from two distinct sources the idea and the
Idea means - true and testified knowledge
Ideal means perfected form of an idea or ideas.
Idealistic philosophers
Eastern Idealists
Vedic Seers
The Upanishads and Gita
Swami Dayanand
Swami Vivekananda
Mahatma Gandhi
Rabindranath Tagore
Sri Aurobindo
Western Idealists
Plato a Greek philosopher
Kane a German philosopher
Froebel a German philosopher
William T. Harris - American philosopher
Principles of Idealism
Ultimate reality is mind
Mind and soul are important
Man being spiritual is a superior creation
Idealism emphasizes the significance of eternal values of life, truth,
goodness and beauty.
God is the source of all knowledge.
Ultimate reality is mind
Mind and soul are important
Man being spiritual is a superior creation
Idealism emphasizes the significance of eternal values of life, truth,
goodness and beauty.
God is the source of all knowledge.
Nature of knowledge

Intuition or recollection; Truth is possible for some good minds; most people on
the level of opinion.
Nature of Value
Human nature is governed by moral imperatives drawn from the absolutes in
Exaltation of personality or self realization
Human personality is the greatest work of God.

Hence, exaltation of personality through self realization is the foremost aim.

Education should lead to perfection in the human being. There should be an
unfolding of the divine in man (Swami Vivekananda)
AIMS OF EDUCATION / Educational purpose
Formal and informal education aims first at the formation of character and then
toward the development of human talent and social good. Transmission of culture

The spiritual and cultural inheritance of mankind must be preserved and

imparted to next generation.
Education should aim at literature, art, mathematics and sciences.

Education should emphasize and encourage invention and creation as a part of

Universal education - Emphasizes educational for all Plato in his Republic, outlined
that education should be imparted according to the needs of the individuals.
Education should be given according to their learning capacity.
Moral education
Aim at character formation and duties of life.
Job oriented education
Individuals should be educated to pursue jobs according to their interest.
Religious education
Religious education is also considered as one of the educational aims.
Idealism and curriculum
The curriculum should develop the total personality of the child.
Liberal education for the development of the rational abilities; practical education for
making a living

Idealism and methods of teaching

A dialectical method is preferred but any method effective in stimulating learning is

acceptable. A tendency to discount physiological bases to learning
Idealistic philosophy advocates the use of textbooks.
Socratic or discussion method is the fundamental method
Dialectics, deductive method, inductive method, lecture method, analytic
method, etc, are other method of teaching
Lays stress on three things a) Instructions b) Activity and c) Experience.
Any method would help for self realization is accepted
Idealism and discipline
Strict discipline
Cultivation of inner values through moral religious instruction.
Believes in inner discipline
Does not believe in free discipline
Restraints freedom
Idealism and the Teacher
Strict discipline Teacher should be an ideal model to inculcate
Cultivation of inner values through moral religious instruction.
Believes in inner discipline
Does not believe in free discipline Restraints freedom


Oldest philosophy
By nature there is no reality
Material world is the real world emphasizes matter and the physical world.
Nature is only answer for all philosophical problems.

George Haward - Naturalism is the exclusion of whatever is spiritual.

Hocking Naturalism considers nature as the whole of reality.

Schools of Naturalism
Schools of Naturalism
Biological Naturalism
Human life is controlled and influenced by physical laws
Mechanical Naturalism

Man is merely a machine

Physical Naturalism
Supports Darwinian concept of man.
Physical Naturalism
Supports Darwinian concept of man.
Naturalist Philosophers
Francis Bacon English philosopher
John Cornenius Czechoslovakian philosopher
Demoritius Greek philosopher
Jean Jacques Rousseau French philosopher
Herbert Spencer English philosopher
Rabindranath Tagore Indian philosopher

Naturalism lays stress on physical environment

Material world is real. Every thing originates and ends in matter, mind
is sub-ordinate to matter. Mind is nothing but functioning of the brain.
Nature is the source of all knowledge, and all knowledge is gathered
through the senses.
Child get important place in the educative process.
There is no possibility of any supernatural being. They do not admit
the existence of God. Divine inspiration, God, the other world, etc.,
and mere illusions.
Follow nature and back to nature are the greatest slogans of
naturalism in education.
Sources of education are Nature, men, circumstances.

Aims of Education
Herbert Spencer Education as to enable
the individual to lead a complete life.
Rousseau creation of a natural man
free from the artificialities of the society.
Self preservation preserving and protecting his body.
Securing the necessities of life equipping the individual to struggle for
existence and survival.
Maintenance of social and political relation enabling adjustment.
Enjoyment of leisure
Preparation for the struggle for existence
Autonomous development of personality

Two stages as earlier stage and later stage

1) Earlier stage sensory training
2) Later stage physiology, physical and natural sciences, mathematics,
anatomy, etc are to be studies.
Nature of naturalistic curriculum
Based on nature of child and His interests
Helping self-preservation
Basic sciences
Physical and health education
Based on child psychology
Physical education for infants
Sense education childhood
Intellectual education boyhood
Moral education adolescence
Methods of Teaching
Against old, traditional and booking system of education
Knowledge through actual situation and experience
Self-education or auto education
Play-way method
Learning by doing
Heuristic method
Trail and error
Free discipline
Against discipline
Through experience learns
Teacher should cooperate with nature in the process of human development;
mainly responsible for creating the educational environment for students
Teacher should be a guide, friend and philosopher.
Wise direction of the teacher is essential.
Teacher should guide, control and create stimulating environment.
Teacher is the spiritual guide or spiritual father.
Should be an ideal person in personality
Teacher is considered as a Gardener
Should have deep knowledge of his subject.
Should understand the pupil thoroughly
Should inculcate attitude of hard work, habit of self study and encourage to
think themselves.
Teacher should not interfere.

Teachers place is behind the scene.

He is an observer.
Providing stage, materials, environment and opportunities for
harmonious development

Pragmatism is like a great house openly hospitable to all manner of travelers
willing to demonstrate their use of philosophy as a practical, social instrument. Once
admitted, they are free to move without restriction, among its many rooms as they
Pragmatism is the midway between Naturalism and Idealism
An American philosophy
Estimates value of anything based on its practical utility
Pragmatism is like a great house openly hospitable to all manner of travelers
willing to demonstrate their use of philosophy as a practical, social instrument. Once
admitted, they are free to move without restriction, among its many rooms as they
Pragmatism is the midway between Naturalism and Idealism
An American philosophy. Estimates value of anything based on its practical

According to James, the term pragmatism is derived from the Greek word,
pragma which means action from which the words practical and practice
have come.
Charles Pierce is considered as the Father of Pragmatism.
Pragmatism is also called as progressivism or progressive education.
Pragmatist philosophers
William James
Charles, S. Pierce
John Dewey
W. H. Kilpatrick
Margret H. Mead
Principles of Pragmatism
Truth is that works in practical situations
Rejects ultimate values
Action is real and ideas are tools
Values are flexible. They change with time and circumstances.
Man has the ability to solve his problems
Utilitarian aspect is supreme
Past has little value
Present and future are more important
Spiritual character of existence has little significance
Pragmatism rejects all types of authoritarianism whether in government or
religion or education

Nature of the person:

The evolutionary hypothesis is taken seriously
o Men and women are the products of biological and psychological and social
Nature of reality:
Physical reality alone exists
A theory of reality in general is neither possible nor necessary
Nature of knowledge: knowledge is relative; its meaning is disclosed in its
application; instrumentalism
Nature of value: standard of personal and social conduct is determined
experimentally in the experiences of life.
Important aims of pragmatic education
It gives a clear cut concept of education based upon a close relationship
between theory and practice of education
Education is a social necessity
Proved a revolution in the history of education
It stands for flexibility, change and adaptability
Does not believe in fixed aims of education
All round development through activities and experience
Reconstruction of experiments in the light of new situations
Preparation of socially efficient individual
Pragmatism and Curriculum
Contains tested experience that is subject to change
The interest and needs children bring with them to school form an emerging
Utility is the prime determination
Should be based on natural instincts of the child
Graded curriculum
Includes purposive, productive and socialized activities
Life and activity of the learner integrated
Socially useful
Curriculum should be dynamic
Priority is given social sciences, biology, sociology, psychology, literature,
mathematics, physical training, hygiene and sciences are also considered.
Does not believe in fixed method of teaching
Methods rooted in the psychological needs of the students, rather than the
logical order of the subject
Providing real life situation
Method of learning by doing
Teaching the pupils to do rather than to known
The outstanding contribution of pragmatism to educational practice is the
project method
A project, as defined by Kilpatrick, is a whole-hearted purposeful activity
proceeding in a social environments
Another significant contribution of pragmatism is Experimental method

Method is nothing more than that of helping of the students to use intelligence
and the scientific method to solve problems
Main concern is inner discipline
It can not be maintained through force and dominance
It can not be imposed from outside
An individual, who is a unique personality,
cultivate moral and social values while living in the society

Existentialism is the youngest philosophy.
Modern twentieth century philosophy.
It has not yet received a wide general recognition in the educational field
According to the existentialists, life is meaningless. Mans life is a struggle for
existence. In this struggle, the fittest or the strongest will survive.
According to theism, even though life is fundamentally meaningless; I can
give meaning to life. My faith in God will help me to lead an authentic life,
which is based on harmony and responsibility. Harmony here means, in words,
thoughts and action.
According to them, God has no role to play to make life meaningful.
Basic Assumptions of Existentialism
Nature of person:
Mans existence:, the starting point for all existence is the recognition
of the individual existence
Dualism of mind and body with special emphasis on mind
Nature of Reality:
An independent, physical universe exists and it may prove threatening to the
realization of personal goals
Spiritual reality may or may not exist
Nature of knowledge:
A tendency toward skepticism, it a willingness to acknowledge the
possibility of achieving truth
Self-knowledge: they consider know thyself as the basic premise of this
philosophy. Self-knowledge is the key to all truth and knowledge.
Nature of value:
A variety in moral standard is inevitable.
Persons are free to choose their own moral standard, but some moral standard
as an anchor to personal life is imperative.
Man is not complete: Man is not complete; he is in the process of becoming.
Man has to meet the challenge. He is capable of shaping his own life.
Freedom and responsibility: Each man has the responsibility of creating his
own values and in doing so, he has freedom and responsibility.
Man is primary and society is secondary.
Aims of education

The primary aim of education is the making of a human person as one who
lives and makes decisions about what he will do and be.
Educational and social development is mainly meant for the existence of man,
free from pain and suffering.
The aim of education is to lead an authentic life, i.e. the life, which is based on
harmony and responsibility.
Education for life education is the preparation for the state of being.
Make human person who can make decisions about him.
To make the individual a person of human touch this philosophy follows a
humanistic approach
Existentialism and Curriculum

Mainly liberal because liberal learning is most likely to lay a foundation for
human freedom
Almost as much as pragmatism, rejects the so - called spectator theory of
Schools should try to immerse their students in life
To protect and preserve academic freedom, where teachers today may be
students tomorrow
The teacher should facilitate development, originality and creativity by
providing necessary materials and equipments.
The teacher is very active and welcomes challenges to his ideas from the
Concern and respect for the individual student is the main concern of the
school and teacher.
Teacher and students follow human relationship based on respect (teacher
pupil respect). The relationship here is I thou relationship.
Methods of teaching
No preoccupation with method, but whatever method is employed must point
to ways to achieve happiness and character
All school subjects and activities present situations for the development of
human beings.
Know oneself (know thyself) is the basic idea under the use of methods of
Socratic methods, self-inquiry etc, can be considered as methods of
Democratic ideas must pervade the school environment in which the students
Discipline here is self-discipline.
Self-discipline can be achieved self-respect and mutual respect.
Harmony of thoughts, words and actions will make the child self disciplined in
his social and personal life.
The concept of responsibility also will help the child to have self-discipline.
Aims of Education

None of the educational philosophies deny education for individual

development and education for social efficiency.
The important objectives can be listed as health, command of fundamental
processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of
leisure and ethical character.
Another aim of education is education for complete living.
In the matter of curriculum all the philosophies support life-centered
If there can be one subject for education, that subject is life.
Instead of taking a narrow view of curriculum, they advocate a broad-based
view of total experiences.
In their curricular programme, there is a place for history, social and physical
sciences, logic, grammar and rhetoric.
The view of total experience envisages in the child the development of
essential skills, desirable attitudes and individual and social virtues.
Method of Teaching
Among methods, the philosophers have a special advocacy for problem
Importance of direct experience is recognized by lending their support to
play-way and learning by doing.
Taking in view the interest of the child, philosophers select methods
according to circumstances.
Child centered approach is used in the selection of a particular method.


Sub-Unit-3.1: Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore was a well-known poet and philosopher.
Like Mahatma Gandhi, Tagore discovered the greatness of Indian culture and put his
ideas into practice.
His Philosophical thoughts:
Tagore believed in the absolute and immortal existence of God.
He also believed in the philosophy of liberation.
He was a humanist and regarded man as a reflection of God.
He wanted to study nature by observation and experiment both.
The child should enjoy complete freedom to develop according to his nature.
His Educational Thoughts:
Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction.
Education should bring about all-round development of childs personality.
Physical development of the child through education.
Moral and spiritual development of the child.
International understanding and sensitivity in the child.
Curriculum based on activities and broad self experiences in life.
Curriculum should be designed for all-round development of the child.
Flexibility in teaching.
Teaching in nature rather than in class room.
Discussion method in place of lecture method.
Teacher should provide conducive environment to the child for learning.

Sub-Unit-3.2: Mahatma Gandhi

Basically Gandhi was a politician, but he was also a great thinker as he had ideas on
many aspects of human life and activity.
Gandhijis general philosophy of life is based on four fundamental tenants God,
truth, non-violence and dignity of labour.
Gandhijis views on education:

Self-realization and spiritualism is the ultimate aim of education.

True education should result not in material power but in spiritual force.
Emphasis on religious and moral education.
Education should focus on integrated development consisting of physical, mental,
social and emotional development.
Education for a just social order.
Education through crafts.
Real education is impossible through a foreign medium.
As he believed that British system of education is not suitable to Indian conditions, he
proposed Basic education (Nai Talim).
Principles of Basic Education:
Free and compulsory education for seven years.
Education should be both manual and intellectual.
Education to center around some craft.
Self-supporting basis of the plan.
Dignity of labor.
Methods of teaching less hearing, more doing.
Religious education
Spiritual training
Education for character building
Medium of instruction mother tongue
Freedom but under discipline
Womens education
Education for self reliance
Aesthetic sense
Education should give importance to 3 Hs Head, Heart and Hand
Education for productivity

Sub-Unit-3.3: Swami Vivekananda

The nineteenth century India has produced a galaxy of great men who has enriched
our national life by their talent and personality. Swami Vivekananda was one of them.
He was a true vedantist. He believed in universalism and spiritual brotherhood.

Educational ideas and principles of Swami Vivekananda

Education is the best means of development of man.
To educate masses, free and compulsory education is essential.
Womens education is equally important.
Self-knowledge, self-reliance, concentration, physical education, man-making
education, character-building education, education through the medium of mother
tongue, religious education, moral education and value education should be given
Dedicated teachers are needed for proper education of children.
Education must develop strong sense of patriotism and nationalism in students.
School curriculum should include scientific knowledge, cultural heritage, languages,
and grammar in adequate proportions.
Teachers should have a great love of humanity.
Organizational abilities should be developed in schools and colleges.
Vocational subjects should be included in the curriculum.
Sub-Unit-3.4: Aurobindo Ghosh
Among the contemporary Indian philosophers of education, Sri Aurobindo Ghosh has
presented the most original contributions. He has presented a unique model for
Aurobindos Principles of educations:
According to Aurobindo, the chief aim of education should be to help the growing
soul to draw out that in itself which is best, and make it perfect for a noble use.
To Aurobindo, the real meaning of life is to rise above ego. True education helps
man to this goal.
Education should help man to realize that his vital, mental, psychic, supra-mental,
and supreme spiritual being.
Man is a conscious power of divine. The real aim of education is the evocation of this
divine power.
Instead of shallow and superficial knowledge in many subjects, better to have
intensive knowledge in a few subjects.
He advocated integral education comprising physical, vital, intellectual, social and
spiritual education.
The teacher is the kingpin in the educational machinery.
No system rises above the teacher.

Teacher is not an instructor or task master. He is a helper and a guide.

Sub-Unit-3.5: Jiddu Krishnamurthy

Jiddu Krishnamurthy was born in Madanapalli of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.
He was adapted by Annie Besant, who was the president of Theosophical Society in
Views on contemporary education:
Todays educational system consists of collecting information from books.
It kills the soul of the student.
It does not allow him to develop as an integral person.
It only gives him minimum skills to carry on his life.
There is no scope for creativity.
According to him, life is an integral whole. It is indivisible.
Education should strive for integral development of the person.
Aims of education:

Integral outlook: A vision of the whole but not in parts.

Concern for man and environment: Man and nature are inseparable. The right
education should develop deep affection in all people.

Religious spirit with scientific temper: Religion, scientific temper and nature go

Freedom and flexibility should be there in curriculum.

Teachers should behave with students friendly but not with authority.

Interest and commitment to the teaching profession is necessary.

Teachers are eternal parents.


Sub-Unit-4.1: Meaning, Nature & Scope of Sociology
Sociology is the systematic study of Society. It studies social phenomena, social organizations
and cultural patterns. According to Duncan, sociology is the scientific study of dynamic
processes of interactions of persons and the resulting patterns. It involves the study of human
social life, groups and societies. It is concerned with all the collective activities, namely,
economic, social, political and religious.
Nature of sociology:
Sociology deals with all human activities.
Sociology is concerned with social facts.
It plays a part in human behavior.
It is a pure science and not an applied science.
Sociology is the general science of society.
It is more a collection of subjects than a subject itself.
Sociology extends its tentacles in every direction.
Sociologists believe that all things are relative.
Sociology can be described as:

Science of society

Science of social relations

Study of social groups

Study of social action

Study of social phenomena

Study of human behavior

Scope of Sociology:
The scope of sociology is very wide. As a matter of fact, the subject matter of all social
sciences is society. What distinguishes the various social sciences from one another is their
view point.
Sociology alone studies social relationships and the whole society itself. According to Green
The focus of attention on relationships makes sociology a distinctive field, however closely
allied to certain other sciences it may be.
The fields of sociology are:

Sociology of education
Urban sociology
Social psychology
Sociology of the family
Sociology of community
Industrial sociology
Economic sociology
Criminal sociology
Human relations
Sociology of Gender
Cultural sociology
Medical sociology
Sociology of religion
Ethnic conflicts
Sociology of stratification
In future we may have some new specifications in sociology.
Sub-Unit-4.2: Relationship between Sociology and Education
Sociology and education are intimately connected.
From the side of education, social development of the child is one of the main
functions of education. Through the social development of the child, it contributes to
the development of the society. Education forms a powerful tool to develop
individuals of society into dynamic and responsible citizens. It moulds their behavior
according to the ideals of the society and makes them able to achieve a harmonious
adjustment with society.
From the side of sociology, society determines and formulates the pattern of its
education according to its needs, ideals and ambitions. The changing pattern of the
society brings about corresponding changes in the educational process. Thus, the
society has large influence on education.

SUB-UNIT-4.3: Meaning, Process, Methods and Agencies of Socialization

Meaning of Socialization:
Socialization is the process whereby an individual learns to behave in accordance with social
traditions and mores, i.e., customs and conventions of a community.
The child develops according to the environment in which he lives and grows. As a social
being, he, by his own nature, tries to adopt the culture of the society and acquires the culture.
This is called socialization.

Process of Socialization:

Socialization is a process which begins at birth and continues until the death of
the individual. It is a life-long process.
Man is believed to be superior to animals because of socialization.
Socialization brings balance to the personality of an individual because social
personality is a very important component of personality.
Socialization teaches the individual to control himself in the interest of society
and to realize his responsibilities towards others.
Socialization is promoted by the influence of individuals on each other by
means of imitation, suggestions and sympathy.
Social institutions and associations also contribute to the individuals
socialization, as he is influenced by social processes such as praise, blame, cooperation, awards and rewards, conflict, punishments etc.
Education is the most prominent means of socialization.

Methods of Socialization:
There are six basic methods of socialization they are:
1. Affective method:
2. Operant method
3. Observational method
4. Socio-cultural method
5. Apprenticeship method

Cognitive method

Agencies of Socialization:
The process of socialization is transmitted through the social groups of family, peer group,
school, religion and mass media. The groups are known as agencies of socialization.

Family is the primary agency of socialization. It develops socialization through:

1. Physical development
2. Emotional balance
3. Vocational skill development

4. Spiritual development
5. Moral development
6. Recreational functions
7. Language development
8. Conceptual development
Peer group:

The peer group consists of brothers, sisters and friends. Peer group is the source of
informal education.

Peer group can have deep influence on the habits, interests, thinking of the peers.

Peer group can have either positive or negative impact.

Formal education is the major tool of socialization.
Individuals are socialized with specific goals of society by formal teaching.
The importance of school as an agency of socialization is recognized all over the
world. As Lesley Palmer says, school is the best place to educate children for social
School is the only place in the world which brings people of different religions,
cultures, castes, sex etc. together at the formative years of their life.
Schools can promote socialization through direct influence by designing curriculum
and activities for developing the cognitive aspect of socialization.
Teacher plays an important role in socialization. He can develop socialization in
students by formal technique of instruction of the curriculum and by informal
techniques through suggestions, persuasion and warnings.

Religion promotes socialization by inculcating similar beliefs, moral values and

spiritual attitudes among people who share the same religious beliefs.

Mass media:
Mass media such as news papers, radio, TV, because of their technical capabilities
contribute significantly to socialization process. In recent times, Internet and
associated applications have globalized the socialization process.

SUB-UNIT-4.4: Meaning, Characteristics of Culture and Relation between Culture and


1. Culture can be defined as the way of life of a group of people in a closed
2. According to social anthropologists, culture if the accumulation of all the
technical ideas, tools and artifacts from the stone axe of the stone-age man to the
modern computers which man has invented to satisfy his basic biological needs in
order to live comfortably.
3. As F.B. Taylor defines, culture is that complex-whole which includes
knowledge, belief, morals and values, law, customs and any other capabilities
acquired by man as a member of society.
Culture is a way of life.
Culture is man-made.
Culture is evolutionary.
Culture is learned or acquired.
Culture is gratifying.
Culture is dynamic.
Culture is transmitted from person to person and generation to generation.
Culture is integrative as well as divisive.
Culture controls the people.

Culture can also vary within a region, society or sub group.

Culture has two dimensions: material or overt culture and non-material or covert

Relationship between Culture and Education:

Education is a major element of non-material culture of a society.
Education is a preserver as well as transmitter of culture.
Initiating or absorbing the younger generation and new members into the culture of
society is called enculturation. Education is the main institution which promotes
Education leads to progress of both material and non-material culture.
Culture of a society also controls the goals and aims of education.


SUB-UNIT- 5.1: Meaning and Factors of Social Change:-

(i) Being organic by nature, human society is dynamic. Hence it is subjected
to varied changes by different forces like natural, psychological,
sociological, political etc.
(ii) According to Jones, Social change is a term used to describe variation
in or movement of Social progress, Social interaction or Social
(iii)Social change is characteristic of all societies whether simple or
complex, strongly or loosely integrated.
(iv) It involves changes in both material aspects of culture & ideals, customs
of people.
(v)Change can be in discovery and invention, the rise of religious or political
movements, the appearance of individuals or groups and the contact of one
civilization with another through commerce or warfare.
(vi)The extent of Social change may vary considerably from one culture to
another, depending on the degree of isolation from other people and the
successful functioning of established ways.
(vii)Societies in which change occurs very slowly have the advantage of
stability in social organization. On the other hand, societies in which change
is rapid are marked by personal anxieties over ones future social role as well
as institutional instability.

Factors of Social Change:


The geographical factors like climate conditions which influence the

Social conditions of life.

The environmental factors like newly built cities, industrialized and

urbanized material environments.

The population factors like explosion of population.

The psychological factors like personal individualization, incentive,

motivation etc.

The sociological factors like social conflicts, social oppressions, and

modernization efforts.

The scientific and technological factors like technical advancement,

new inventions, modern machineries and


The ideological factors like social philosophy.








The Legislative factors such as Legislative of Harijan temple entry,

the Legislative banning early marriages etc.

The cultural diffusion factors like the impact of Western civilization

and American culture on Indian life.

SUB-UNIT- 5.2: Relationship between Social change and education:

(i) According to V.R. Taneja

Education and Social change is a two way traffic. While education
preserves, transmits and stimulates the wholesome culture, the society also
according to its changed conditions, except the school to review and plan its
work according to the demands and aspirations of the changing society. The
whole planning of the school, including the curriculum should reflect
changes in social values and patterns.
(ii)The traditions, values, goals, population, qualified manpower, national
income, stock of knowledge and industry are some of the inputs from the
society and the outputs arte improved personnel, social change, meeting the
needs of human resources, provision of new knowledge and techniques,
improved interpersonal relationship etc.
(iii)Men enter into educational institutional from the society and they enter
the world of work as qualified persons.
(iv)Education is considered to be involving certain inputs from the
society and outputs into the society.
(v) Hence, it is to be understood that the school should strive to educate
persons in accordance with the needs, requirements and aspirations of the
(vi)The society attempts to modify the educational and school system to
meet the increasing need of the society reflecting the social values, norms
and changes.
(4) Education as an instrument of Social change:(i)Education is considered as a powerful instrument for social change
because it deals mainly with the thought patterns and behavioural
patterns of the younger generations.

(ii)Education serves as an indirect instrument which attempts to

change the attitudes of pupils, inculcating new thinking and ideas,
ideals and ideologies etc.
(iii)The thought patterns of individuals relating to social and cultural
norms, changing values etc are mostly developed in educational
(iv)Those that are developed in large society are either deepened or
altered during ones school and college career.
(v)Education plays a vital role in inculcating the needed intellectual
discipline, social virtues, social intelligence, critical thinking abstract
thinking and judicious judgment.
(vi)The role of education in promoting social change may be stated in
the following terms:(a)Educational institutions must uphold desirable social attitudes fighting
against negative social prejudices and values.
(b)They should attempt to mould the aspirations and ideas of future
citizens in accordance with the changing needs and values of the society.
(c)The school curriculum should reflect the progressive trends of the
(d)The methods of instruction should reflect the larger interest of the
(e)Students participation in school administration should be encouraged
inculcating democratic practices in them and training them in leadership
(f) Education should be practical, related to the life of individuals.
(5)MEANING AND NATURE OF MODERNIZATION:(i)Modernization is the process of transforming the old traditional societies
and nations to the modernity in the fields of economic, technological,
industrial and social advancement.
(ii)It is an effort made with the objective of bringing out radical changes in
economic bases, technological systems, industrial levels and social
(iii)It is to bring a less advanced nation at par with the far advanced
(iv)According to William E. Moore
Modernization of a traditional or pre-modern society into the type of
technology and associated social organization that characterizes the

advanced, economically prosperous sand relatively politically stable

nations of the Western world.
(v)Modernization is viewed as an all in all process but not a
compartmentalized one.
(vi) Hence technical, economic, social, industrial and political factors are
to be changed radically.
(vii) A society can become modernized, if it does not lose its identity and
makes full use of the discoveries and innovations in the field of science
and technology and using the natural resources profitably for improving
the living conditions of people.
(viii)Industrialization, urbanization, rapid transportation, communication,
educational revolution etc are the steps in the progressive direction of
(6) Attributes of Modernisation:(a)It is not a process of imitation but a process of identification.
(b)Material prosperity is to be attained by the progressive programs for the
utilization of science and technology.
(c)It involves adoption of the modern scientific and technological
characteristics into the emerging patterns of modern nations.
(d)Standards of performance and achievements are to be accomplished by
slow but sure degrees.
(e)Willingness to initiate social reforms and to invest adequately on
education and communication are important for effecting modernization.
(f)Modernization cannot be affected without bringing about a radical
modification in the traditional value system.
(g)Wide gap between the elite and the mosses should be lessened.
(h)Organized national effort is a pre-requisite for modernization.
(i)It is not just acquisition of superficial traits but it involves development
of proper behavioural systems.
(j)Modernization advancement into the body of a developing nation but it
should be secured by building up a new generation of people who are
determined and motivated to operation in a modern society.
(7) Education as an instrument of Modernization:(i)Education and Modernization are closely linked.
(ii)The Education Commission 1964-66 says

The process of Modernization will be directly related to the pace of educational

advance and the one sure way to modernize quickly is to spread education to produce
educated and skilled citizens and train an adequate and competent intelligentsia.
Education for all target should be 100% literacy in India.
Expansion of education stress on adult education, open universities, correspondence
courses, etc.
Education should be flexible, practical life oriented.
Stress on development of science and technology.
Use of technology in class rooms.
Vocationalisation, scientific attitude, rational thinking and creativity should be given
importance to.
Social responsibility should be strengthened.
Value oriented education should be introduced.
(iii)For a nation to modernize itself the spread of education in rapid strides is
quite essential.
(iv) The cream of intelligentsia is but the product of educational churning.
(v)Education is another name for human resource development.
(vi)It produces the skilled personnel to occupy different positions in life who
would contribute for the growth of national wealth through their creative
abilities and productive efforts.
(vii)The pace of education serves an indication for the level of modernization a
nation has attained.
(viii)Education is the key that opens doors of modernization in various fields of
nations life like economic, industrial, technological and social fields.
(x)Modernization is the direct result of educational efforts is obvious.
Education is the powerful instrument that can wisely be exploited by the nation
to modernize itself at that shortest time possible.
Difference between modernization and Indianization
Indianization means to acquire or conform to the characteristics, culture, or usage of
Indians. It also means to bring under the cultural or political influence or control of
Modernization refers to process in which society goes through industrialization,
urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of
Modernization shows an evolutionary pattern, whereas Indianization does not.

Modernization means transformation of a society from a rural condition to a secular,

urban, and industrial one.
Indianization is restricted to India only, modernization takes place through out the
Indianization can lead to the progress or harm to the society, whereas modernization is
always beneficial to the society.
Indians give a lot of importance to family where as in a modern society, Individual is
very important.
Indians believe in superstitions and are tradition loving. Modernization stresses on
scientific thinking, open mindedness and change.
Problems of modernization in India
Poverty; Over population ; Illiteracy
Traditional and conservative people
Lack of integration in nation
Narrow religious beliefs

Sub-Unit-5.4: Social Stratification and Social mobility

Social Stratification:

Social stratification is the process by which individuals and groups are ranked
in a hierarchy of status.
As Raymond Murray defines, Social stratification is the horizontal division
of society into `higher and `lower social units.
Social stratification is based on unequal distribution of rights and privileges,
duties and responsibilities, social power and influences among the members of
a society.
According to Mayer, Social stratification is a system of differentiation which
includes a hierarchy of social positions whose occupants are treated as
superior or inferior relative to one another in socially important aspects.
Characteristics of social stratification:

It is social in nature.
It is ancient, i.e., existing since ancient times.

It exists in all societies in the world.

It is diverse in form economic, power, social evaluation, caste etc.
Criteria for stratification include: birth, wealth, occupation, polity and even
The basis for attaching different status for different individuals need not be
rational reasons may be superstitions, practices of the past etc.
Social stratification results in restrictions in social interactions.
Social stratification and Education:
1. Education and Social stratification are mutually related to each other in a two-fold
2. Education forms a cause of Social stratification; e.g., people with higher education
tend to get better employment and hence more income, compared less educated or
illiterates, leading stratification.
3. Social stratification determines the education of the members of a society. Poor
people cannot afford education, whereas rich get better education.
4. Education is the driving force of social mobility, which breaks the barriers of
5. Education contributes to reduction of Social stratification by means of (a) personality
development, (b) development of social awareness, (c) development of economic

Social Mobility:

Social mobility is the movement of a person or persons from one social status
to another Wallace and Wallace

Social mobility is the movement of person or persons from one social group to
another social group. Child F.

Types of social mobility: Horizontal social mobility and vertical social


Vertical mobility can take place in two ways: upward mobility and downward

Systems of social mobility: Open system and Closed system

Education is very important factor of social mobility.


Write the salient features of education of Vedic period
The Vedic or Aryan system of education was based on the authorization of society
.people are organized into four varnas they are Brahma, Kshatriya, Vysya &sudhra in
Vedic period the student life began with upanayana &the centre f learning was called
gurukula. The environment of gurukula contributed in the development of student.

Duties of student;-

It was the usual rule for the Brahmin to go begging for his teacher & gurukula.
It helps in the complete organization of personality &a deeper loyalty to the
gurukula system.
- Another duty f the student in the gurukula was to go to the forest cut &collect
fuel &fetch it to the gurukula for tending the sacred fire.
- A student had to quit his bed before sunrise before his teacher .If the sunrises
and he sleeps out of willful laziness, he had to mutter gayatri mantra &fast for
whole day.
- A student had to offer his prayer thrice a day.
- A student had to take regular bath everyday at the time of bath he had to
mutter the hymns.
- The student had to follow certain regulations in respect of dress they use
hamper silken & woolen clothes the dress was white & spotless.
- He should take food with due permission of guru.
- A student should lie on the bare ground and sleep on lower bed than that of his
- Age of student begins his education varied from time to time.
- The students uniform& equipment prescribed upanayana, ajina for Brahmins it
is a skin of blackbuck, kshatriya ajina it is a skin of spotted dear then the ajina
for is made up of goat.
Vasa are a lower garment made of fiber of alasi plant or kusa grass or karpas .This
dress should be woven or manufacture in the home of student. This dress is
manufacture in the home of student different caste use different vasa of different
colors .thus the student also required handle a danda for different caste use different
types of danda & mekhala.
Curriculum;During the Vedic period education centered on religion hence the curriculum is
dominated by the study of Vedas, Upanishads, puranas it includes literature grammar
puranas hethu vidya arts, crafts, dhanurvidya shabda vidya, silpa vidya, physical
education is there. The vidyas or the branches of knowledge were designed in such a
manner that it helped a brahmachari student to release from worldly bondage & obtain
highest knowledge for self realization.
Write the salient features of education of Buddhist period.
It is based on Vedic study of education.

The system of admission of student is almost similar to Brahmanic system.

Here the system is called as pabbaja.
The range of admission is 8 years after completion of 12 years education this
monk has to undergo the upasampada.
Upasampada means the arrival of the full status man of a bhikshu a full fledge
member of the order.
Upasampada first performed at the age of 20 of a which the monk was a
common teacher.
The teacher is called as upadhayaya or acharya.
The relationship between teacher and student is like a father and son.
The Buddhist monetory is open t all who accepted buddhis order except with
five procedures like Slave, Robbery, and Handicapped deptor.
Residential system of education is there it was institutionalized in biharas
which gradually developed into famous universities like Nalanda, Nagarjuna,
Dakshana etc.
Buddhism introduced into as education which is spread into biharas or mathas
were large no. of students and teacher live together as a kind of community.
The entire education system was controlled by monks they have both religious
and secular dimensions in the order to the primary monk of life.
Student begging bowl which was made of iron or clay student usually go to
the approved household which was carefully regulated important Buddhism of
student to help the sick student.
The religious life had a rope made of rags.
The rope is less than 8 inches less than the accepted inch.
Buddha preaches noble truths concerning sorrow.

The cause of sorrow the remedy the restriction of sorrow.


Nirvana or salvation this is ultimate goal of man.

Higher education is Religion, Philosophy, Surgery, and medicine Territory etc.
The study of Vedas also from a part of Curriculum as per the knowledge.

Write the salient features of education of Jain Period

In Jain Philosophy the monks have to go undergo rigorous practices/ observances
to make an individual with good character and conduct.

They spend their time throughout their life with all observances & ultimately
try to liberate the soul from bondage.
Jains train the individual / disciple with respect to their code of conduct.
To adopt their tritaratnas they have
Right faith(samjog-darsana)
Right knowledge(samjog-jnana)
Right conduct(samjog-aritra)
To attain good conduct five vows are to be adopted
To attain liberation from bondage I.e. to overcome passions like anger, pride,
infatuation, greed & so on.

- Liberalism in education should be maintained.

- To make the student self-reliant & self-restraint.

All preachings of jain triratnakaras / saints

Jain religion
Knowledge about world and spirit and matter
They follow some methods to practice the student imitation
Adopting all five vows
Practical empirical method
Individualized method
In jains the teacher have some qualities a model
Living exemplary life with all vows
Train rigorously to liberate the soul from bondage
Gurus are considered as gods
The students should follow absolutely all the five vows
To attain good conduct
They must be careful in all walks of life
Practice ten different dharma like non attachment
Forgiveness self restraint austerity sacrifice celibacy
Student respect the teachers and treat them as gods
Emulate the ideal character from their gurus
Aim at becoming like their gurus and liberate
From the bondage
They follow some discipline like self discipline self restraint

What are the aims of education in ancient India

System of education in Vedic period had two aims they are

Aihika i.e. preparation for the life in world

Amushmika I.e. preparation for the other world or moksha
In Vedic education it has two aims apara vidya & Para vidya
These an be restated as
Development of character
Development of academic & vocational skills for health and economic
- Values education
- Spiritual education
- In Vedic period education became centered on religion
Curriculum;In this curriculum was dominated by the study of Vedas & Vedic literature,
spiritual and moral lessons.

In Vedic period the children were introduced at the gurukula to first

shabdavidya, hethuvidya, silpavidya.
Physical education was also including.
They add some professional & technical subjects like ayurved or cikitsa-vidya,
astronomy, astrology, mathematics, artha- sastra etc.
The vidyas or the branches of knowledge were designed to release the
brahmachari student from worldly bondage and to obtain highest knowledge
for self-realizations.

In Jain period the gurus train the individuals / disciple with respect to their
code of conduct.
They adopt triratnas
Right faith(samyog-darsana)
Right knowledge(samjog-jnana)
Right conduct(samjog-caritra)
All preachings of jain tritankars / saints
Jain religion
Knowledge about world spirit & matter.
Gurus are considered as gods.
To follow five vows to attain good conduct of panchamavaratas.
They must be careful in all walks of life.
They practice ten different dharma like non-attachment, forgiveness, selfrestraint, austerity, sacrifice, celibacy.
Student respect the teachers & treat them as gods.
Emulate the ideal character from their gurus.
Aim at becoming like their gurus & liberate from the bondage.
Buddhism aims of education are;Buddha preaches noble truth concerning sorrow the cause of sorrow the
remedy the restriction of sorrow.
Curriculum;Nirvana or salvation this are ultimate goal of man
Education has encourage under two arts
(1)Primary education (2) mandatory education
Higher education is religion, philosophy, surgery, medicine, territory etc.
The study of Vedas also forms a part of curriculum as the pensive knowledge.
There are 19 arts in curriculum. it emphasis theoretical & practical aspects.
The important feature is use of common language of a medium of
Another aim of education was to teach the monks the law of Varna.
The prominent aim of education was the teaching of ahimsa.
This Philosophy of Buddhism preached that the spirit of love, non violence
towards life.
Give an Introduction to the medieval education

Medieval Indian education stressed the co-ordination of religious and nonreligious education. This is knows as Islamic system of education
In Islamic system of education.
Education was organized in two types of schools.
Maktab it is for primary education.
Madarsa a for higher education
In Islamic system the schools were attached to Mosques
Income of these schools is donations by king and rich people in the society.
The religious gurus called as mullahs and peshiimamas the acts as teachers.
In Muslim society they celebrate one function called Bismillah t the child after
completing of 4years and 4 months on the forth day.
The aim of education during Muslim period was imparting knowledge and the
propagation of Islam.
The aim of education was to make individuals religious minded, Muslim
education also aimed about material prosperity.

In maktab children were taught of recite some parts of qura which is

- They were not taught the meaning of what they learnt by rote.
- In madarasas children were taught writing calligraphy.
- They were imparted reading a primary arithmetic.
- Education was imparted first in Arabic script later they used to learn Persian
language and script.
- In madarsa religious education included the study Quan, Islamic Convections,
Islamic Laws and history etc.
- Military education was considered compulsory by the Muslim rules due to
constant war with Hindus.
- There is a slight difference between Hindus and Muslims in teaching methods
like recitation and discussions.
- In Muslim education system the students given only oral work in maktab.
- In higher education they gave importance to discussion and question answers
- There is no examinations system in Muslim education. It depends on teachers
will to send the pupil into higher class or not.
- If the student completes the knowledge in religion they give the degree of
- If he completes the education of logic they give the degree of Fazil.
- In Islamic system, the teacher was given more respect as the religious head,
but not as teacher.
- To maintain discipline they give different types of physical punishments so
that the student has to fear.
Education for Women:Womens education was almost totally neglected due to Purdah System.

Muslim education neglected Vernaculars. There was no place for all round
development of the personality.

Aims for Education:-

Two aims are there 1. Happy and Healthy life

2. Spiritual life.

- Reading Quran and other doing other persin works Calligraphy, Geometry,
Astronomy, Medicine etc.


Q: Write a note on WOODS DISPATCH [ 1854 ]
Ans :
In 1854 Charles Wood one among the directors of East India Company
,reported the progress of Indian Education upto 1854.He recommended the following
For systematic educational activities to be held, departments of education
were to be created for each province to which an inspector of public
instructions should be the head of the department
Education should be graded into stages

Medium of instruction should be English to those who are fluent and rest in
their own mother tongue
Government should emphasis on girl education and liberally grant in aids
for the higher education
To improve the standard of teaching teachers should be trained
Government should observe neutrality regarding religious instructions in
schools as different children comes from different backgrounds.
To expand the higher education ,three Universities were to be started in three
presiding towns of Madras ,Calcutta and Bombay
Woods recommendations were the landmarks in the fields of education in the
history of India
o Grant in aids were prepared for the first time
o Secondary education was tagged with universities through the matriculation
o Between 1854 and 58 departments of public instructions were created in three
presidencies ,thus this was the foundations of modern educational

Departments of education
Grant in aids
Introduction of examination


Ans: The general working of the Indian universities was not included in the
field of commissions enquiry . This commission of 1882 is popularly called as
Hunters commission .Sir Williams Hunter was the member of the viceroy executive
council .
This commission was introduced mainly for two reasons
As this dispatch was working since 28 years it needs to be evaluated
Government felt the necessity to satisfy the missionaries who agitated on
the grounds that government didnt act on the recommendations of the
This was the first commission which recommended bifurcation of courses ie general
and vocationalisation
This commission was appointed on Feb 1882 and submitted in march 1883
This commission paid special attention to primary education
Elementary education was imparted through two agencies

1 . Indigenous elementary schools and

2. New type of primary schools
Great efforts were put to introduce elementary education to the masses
Local funds should be exclusively be set apart for primary education only and
not to be claims by any provincial revenues
Primary education was to be introduced to districts and municipal boards .
Schools to be provided by training teachers .It should impart knowledge in the
language spoken by them (vernacular)
Primary examinations to be introduced in a simplified manner and should
implement practical subjects like agriculture , industrial ,arts mensuration,
accounts etc .
Grant in aids to be provided based on the results obtained by schools .
Regarding indigenous schools these schools deserves encouragements in the
official system of education
District and municipals board should be more sympathetic towards such
types of schools .
Payments to be given based on the results of the students .
Q:Write a note on HARTOG COMMITTEE [1928]
In 1928 the education committee was reorganize and the chairmen of this
committee was a Sir Philip Hartog.
Sir Philip put forward the following the recommendations
Wastage and stagnation were to eradicated from primary stage of
Firstly strengthen the existing higher education than to collaborate or
In vocational courses accountancy ,banking were to be introduced
To raise the standards of education services conditions were to be
improved ,teacher training program to be strengthened .
The curriculum should be based on the conditions of villages in which the
children read and write .
No actions were taken for his recommendations
The main defects of this committee were
o The incomplete structure of a large number of schools .
o The lack of qualified teachers
o Increase in population
Q: Write a note on SARGENT COMMITTEE
Ans : In 1944 ie few years before Indias independence Sir John Sargent an
educational advisor to the government of India prepared a scheme for education of
Indians and submitted a report to Central Advisory Board of Education thus the
recommendations by Sargent Committee are as follows

Every pupil within an average group of 6-14 years should be provided free and
compulsory education .
Separate and special attention should be provided to the physically challenged
persons .
Establishment of the university grants commission for uniformity in
university education in the country and also to abolish intermediate concept .
Free and periodical health checkups to be provided to the students .They
should also be provided with recreational facilities .
An educational specialist to be introduced such that he monitor the standards
of education .
Part time and full time schools to be introduced for teaching technical and
professional subjects.
Adult education to be introduced for general and vocational audio visual aids
to be used for imparting practical skills.
For benefits of brighter students curriculum should be divided into two parts
literary high school and vocational high school and pre primary to teach good
moral values .
For the success of this scheme a well capable trained teacher to be introduced
for every 30 students in pre-basic and junior basic school
Diversified courses to be introduced in schools
A national level autonomous body to be constituted to safeguard the students
of higher education
Work in the field of adult education should be started vigorously.
The consequences of sergeant report :-

1. The university grants commissions

The objectives of the university grants commission are as follows
To provide academic leadership to university
To keep the standards of education
2. All India council of technical education
This was to set up in 1946 ,the main objectives are
To reorganize courses from time to time
To relate industry to technical education
Write the recommendation of Sargent Committee(1944) and Hunter Commission
The recommendations of the Sargent committee are as follows :
Every pupil within an average group of 6-14 years should be provided free and
compulsory education .
Separate and special attention should be provided to the physically challenged
persons .
Establishment of the university grants commission for uniformity in
university education in the country and also to abolish intermediate concept .
Free and periodical health checkups to be provided to the students .They
should also be provided with recreational facilities .
An educational specialist to be introduced such that he monitor the standards
of education .

Part time and full time schools to be introduced for teaching technical and
professional subjects.
Adult education to be introduced for general and vocational audio visual aids
to be used for imparting practical skills.
For benefits of brighter students curriculum should be divided into two parts
literary high school and vocational high school and pre primary to teach good
moral values .
For the success of this scheme a well capable trained teacher to be introduced
for every 30 students in pre-basic and junior basic school
Diversified courses to be introduced in schools
A national level autonomous body to be constituted to safeguard the students
of higher education
Work in the field of adult education should be started vigorously.
Hunter commission
This was the first commission which recommended bifurcation of courses ie general
and vocationalisation
This commission was appointed on Feb 1882 and submitted in march 1883
This commission paid special attention to primary education
Elementary education was imparted through two agencies
1 . Indigenous elementary schools and
2. New type of primary schools
Recommendations of Hunter commission are as follows : Great efforts were put to introduce elementary education to the masses
Local funds should be exclusively be set apart for primary education only and
not to be claims by any provincial revenues
Primary education was to be introduced to districts and municipal boards .
Schools to be provided by training teachers .It should impart knowledge in the
language spoken by them (vernacular)
Primary examinations to be introduced in a simplified manner and should
implement practical subjects like agriculture , industrial ,arts mensuration,
accounts etc .
Grant in aids to be provided based on the results obtained by schools .
Regarding indigenous schools these schools deserves encouragements in the
official system of education
District and municipals board should be more sympathetic towards such
types of schools .
Payments to be given based on the results of the students .
Ans : After Independence India emerged as a sovereign democratic and republic state
,as the result the concept and goals of education were clearly defined for the nation ,so
a to give a new shape to our educational system
These commissions are known as follows

Dr .Radha Krishna Education Commission (1948)

Secondary Education commission (1952-53)
Indian Education Commission(1964-65)
This commission felt that the present system of education was defective in many ways
The prevailing system was theoretical without a practical the base .
The examination system was defective with regards to following fields of education
The commission suggested necessary improvements

The curriculum
The standard of teaching
Technical staff and their services conditions
The examination system and
Professional education which includes agriculture etc.


Ans This commissions report recommended four major goals keeping in view the
needs of democratic India
Development of democratic citizen ship
Improvement of vocational efficiency .
Development of the qualities for leadership and personality
It is necessary that the children future citizens of this great country must ,
acquire the high ideals of democracy . To achieve this end, there should be
development in their intellectual , moral and social qualities .The commission felt that
education should aim at developing the following qualities for building democratic
citizenship among the students
o CLEAR THINKING :Education can help them to develop a clear thinking and should
be in the position to accept the facts and reject falsehood
He should be able to express himself freely both in speech and
All healthy traditions of social justice can be laid down in
school life. They should be able to understand the social

They must come forward to serve the nation with the best of
their abilities .The children should be made to love their
country wholeheartedly .
A child should be taught that a man is a social being. Training
is essential both for his own wholesome development and the
good of society
o SPIRIT OF TOLERANCE :Education can cultivate in our young an open-mindedness
which would make them capable of blending the differences
and entertaining the ideas of others
Vocational efficiency is needed for economic development .Secondary
education must offer various opportunities for the young child .This can be done
when the children develop these qualities ;
An attitude to work : they must realize the dignity of life in
National prosperity is interlinked with increased production.
hence children should channelize their energies in productive
Promotion of technical skills and efficiency at all stages of
education .
To achieve these objectives courses should be diversified .A number of technical
institutions should be made available for them to join
3. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY :Firstly every child is born with a certain talent ,secondly the child should
be given training so that its interest are fully developed ,thirdly they can be able to
contribute to the development of their heritage .Importance to be given to subjects
like art ,craft, music etc at secondary school curriculum .
4. EDUCATION FOR LEADERSHIP :A genuine leadership is necessary in a democracy .The students can be
trained to perform the qualities of leadership which prepares other s to follow
.Leadership calls for higher standards of education where the students have deeper
sense of social issues and a clear understanding of various other issues
Q: Write a note on KOTHARI COMMISSION -1964-66
Ans : The scope of the commission was wider than the secondary education
commission (1952-53) and it reviewed the entire system of education
Prof.D.S.Kothari,Chairman of University Grants Commission, was appointed as
chairmen of this commission .This commission consisted of 17 members .

The major recommendations of the commission in respect of secondary

education are as follows :1) Education and national objectives
2) Fourfold task of reformation in education
3) Education and productivity
4) Education and social national integration
5) Education and modernization
6) Social moral and spiritual values
7) Vocational zing secondary education
8) School curriculum
9) Study of languages
10) Science based education
11) Work experience
12) Physical education
13) Teaching methods
14) School supervision
15) New pattern of education
Kothari didnt changed all the suggestion by Mudaliar commission but found some
faults in it ,which are as follows :-

the multipurpose scheme failed and as the result it resulted in wastage of

energy and funds
They didnt followed the national system of education as the result different
states followed different patterns
They considered eighth and ninth standard too young to choose their
vocational course
Considering these cases Kothari commission reorganize the pattern of
education as follows :An integrated school education for 10 years and to be implemented by all .
Which consisted of 7 years period of upper primary education ie 5+2 and 3
years of secondary education after that these 10 years will be followed by 2
year of intermediate course and finally 3 years of degree .This pattern was
implemented by AP Govt in the year 1968


Ans The national policy on education (1986) proposed the national curriculum
framework ,to derive a vision of national development .The POA (1992) elaborated it
by emphasizing relevance flexibility and quality through the following character tics/
features .
Perspective :
- Reducing the curriculum load as learning without burden.
- Ensuring quality education for all children .Strengthening the
national system in pluralistic society

Giving equal importance to all irrespective of its creed ,caste and

gender .

Learning and knowledge

- Holistic approach is used for treatment of learning development
-Active learning through experimental method
-Engaging the children with environment related projects
-The schooling years should provide the ways to organize the
content and process of knowledge
Curricular Areas ,School stages and Assessment Languages
- Knowledge should be constructed right from the elementary classes through
- senior secondary class
- English was also be made as a part and parcel of India languages
-Teaching of maths should e4nchance the childs ability to think and learn
-Access to quality maths education is the right of every child
-Science teaching should be placed in the wider context of childrens environment
to equip them with requisite knowledge and skills to enter the world of work .
- Awareness of environment concerns must permeate the entire school
curriculum .
Social Sciences:-

Interdisciplinary approaches promoting key national concerns such as gender,

justice, human rights and
Work :-

School curricula from the pre-primary stage to the senior secondary stage need
to be reconstructed to realize the pedagogic potential of work as a pedagogic
medium in knowledge acquisition developing values and multiple- skill

Awareness of their relevance to personal ,social economic and aesthetic needs

should be built among parents ,school authorities and administrators
Peace:- Peace education should form a component of teacher education.
Habitat and learning

Health and physical education are necessary for the overall development of
School and Classroom Environment

Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities and support for

planning a flexible daily schedule ,are critical for improved teacher
-A school culture that nurtures childrens identities as learners enhances
the potential and interest of each child

Reconceptualisation of learning resources in terms of:o Supplementary books ,workbooks, teachers, handbooks etc are based
on fresh thinking and new perspectives.
o Multimedia and ICT as sources for two-way interaction rather than
one-way reception .

Q:4 Write about National Policy Of Education on 1986

Ans :Education is dynamic in nature .It has passed from many ages and stages in the
process of evolution ,it is no end to it .Our country has reached to a development stage
of economic and technique .
In order to meet challenges and to enter the 21st century Govt of India in January
1985 announced a new policy in the field of education known as National Policy Of
Education though the man of today inherits the culture and sociology of their yester
years but the scientific ,technology economic and social frame will not be the same
.hence this policy was introduced to improve the quality of education in all directions
by making the benefits available to all people
The aims of NPE
The minister of HRD promised he would present in the Monsoon session a program
of action for NPE and according to this policy
- Education is very essential to all
- Education should goal at socialism ,secularism and democracy in our constitution
- Education should develop manpower for different economy levels
- The main aim of the NPE was Education is unique investment in present and future
- Common school system was recommended in this policy and if the child not
sound funds were provided to them
- To create awareness among people for protection of environment
- every pupil should be able to access the facilities for higher education
- 10+2+3 structure was accepted in all parts of the country
RECOMMENDATIONS OF NPE:The following are the recommendations of NPE for the reconstruction of education in
India .

Recommendation on education for equality

The ones who framed NPE realized there existed wide disparities in the
field of education and to remove them they suggested few options
Education for women equality
-In case of womens equality inspite of all the efforts made by the
educational system were not able to contribute on womens equality
-Made easy access to vocational sources in existing and emerging
-Major emphasis was laid on womens participation in vocational
technical and professional education at different levels
Education of Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes :-The central gave emphasis in the SC/ST educational development
for equalization with non SC/ST s
-The following measures were taken to educate the scheduled caste
-Incentives were given to families for the children to attend regular classes
-Pre Matric scholarship scheme was enjoyed by the childrens family
-Constant micro planning and verification to ensure the enrolment
,retention and successful completion of courses by SC students
- Recruitment of teachers from SC.
-Provision of facilities for SC students who stays in district headquarters .
-Constant innovation in finding new methods to increase the participation of
Measures for the Schedule tribes
Residential schools including Ashrams schools will be established on
large scale
-Anganwadis , non formal and adult education centers will be opened
on priority bases .
Minorities Education
- Greater attention will be paid to these education of these group on
the basis of equality and social justice these were allowed to
established and administer their own educationalist institutions.
Education of the Handicapped
- Their objective was to integrate the physically and mentally

handicapped with general community as equal partners

-The measures are as follows :-Where ever feasible education of children with motor handicap or
minor handicap there were common.
- Special schools were provided to severely handicapped children
- Adequate arrangement were made to give vocational training to the
disabled .
-Special teachers training program to be reoriented to deal with
special physically challenged pupils .
Adult Education
Adult literacy received special attention during the last ten years of
-The whole nation must pledge itself to the eradication of illiteracy
,the central and state governments are organizing mass media and
educational institution to diverse nature .The main aim is to provide
awareness among learners about the socio economic reality and the
possibilities of their change .

Primary education is different from secondary education .

Management of schools should be transferred to local native by without
lowering the standard of education .
Management should hike the fees in order to raise the funds .

Ans : Modified National Policy of Education states that education should have the
main aim for all for which it would help in the normal development of material and
According to POA 1992 education should contribute to national cohesion a scientific
temper and implements of Indian spirit ,thus furthering the goal of holes of secularism
,socialism and democracy
Education develops man power for different levels of the economy
The relation between economy and education:- education should give the ultimate
growth of national self reliance

POA -1992 also aims at developing a national system of education upto

a given level of universalization
It also gives stress on the educational opportunities early they didnt gave stress on
women education but now they are enhancing the reservation .
POA- Stress on all round development of the child .It gave stress on early childhood
care and education and recommendation day care centres and encouraged play
methods .
POA gave more emphasis on the following :elementary education to all
universal access and enrolment towards the education
universal retention of children upto 14 years of age
quality of education
gave more emphasis on vocalization of secondary education
Examination System
POA gave emphasis on qualitative improvement in the field of education .
It proposes continuous and comprehensive evaluation and gave more priority in
internal assessments
Introduction of semester system from the secondary stage in phase manner
using of grades in place of marks

Unit VII: State and Education

Sub-unit: 7.1: Democracy definition, meaning, process, types & role of education
Definition & meaning:
1. Democracy is a system of government by which political sovereignty is retained by
the people and exercised directly by citizens.
2. Democracy means rule of the people. Democracy involves open discussion, direct
voting, policy formation in all realms of social life.
1. Democracy is form of government: Govt. by the people, for the people, of the people.
2. It is a way of life and not a mere political arrangement.
3. Democratic approach in society consists of pursuation, argument and adjustment of
conflicting views. It is based on love, co-operation, consent and on-violence.
Types of democracy:
1. Direct democracy
2. Indirect democracy
Role of education:
1. Develops self-esteem and human dignity of the individual
2. Serves each individual with justice and provides equal opportunities for all.
3. Respects basic civil liberties and ensures them in practice.
4. Develops respect for and appreciation of talent, training, character and excellence in
all fields of human endeavor.
5. Ensures balanced attitude towards ones rights and duties.
Sub-unit: 7.2: Indian Constitution and Educational Provisions
1. The constitutional ideals of freedom, equality, fraternity and secularism included in
the Preamble provide a direction to Indian Education.

Freedom to choose profession of ones choice and pursue the education of


Every citizen can enroll for education in any educational institution

irrespective of race, religion, class, gender, language or region.

Education should develop in children mutual respect for all and sense of

No discrimination in educational process on the basis of religion.

2. The constitution has divided the duties and rights pertaining to education policies and
programs between the central and state governments and some are included as
common for both (concurrent list).
Educational provisions:
1. Free and compulsory primary education (Article 45)
2. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions (Articles 29 &
3. Education of socially and educationally backward classes (article 46)
4. Instruction in mother tongue (Article 350)
5. Promotion of Hindi (Article 351)
6. Education of women (Article 15 (3))

Sub-unit: 7.3: National Integration

Meaning & Definition:
1. National integration means unification of diverse linguistic, social, cultural, regional,
religious and political groups in a country.
2. It is the development of loyalty to the country as a whole which makes all Indians rise
above their personal and group interests.
3. Loyalty to the country, mutual understanding, tolerance, spirit of co-operation and coexistence are the essential requirements of national integration.
Factors of National Integration:
1. Factors that promoted National Integration:
- Geographical factors: India as a region by itself, predominantly agricultural
economy, spiritual bent of mind.
- Archaeological factors: Ancient Indian civilization as depicted in archaeological
- Historical factors: Indian history is a record of evolution of unique civilization of a
full-fledged nation.
- Cultural factors: Indian culture is ancient and preserved over ages despite several
foreign influences.
- Unity in diversity
2. Factors that disrupt National Integration:
- Language
- Religion
- Region
- Culture
- Caste
- Geographical conditions
- Food habits

Sub-unit 7.4 - Role of Education in National Integration:

1. National integration is one of the primary aims of education.
2. All the commissions on education since independence stressed the role of education
in National integration.
3. Integration of linguistic groups can be achieved by education through three-language
4. Education promotes appreciation of cultural diversity and understanding the need for
unity in diversity.
5. Education helps students to understand that regional and national development
depends on mutual co-operation.
6. Schools can promote internalization of national integration through practice in the
form of national festivals, scouts and guides programs, national and social service
programs etc.
7. Universities can conduct comparative studies of religion and organize of broad
cultural activities, literary activities, exhibitions and competitions on different aspects
of national importance at different levels.

Unit VIII: Child Rights Education;

Sub-Unit-8.1: Overview of Child Rights Convention
1. The child Rights Convention (CRC) was approved by UNO on 20th November 1989.
2. CRC is an international treaty that recognizes the human rights of chidren, defined as
persons up to the age of 18 years.
3. In 41 substantial articles, it establishes an international law that ensures the rights of
all children without discrimination regardless of age, sex, language, religion,
disability, birth or other status.
4. The rights enlisted under different articles are:
a) Inherent right to life
b) No capital punishment before the age of 18.
c) Liberty
d) Special rights in armed conflicts, wars etc.
e) Freedom of expression
f) Food and water
g) Fair trial.
Sub-Unit-8.2: Categories of Child Rights
1. Four categories of child rights:
(a) Right to survival, (b) Right to protection, (c) Right to development & (d) right to
2. Right to survival:
-Reduction in the mortality rate of children below 5 years by 2/3 by 2015.
- Formulation and implementation of childhood development policies in all the countries.
3. Right to protection:

Taking legislative, social, administrative and educational measures for

protection of refugees, protection from economic exploitation, protection
against narcotic drugs, protection against sexual exploitation, protection
against abduction and protection against cruelty and punishment.

4. Right to Development:

Rights of mentally or physically disabled child,

Right to highest standards of health,

Right to adequate standard of living,

Right to Education,

Right to development of personality.

5. Right to participation:

Right to express freely,

Freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds,

Freedom of thought,

Right to rest and leisure.

Sub-Unit-8.3: CRC and its implications to Education

1. Stress on quality of education throughout the world;
2. Goals:

Early childhood education to be expanded and improved.

Number of out of school children to be reduced.

Gender disparity in primary and secondary to be eliminated.

Quality of education to be improved.

3. Important Relevant articles of CRC:


Article 17: Access to national and international mass media for promotion of
social, spiritual, cultural development of child,

Article 28: Right to education: primary and secondary

Article 29: Education should be directed to development of (a) childs

personality, talents and abilities, (b) respect for human rights, (c) respect for
parents, cultural identity, language, values, national values, (d) preparation of
child for spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality, national unity, (e)
respect for natural environment etc.

4. The problems of drop-outs, minority children etc. are also considered in CRC.
Sub-unit: 8.4: Right to education act 2006:
1. An act to put into effect the right to free and compulsory educationof equitable
quality to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years was enacted in 2006, and is
known as Right to Education Act 2006.
2. Salient features of the Act are:
(a) Every child who has attained the age of 6 years shall have the right to participate in
full time elementary education and to complete it.

(b) A non-enrolled child in the age group 7 to 9 years has the right to be admitted to an
age-appropriate grade in a neighborhood school.
(c) Non-enrolled child in the age group of 9 to 14 years has the right to be provided
with special programs within neighborhood school.
(d) A child who, though enrolled, is not able to participate in elementary education, has
the right to be provided with suitable conditions to enable participation.
(e) No child shall be held back in any grade or expelled from a school until she
completes elementary education.


Sub-Unit-9.1: Economics : Meaning and Nature

1. Economics is described as the Oldest of Arts, Newest of Sciences, and the

Queen of all Social Sciences.
2. Economics is a science of wealth vitally and essentially related to all those
activities of human beings that are connected with production, consumption,
exchange and distribution of wealth. It is the science of wealth dealing with
human welfare. The importance of economics as a science can be appreciated
from the fact that a separate Nobel Prize has been instituted exclusively for
3. Economics deals with our wants, our efforts and our satisfaction with our
activities in the business of life. It is the science that studies human behavior
as a relationship between ends and scarce means. \\
4. Production, consumption, exchange and distribution constitute the basic
aspects of economics. It is concerned with land, labor, capital and
5. It explains theories, laws and principles connected with agriculture, trade,
banking, commerce, capital investment, manpower planning and everything
that concerns the economic life of the nation. It is concerned with all
materialistic aspects of human development.
Sub-Unit 9.2: Meaning and Scope of Economics of Education:
1. The importance of economics of education was recognized only after 1930
and it emerged as a discipline only after 1960.
2. The term Economics of Education was first used by Schultz in 1960.
3. Economics of education is the branch of economics concerned with human
welfare. It deals with unlimited human wants and the limited resources for
qualitative improvement of human beings. It is concerned with growth
combined with social justice.

Scope: Some important aspects of study in economics of education are:

1. Problems of educational finance

2. Effects of education on socio-economic and demographic variables

3. Effects of socio-economic factors on education
4. Economic aspects of wastage and stagnation in education
5. Problems of inequality in education
6. Educational planning
7. Impact of education on occupational structure of labour force
8. Education as investment and consumption
9. Economics of human resources
10. Education as an industry
11. Impact of education on international trade, etc.
12. Education is both consumption and investment

Sub-Unit-9.3: Education as a Human Capital

Capital is anything that involves costs but yields flow of income over time. Capital is
the basis for production of income.
Education as Human Capital
1. Education can be analyzed in terms of consumption or investment
2. Education can also be viewed as an investment in the future. That is,
expenditure on education may be considered as investment for increasing the
future flow of benefits. It is similar to the process of investment in physical
3. The process of educational expenditure over a period of time can thus be
considered as a process of investment in the future of an individual or
community, and hence treated as Human Capital.
4. Human capital is equally important, if not more important, as physical capital,
for economic development of a community.
5. The human capital can be developed through education, job training, medical
facilities, public health, nutrition, housing and social services.
6. Improvement of human capital leads to qualitative growth of manpower.

7. The educational investment, i.e., the human capital is measured by the cost of
Characteristics of human capital

Human capital has longer gestation period than physical capital.


Human capital is part of the individual; it cannot be sold, mortgaged or



Human capital appreciates in value up to a point in time.


No two units of human capital are similar.


Marginal returns may vary between persons with the same qualifications.


Human capital has non-economic attributes also.


Human capital is mobile and is subject to salary and status considerations.


Depreciation human capital is difficult to calculate.


Productivity of the human capital is influenced by the social and cultural


Sub-Unit-9.4: Education and Human resource development.

1. Education is instrumental in developing skilled manpower. Hence,
education becomes an investment in the present as well as in future.
2. The functions of education in HRD are:

To bring about awareness and attitudinal changes among the masses

as a starting point in the path of human resource development.

To provide basic skills and knowledge.

Development of highly qualified manpower.

Research and development in all fields of knowledge.

Unit X: Contemporary Issues in Education

Sub-unit: 10.2: International Understanding
Concept & Principles:
1. International understanding means the awareness of all human beings as members of
a single human society, irrespective of national boundaries and other differences.
2. It is the ability to observe critically and objectively and appraise the conduct of men
everywhere irrespective of the nationality or culture to which one belongs.
3. The main objective of International understanding is living together peacefully.
Peaceful co-existence implies removal of tensions between nations.
4. Another objective building up understanding through knowledge and mutual
5. Creatively striving together leads to oneness of mankind.
Education for peace:
1. Education is a powerful tool for developing International understanding.
2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has stated that education shall promote
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups.
3. International understanding can be developed by education through

designing suitable curricula,

organizing extra-curricular activities,

arranging international exchange programs for students and teachers etc.

4. Teacher represents a vital factor for inculcating international understanding in

Sub-unit: 10.3: Delors report: Four pillars of Education
Delors report:
1. The report titled LEARNING: THE TREASURE WITHIN is a document prepared
for the UNESCO by the International Commission on education for the Twenty-First
century, submitted by Jacques Delor who was the chairman of the commission.
2. Salient features:

Local community to a world society.

Social cohesion to democratic participation.

Economic growth to human development.

3. Local community to a world society:

(a) World-wide inter-dependence and globalization extending well beyond the

fields of education and culture.
(b) Education should provide access to knowledge for all and help people to
understand the world and to understand others.
4. Social cohesion to democratic participation:
(a) Socialization of individuals should not clash with personal development.
(b) Education should foster the desire to live together.
(c) Schools must contribute to the advancement and integration of minority groups.
(d) Democracy education for conscious and active citizenship.
(e) Education for cultural background.
5. Economic growth to human development:

Effects of technical progress should change both private and community life.

New links between educational policy and development policy to strengthen the
base of knowledge and skills.

Four Pillars of Education:,

1. Learning to know
2. Learning to do
3. Learning to live together
4. Learning to be
Sub-unit: 10.4: Globalization Meaning, definition, process and implications to
Meaning, definition and process:

Globalization means expansion of economic activities across political boundaries of

nation states.


It is the process of increasing economic openness and growing economic interdependence between countries in the world.


Characteristics of globalization:

Rapid growth in international financial transactions,

Fast growth in trade among multinational corporations,

Emergence of global markets,

Propagation of technologies and ideas through rapid expansion of globalised

transportation and communication systems.

Implications to education:
1. impact of globalization on aims of education:

developing the idea of global family through love of humanity, non-violence and
welfare of all people,

training for world citizenship.

2. impact on curriculum:

Learning of modern and emerging sciences,

Introduction of environmental education.

3. Impact on methods of teaching and learning:


Internet as `Global teacher,

Teleconferencing and video-conferencing,

Distance education.

4. Impact on the role of teacher:


rapidly changing relationship between teacher and student,

teacher as facilitator of learning.