Anda di halaman 1dari 89

CONTRASTIVE & ERROR ANALYSIS

BLS 4033

GROUP ASSIGNMENT 2

ERROR ANALYSIS: SURFACE STRATEGY TAXANOMY

PREPARED FOR:
SIR AHMAD TAUFIK HIDAYAH B. ABDULLAH

PREPARED BY:

NUR IZZATI BT ROZMAN (BBA11030454)


MOHD HILMI B CHE AHAMAD (BBA11030052)
MOHD AMIN B ZOLL (BBA11030207)
AMIRUL AKMAL B NOR YUSRE (BBA11029801)
SUFIAN B SUHAIMI (BBA11030124)
MOHD AZIZUL HAKIM BIN MOHD NOR (BBA11030516)

DATE OF SUBMISSION:
9th DECEMBER 2014

72 | P a g e

THIS PAPER IS WRITTEN TO FULLFIL THE COURSE REQUIREMENT FOR BLS 4033CONTRASTIVE AND ERROR ANALYSIS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Page
Table of Contents
i
Abstract
ii
List of Figures/Tables/Illustration
iii
1.0)
INTRODUCTION
...1
1.1) Background of
Study.1
1.1.1. The definition of Error Analysis
1.1.2. Previous Study in Error Analysis
1.1.3. Recognition of Error and Mistake
1.1.4. Issue in Determining the Learners Error
1.2) Statement of Problem..
5
1.3) Significance of Study.
5
2.0)

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1) Theoretical Foundation of Error
Analysis6
2.1.1. Interlanguage Theory
2.1.2. Interference Theory
2.2) Theoretical Framework in Analyzing
Error...8
2.2.1. Error Analysis Procedure
2.2.2. Surface Strategy Taxonomy
73 | P a g e

3.0)

METHODOLOGY.

....13
3.1) Error Analysis Procedure
3.1.1. Choosing the Language Corpus
3.1.2. Identifying Error
3.1.3. Classifying Error
3.1.4. Explaining Error
3.1.5. Evaluating Error
4.0) FINDING.
....15
4.1) Complete Transcription of the
Interview....15
4.2) Analysis of the
Transcription..30
4.3) Calculation on the Percentage of Recurring
5.0)

Error..72
CONCLUSION....

..88
6.0)

RECOMMENDATION....

.89
7.0)

REFERENCES

.92
8.0)

APPENDICES.

94

74 | P a g e

ABSTRACT
Unawareness on the particular system or rule exists in English languages component
often happen to the learner of language particularly in the process of acquiring the second
language. Repetitive unconscious mistakes deemed as an error caused by the unacquainted to
the language rules often regarded as one of the integral part of language learning. There are
two major approaches to the study of learners errors, namely contrastive analysis and error
analysis. Commonly recognized as branches of Applied Linguistic Science, Error analysis
cannot be studied properly without touching upon the notion of Contrastive analysis. This paper
observes in detail the three components of error theories: Error analysis and Interlanguage
theory and Interference Effect and the frequency of errors make by the student .Using Error
Analysis Procedure developed by S.P Corder, the procedures of error analysis were conducted
by examining the learners output on spoken utterances which later analyzed further using
Dulay et al.s (1982) Surface Strategy Taxonomy. The verbatim analysis of the spoken sample
indicates higher frequency of learners errors are made frequently on Omission (44.54%),
followed by Addition (21.01%), Misordering (17.65%) and lastly Misinformation (16.8%).
Index Terms - Error, Error Analysis, Interlanguage, Interference and Surface Strategy
Taxonomy

75 | P a g e

List of Figures/Tables/Illustration:

1.0)

TABLE 1: 5 Fossilization Process of Interlanguage (adapted from Selinker 1972)


TABLE 2: Positive and Negative Transfer (Adapted from Khansir,2012)
TABLE 3: Error Analysis Procedure by S.P Corder
TABLE 4: Detailed description on Surface Strategy Taxonomy
TABLE 5: Examples of Error Committed by Learner
TABLE 6: Full Analysis of Transcribed Interview
TABLE 7: Total Percentages of Error Committed by Learner
TABLE 8: Percentage of Error Occurrences for Element in Simple Addition
TABLE 9: Percentage of Error Occurrences for Misordering Error
TABLE 10: Percentage of Error Occurrences in Omission Error
TABLE 11: Percentage of Error Occurrences in Misinformation Error
TABLE 12: Error Occurrences in Addition
TABLE 13: Error Occurrences in Misinformation
TABLE 14: Error Occurrences in Misordering
TABLE 15: Error Occurrences in Omission

INTRODUCTION
76 | P a g e

Common popular belief about learning the second language would be the production of
many erroneous form of language structure made by second language learner that in fact,
would never be produced by the native people of the language. This belief somehow constitutes
the conviction in the second language attitude which later integrated and embedded further into
some of the theoretical concepts in Second Language Learning.
In order to form a better concept of understand on how learners actually acquiring their
second language, current focus on modern teaching are now based on placing the higher
important in the realization of errors committed by the learners both in spoken and written
respectively. The study of error are now commonly regards as the part of the language
learnings investigation process to help second language learner in assessing the difficulties of
the language and implementing strategic solution based on several issue and challenges faced
by student in learning the second language.

1.1)

Background of Study
Commonly recognized as branches of Applied Linguistics Science which primarily

emerged in the sixties, Error Analysis served as a feedback to Contrastive Analysis Theory
which considered native language interference as the major source of errors in second
language learning. Applied linguistic is commonly defined as the discipline represents an effort
to find practical applications for modern scientific linguistics (Mackey 1965). It is the study
about the language, ways it is learned and how the language itself is further utilized either to
achieve some specific purposes or to solve some a real world problem (Schmitt and Murcia,
2002). Contrastively, in depth studies on error analysis however reveal that learner errors are
not only caused by the interference from learners native language but implicitly implied the
existence of some universal strategies.
1.1.1) The definition of Error Analysis
According to Corder in 1981, error analysis can be defined as the study and analysis of
the errors made by second and foreign language learners (Corder, 1981). Alternatively, the
field of error analysis accordingly to another scholar also may be defined as dealing with the
differences between the way people learning a language speak and the way adult native
speakers of the language use the language (Richard,1971). Both definition primarily concerned
77 | P a g e

about the distinction of rules exist between two languages and how the second language
learner face difficulties in discerning the distinctive rules to be applied differently in the similar
context of utterances and writing purposes. Erdogan later summarized the importance of those
definitions and scope of error analysis as method in which the finding of theoretical error
analysis may contribute to the organization of the remedial courses, devising appropriate
materials for teaching practice and formulating effective learning strategies for both learners and
language instructors respectively (Erdogan, 2005).
The leading concept of error analysis is to study the learners error trailed after the
system operating within the learner in which being observed, analyzed and further classified
beforehand (Brown, 1980). In examining second and foreign language in particular, error
analysis plays an important role in the language acquisition study in general since it is
fundamental requirement for every language instructor to fully aware on their students pattern
of recurring errors in order to reduce or to evade those errors from being repeated. Susanti
(2008) further acknowledged the conceptual framework of the error analysis method by stating
that student cannot learn in the class without knowing an error is made, either by him or by
somebody else. This view further elucidates the significance of errors made by the student in
the process of learning the language. Additionally, Corder (1987) also optimistically agree that
errors play a significant roles in informing the teacher on the learners progress and what still
left for him to be learnt accordingly to the learners goal in acquiring the second language
(Corder 1987 as cited in Erdogan 2005).

1.1.2) Previous Study in Error Analysis


There are many studies already being conducted in the field of the applied error analysis
especially in the beginning of 1983 up until now. Smithies and Holzknechts work on error
analysis dealt with the study on error committed in written English materials by tertiary level
student in Papua New Guinea in 1983. The entire student received proper English education for
the last ten years starting in primary school and evidently spoke 212 different mother tongues.
The wide percentage of errors that recorded comprised of extensive range of errors from
articles (11.37%), prepositions (10.6%) and verb form (10.5%) including omission and addition.

78 | P a g e

Recent study on error analysis by Gustinefa in 2007 dealt with an errors made by the
10th grade student in Islamic School in Tangerang. The corpus taken into account was the
written journal entries and the analysis was based on the error made on the language
components that classified further into addition, omission, substitution and ordering. The result
of the analysis indicates that substitution errors are the most made by the student constitutes
around 39.5% of the whole percentage followed by the omission errors (28.5%) and additional
errors (18.4%).
Prior to the research conducted in both studies, it can be further concluded that large
portion of errors committed by the student learning English as their second language are largely
caused by the intralingual transfer in which caused typically by overgeneralization, simplication,
and incompetency in the learners knowledge of English grammatical rules. Both of the work can
be utilized effectively by the teachers in upgrading certain aspect in their classroom teaching
process based on the hint on how far the learners already improving their skill supported by the
presented evidence.
1.1.3) Recognition of Error and Mistake
In error analysis, there are two terms referring to the different thing in which the first
indicates to the systematic and consistent deviance while the second suggesting the deviation
due to the performance factors. The explanations provided denote the definition of an error and
mistake respectively (Corder, 1981). Errors characterized the learners linguistic system at a
given stage of learning while mistake are normally irregular and can be readily corrected by the
learner once the attention is drawn to them.
The major distinction between those two are distinguishable in the level of learners
competency and performance level in which arise due to the imperfect competence and
performance in the target language. Errors are usually produced by the learners who do not yet
fully comprehend the command rules of institutionalized language system in the process of
encoding and articulating speech. Contrastively, mistakes are characterized by the similar
occurrences in the performance under the heightened frequency of certain psychological
conditions like increase in stress, indecision and fatigue.

79 | P a g e

1.1.4) Issue in Determining the Learners Error


Errors and mistakes are the two different things that characterized by the several distinct
characteristic altogether. Analyzing the mistake committed by the learners in their either spoken
utterances or the written materials cannot be easily presumed as an error. Several researchers
in the late 1960 and early 1970s pointed that language of second language learners is
systematic and that learner errors are not random mistakes but evidence of rule-governed
behavior (Selinker, 1972). In general, it is not an easy task for the sentences to be judged as
free from errors because even a perfectly well-formed sentence can be erroneous in context.
Even though the sentences are well formed, free from any omission, addition, wrong
selection and misordering, there is no guarantee of the absent of errors. The two main criteria
for the sentences to be judged as free from errors when they fulfill two of these criteria which
are acceptable and appropriate. Acceptable in the sense of the sentence indicate the original
meaning of what the speaker intended to say while appropriate can be achieved via the non
ambiguous sentences.
Error can be caused by many factors, internally and externally. Lack of competency in
the target language and grammatical mastery of the language is one of the major factors. Some
redundant pattern involved in the construction of the language structure is mainly influenced by
the learners mother tongue. Another factor that might contributes to the errors committed by the
students are stemmed from the usage of loan word extensively adopted by the media to
illustrate certain concept, idea and notion that is not currently available in the learners first
language.
The fact that English is deemed as the flourishing language comprises of the
linguistically complex rules and multifaceted structure served as the intrinsic difficulties for the
second language learner in learning the language successfully. Overgeneralization also often
takes place when the student mistakenly creates a deviant structure based on the presumption
on the basis of his experience of other structures in the target language. In addition, lack of
exposure to target language, poor access to the educational materials together with the nonconducive environment for the student to thrive in also serve as the external factors that
influence the learner to commit errors in the target language Invalid source specified.
.

80 | P a g e

1.2) Statement of Problem


In learning second language, learner often challenged by the certain incompetency in conveying
their language production be it spoken or written without having to be laced by any trace of
erroneous error. This is deemed impossible since learners not only cognitively threaten by the
unconscious error made repetitively but also by the type of mistakes caused by the learners
incapability in utilizing the known language system correctly. A method that able to indicate
which phase the learners are currently in and the difficulties faced by the learner in that
particular stage are crucial and significant to help finding ways to solve the learners problem on
acquiring the ideal second language components effectively.
1.3) Significant of Study
The study that has been conducted using Surface Strategy Taxonomy (Dulay, Burt and
Krashen, 1982) allowed us to discover the major errors that are committed by students of
University Sultan Zainal Abidin. With this, the error are narrowed down and tackled right at the
centre. It is important to do this as there are various errors that can be detected and without
being able to know which one is which, the research will be too wide to be carried out. Not just
that, it also serve an indicators of students level of English proficiency. Therefore, with this
study, we can aim at the heart of the problem and take swift control of the situation.
Secondly, the study makes it possible for researchers and lecturers alike on improvise
on the current teaching materials and methods. From the study, weakness of students can be
measured as well as their ability to use English correctly. Henceforth using that as a second
starting line, lecturers are able to revise their teaching, implementing the appropriate methods
as well as using the suitable materials in classes.
Lastly, this study will open a new doorway in creating a new teaching method in
approach to solve the problem at hand. This step is important as to give greater impact in
increasing students English proficiency. The new steps implemented will be focusing on
empowering students oral abilities to speak fluently and eliminating errors from their speech.
This is important to comply with the universitys aims to create graduates that are multi-capable
and increasing their marketability.

81 | P a g e

2.0)

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1)
Theoretical Foundation of Error Analysis

2.1.1

Interlanguage Theory
According to the Second Language Acquisition theory, learners build up a system for

themselves which is different in some ways from their first language and second language
systems, which are called Interlanguage. The concept of Interlanguage was formerly suggested
by Selinker in 1972 aimed to draw learners attention to the possibility that while learning second
language, a learner may develop separate internalized mental grammar that characterized as
distinct language variety or system with its own particular characteristics and rules differs from
both his/her mother tongue and the target language.
Interlanguage typically characterized by the set of linguistic rules which can further
generate novel utterances and according to Ellis (1990), very importance in providing the
explanation for for how both children and adults acquire a second language (Ellis, 1990).
Interlanguage productions typically have the characteristic of language that hardly conform to
the general expectation on what native speakers of the target language usually produce, not an
fixed translation of native language utterances, spoken utterances not randomly produced and
interlanguage usually spoken either by adults or by children when second language acquisition
is not simultaneous acquired with the first language (Tarone, 1976).
Selinker in 1972 further explore the Interlanguage impact on the second language
learning and proposed the 5 fossilization processes that indicated the learners tendency to stop
developing their interlanguage grammar in the direction of the target language. The 5
fossilization processes are as follow:
Fossilization Process
Language Transfer

Criteria
Sometimes rules and subsystems of the Interlanguage may

Transfer of Training

result from transfer from the first language.


Some elements of the Interlanguage may result from specific
features of the training process used to teach the second

Strategies of Second

language.
Some elements of the Interlanguage may result from a

Language Learning
Strategies of Second

specific approach to the material to be learned.


Some elements of the Interlanguage may result from specific

Language Communication

ways people learn to communicate with native speakers of the


target language.
82 | P a g e

Overgeneralization of the

Some elements of the Interlanguage may be the product of

Target Language Linguistic

overgeneralization of the rules and semantic features of the

Materials

target language.

TABLE 1: 5 Fossilization Process of Interlanguage (adapted from Selinker 1972)

2.1.2) Interference of First language (L1) into Second Language (L2)


Behaviorist learning theory asserts that old habits contribute in the way of learning new
habits and thus if taken into context, individual who learn many languages tend to transfer the
realization device from his first language into the second language prior to the cognitive notion
that the first and second language share a similar meaning but failed to discern that it should be
expressed in different ways (Ellis, 1990). Smooth acquisition of the second language often be
interfered by the first language grammar which already being programmed inside ones
individual mind prior to the learning process that take place previously (Abdullah, 2013).
Bose (2005) mentioned that there are two types of transfer between mother tongue and
target language which served as the reasons that explained errors made by the learner in both
written and oral construction which are negative and positive transfer (Khansir, 2012).
Type of Transfer
Positive Transfer

Explanation
The forms between the mother tongue and the target

Negative Transfer

language is similar
The forms of the target language and those of the learner's
mother tongue are different from each other

TABLE 2: Positive and Negative Transfer (Adapted from Khansir,2012)

2.2)

Theoretical Framework in Analyzing Error

2.2.1)

S.P Corders Error Analysis Procedure

83 | P a g e

Error Analysis Procedure have been develop by S.P Corder back in the year 1974 commenting
on the errors that can be classified through a comparison process in which similar to the
process involved in the contrastive analysis procedures. Error analysis is considered as a 5
staged procedures consist of several stages. The concept are thoroughly based on the original
erroneous utterance and later compared with the constructed one but exclusively in term of the
linguistic categories such as error in phonology, morphology, syntax and semantic entirely
based on a range of models.
The procedures can be summarized in the 5 staged procedures as being illustrated in
the figures below:
PROCEDUR

STAGE

DESCRIPTION

E
1
Choosing the language
corpus

2
Identifying error in the
corpus
3

Decide on the size of sample


Decide on the medium of sample taken:

spoken (orally) or written (writing)


Decide the homogeneity of the sample :
background, age, type of education &

location
There must be a difference between

errors and mistake


Rather tedious to identify
Only occurring errors are identified for

further process/procedure
Every
error
committed
respondents

will

be

by

classified

the
in

accordance with grammatical aspects:


Classifying Error

phonology,

morphology,

syntax

and

semantics.
More focus and emphasis are on:
morphological and syntactical aspects

Explaining Error

of the English language.


An attempt is made to identify the

causes of errors :
Interlingual errors: errors are caused by

mother tongue interference.


Intralingual and developmental errors:

84 | P a g e

errors occur during the learning process


of the L2 at a stage when the learners
5
Evaluating Error

have not really acquired the knowledge.


Involves in assessing the seriousness of

each error.
This step is made to take principled

teaching decisions.
Error evaluation is necessary only if the
purpose

of

the

error

analysis

is

pedagogic

TABLE 3: Error Analysis Procedure by S.P Corder

2.2.2) Surface Strategy Taxonomy (Dulay, Burt and Krashen, 1982)


Surface Strategy Taxanomy proposed by Dulay, Burt and Krashen in 1982 is a taxonomy
developed in analyzing error made by the learners which consist of several alternatives for error
classification as a result of comparative categorization and communicative effect taxonomy
(Dulay, Burt and Krashen, 1982). This taxonomy divides learner errors into four categories
which are Omission, Addition, Misinformation and Misordering. Classifying errors using the
surface strategy taxonomy is very practical since it can physically highlight the cognitive process
underlying learners reconstruction of the mother tongue and target language. In addition, this
taxonomy also emphasizing that errors are inevitable since the learner are actively progressing
towards producing the target language while utilizing their temporary principle in the former
language. Below is the detailed description of each category presented in the surface strategy
taxonomy.
CATEGORY
Omission

Addition

DESCRIPTION
Refers to the absence of

EXAMPLE
Why do you

EXPLANATION
Missing
of

an item which must be

always look (at)

preposition at in

present in a well-formed

me?

the sentences

utterance.
The presence of an extra
item which must not be

TYPE
-

Double

We

marking
Regularizatio

(about)

discuss
our

inclusion

of

preposition

85 | P a g e

present in a well formed


utterance is
characteristic

for

n
Simple

homework

about

in

the

sentence

addition

Misinformatio

additions
Refers to the use of the

wrong form of the

Regularizatio

by

morpheme or structure

handle

I did this

Archi Form
Alternating
Form

Misordering

The missing of

spin

the

-ing form

Instead of:
I did this by
spinning

the

handle
Whom did you

prepositions are

sent the letter?

incorrectly
placed

Instead of:
To whom did
you send the
letter?

TABLE 4: Detailed description on Surface Strategy Taxonomy

The table below indicates several types of error that frequently omitted by the learners in
producing utterances as well as in written form.

CATEGORY

TYPICAL ERROR

EXAMPLE
-s

Noun and verb inflection

-ed
-ing

86 | P a g e

A
Article

And
The
is

Omission
Verb auxiliaries

will
Can
may
In

Preposition

On
Of

Regularization

Regular plural (-s)

Mouses

Past tense marker (- Goed

Addition

ed)
Double marking

He didnt went to Kuala Lumpur


She doesnt knows your name
The birds doesnt live in the water

Simple addition
Misinformation
Misordering

Regularization
Archi form
Alternating form
Marked by miss-ordering

We stay in over there


runned for run
that houses are theirs
this cats
I dont remember what is her name

for a morpheme or a Instead of : I dont know what her name is


group of morphemes in
the sentence

What your mother is doing?


Instead of: What is your mother doing?

TABLE 5: Examples of Error Committed by Learner

87 | P a g e

3.0)

METHODOLOGY

3.1) Error Analysis Procedure


3.1.1) Choosing the Language Corpus
The size of the sample population taken for the corpus involved 5 undergraduate
students from two faculties which is Faculty of Law and International Relation and Faculty of
Islamic Contemporary respectively. All the female respondents consisting of four Malay and one
Indian are currently the third year Unisza student majoring in the Bachelor of Law, Bachelor of
Dakwah and Bachelor of Shariah.

The samples of the corpus are taken using the Oral

Discourse Completion Task (ODCT) via the interview session.


The group interview was conducted with 5 interviewees together with 3 interviewers and
the corpus sample is tape-recorded for the analysis purposes and further references. The 29
minutes and 36 seconds record was then fully transcribed into written discourse consist of 3701
88 | P a g e

words altogether. In order to elicit an oral response from the interviewer, a set of semi-structured
question was prepared prior to the interview session. The questions revolved around the
general topic on student life and consist of 12 questions altogether. The duration taken for the
one-shot interview was about 29 minutes and 36 seconds and fully conducted in Uniszas
Library.
3.1.2) Identifying Error in the Corpus
In order to differentiate between the errors and mistakes made by the student, we
constantly calculated the percentage of recurring mistake produced by the interviewee. Mistake
that happen due to the slips of tongue ( save -> cave) and slip of the thought (messing->
mesmerizing) are not taken into account. Please refer to the table in the Analysis of the
Findings Chapter for more details.
3.1.3) Classifying Error
All the error committed by the students is classified accordingly using the Surface
Strategy Taxonomy by Dulay, Burt and Krashen. The errors are classified accordingly to the
types of mistake made that largely involved omission, addition, misinformation and misordering.
Please refer to the table in the Analysis of the Findings Chapter for more details.

3.1.4) Explaining Error


The errors committed are further explained in details and the corrections are offered
accordingly to their verbatim sentence. Some errors are caused by the learners incompetency
in the second languages rule and knowledge while others are caused by the positive and
negative transfer from first language into their target language. Such transfer that also called as
Interference deals with the underlying cognitive knowledge that controls the learner production
of language formation.
3.1.5) Evaluating Error
The seriousness of each errors made by the student are fully assessed in order to
familiarized and exposed the teacher toward the effective principles to be taken in the future
solidly based on the learners competency and current performance in the language. The

89 | P a g e

recommendations for the strategic teaching methods are later were provided in the
recommendation section.

4.0) FINDINGS
4.1) Complete Transcription of the Interview

DURATION TAKEN: 29 min 36 second


WORD TRANSCRIBED: 3701 words
INTERVIEWER:
1. Muhd Hilmi Che Ahamad (Bach of English with Communication)
2. Nur Izzati bt Rozman (Bach of English with Communication)
3. Mohd Amirul Akmal bin Nor Yusre (Bach of English with Communication)
90 | P a g e

NAME OF PARTICIPANTS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Keerthana Rajendran -Faculty of Law and Internal Relation (Bach of Law with Honour)
Wan Raihanah bt Wan Mohammad- Faculty of Islamic Contemporary ( Bach of Dakwah)
Siti Sarah bt Mohd. Zubir- Faculty of Islamic Contemporary (Bach of Dakwah)
Ku Nur Hafizah Ku Suhair- Faculty of Islamic Contemporary (Bach of Shariah)
Wan Nur Amanina bt Wan Mohd Sharif- Faculty of Islamic Contemporary (Bach of
Shariah)

(A) Introductory Remark


Hilmi: Right, Bismillahhirrahmannirrahhim, Assalamualaikum. First of all thank you you guys for
participating in our~ inaudible emm.. first of all we are from Bachelor of English student, we are
currently in semester seven doing research pertaining the error in er.. speaking er.. so basically
can we first (1) could you guys please first introduce yourself. Right, so we get from the right
here
KIthana: introduce myself [ hilmi: introduce yourself] my name is kithana,(1) errr .. Im from
Klang, Selangor and Im a law student second year
Hilmi: ok
Aisyah: my name is aisyah [cough] Im from Terengganu, I study in inaudible
Hana: ok my name inaudible hana. Err..(1.2) from Besut, Terengganu. (1.2)And study usuluddin
91 | P a g e

Nor: ok my name is tengku norhafizan binti shari. Im from Kelantan. Erm.. my course is dakwah
(1) Im <X second X> years
Nina: my name is nina, im from Kelantan. My course is dakwah [hilmi: dakwah]
(B) Latest Issue in Unisza
Hilmi: so if I could recap again and you you are from what faculty? [kithana : law] law faculty,
FKI, (1) the same [nor: we all] FKI, FKI, alright. Erm (bg cough) major question over here, are
you guys happy studying in unisza?
Nor: of course ^ sigh
Aisyah: of course yes
Nor: ermm.. yes
Hilmi: you
Nina: of course
Kithana: of course no
HIlmi: of course no. (laugh) @ ok of course no, that theres theres an issue over here. Eh why
is that?
Kithana: because~ im from Klang and the lifestyle is totally different [hilmi: hmm] and I cant
adopt this situation. First is I like to shopping (bg laugh). There are no shopping mall at all and
so proper with the dress code, cannot wear this type of dress, cannot wear that type of dress,
and cannot like Indians we normally like very close to all the Chinese you know talk to them
guys sitting together to eat. In Klang its normal, we are friends, nothing between us. But here, at
night, we cannot sit together or do assignment also, nothing is there. See thats the problem in
unisza, its like this
Izzati: so~ thats one of the issue? [Kithana: yeah] that make you felt... disappointed
Kithana: and another thing its a lot [Izzati:ok]
Hilmi: you are done? So you guys over here say you guys are happy studying in unisza :long
silence: anyone? Perhaps you?

92 | P a g e

Akmal: like you can meet new friends or you got the course that you want [many: yes][izzati:
like the environment]
Nor: near, <x near x> to my [izzati: hometown] yes hometown
Izzati: you are from Kelantan right ? [nor: Kelantan]
Hilmi:then so we went to the second question. Do you guys aware of any issue that happen in
unisza right now?
Kithana: yes, PRK
Hilmi: we got PRK. How about nina?
Nina: flood. [nor: flood] [hilmi: flood?]
Aisyah: err.. same hhh @ [hilmi: same with you]
Hana; err.. flood [Akmal: nina right there bg laugh]
Hilmi: right, prk versus flood. Ok erm .. could you please describe about the issue what the prk,
what is it about.
Kithana: ok, prk is of course everywhere got pembangkang and opposition and it was like I
didnt think that this same current issue will happen in unisza too. And those student if the hepa
know this student is from opposition, they will try their best to cancel their name [hilmi: hmm]
and Im one of the victim
Hilmi: so basically you are affected by the issue right
Kithana: yes, a lot
Akmal: how about you guys? Like [hilmi :about the flood] about the flood
Nor: ehem, I cannot attend to class, cant go % anywhere [hilmi: hmm] just aa... just just stay at
hostel
Akmal: how about you guys?
Hilmi: what do you think about the flood is it [Akmal: is it bad] bad

93 | P a g e

Hana: hhhs @ [hilmi: how bad is it?] so bad because aa we live err [hilmi: outside?]
outside yea, from unisza, so--- hard to come to unisza bg laugh [izzati: difficult] yes
Hilmi: so erm.. the flood affect your house outside? No? You are not living outside is it?
Kithana: because the flood we got one day off right from unisza. Can sleep, bg laugh finish
assignment, [Akmal: but mostly sleep]laugh but its so bad.
(C) Topic on Class and Assignment
Hilmi: so, ok you are saying about assignment, so, do you have any assignment due this week?
I mean you need to send the assignment this week.
Kithana: I just cleared up already [hilmi: all of the assignment] now, just now only, ten minutes
ago [hilmi: aa}
Hilmi: how about you guys? Any assignment [nor: well] need to be sent?
Nor: many assignment
Hilmi: I bet today last day right because its Thursday and you are supposed hand in the
assignment then it must today right. Is it? Bg laugh. Do you guys have any assignment?
Aisyah: yes
Hilmi: so how many assignment? [nor:ermm] Or should I say assignments^?
Kithana: no currently zero
Hilmi: ok that one finished already. How many is it?
Kithana: all the subjects
Hilmi: all the subjects? Any numbers
Kithana: aa.. got seven law subjects, inaudible
Hilmi: aaa, and you guys?
Akmal: what, what are your assignment about?
Aisyah: tahrij hadis

94 | P a g e

Akmal: can you tell us more about the assignment


Nor: we-we .., we need to search from .. book about hadis
Hilmi: so what exactly is tahrij hadis? [aisyah: tahrij] tahrij means keluar right?
Nor: keluarkan hadis. Transfer hadis err .. and then do some report [Akmal: ahaa]
Akmal: and you guys, same work?
Nina: yes [Akmal: ok] all of this individual
Akmal: all of this is individual work [izzati: is it individu?]
Nina: individu [hilmi: individu]
Hilmi: so how do you find the subject? Is it <x really x>.. you like it? Or you hate it? Or you want
to put everything in the dustbin?
Izzati: like you do it because of the mark? [hilmi: a little]
Hilmi: why is that?
Hana: inaudible cough inaudible
Nor: compulsory to .. take you know to take, and need to.. send and need to send because ..
we can get mark from lecturer.
Hilmi: like you say before you got seven assignment in law is it. So how do you find it, the
assignment
Kithana: very terrible [very terrible laugh] because for us third sem theres no university subject
about us so in one law subject means everything will push through to toward to ready inaudible
so really hate it
Hilmi: so basically you are saying that you find it inaudible. Ok, do you guys like doing individual
assignment or group assignment?
Aisyah: us group
Hilmi: group over here, anyone [Hana: individual] individual, individual, individual, [nina: group]
group, ok. Team group, team individual. Hana individual. Why individual ?
95 | P a g e

Kithana: the first thing now because its raining outside [hilmi: hmm] so its so tough for us to
come together, sit together doing stuff and that. another thing is ok la if we choose our own
group member we know that, ok people is capable to do this or not. If the lecturers choose
means some of them is lazy to work and they you know they kind of another party that, sure this
girls will finish for us. So we really hate this, and theres groupmate have some problems with
their friends [hilmi: hmm] and this group thinks we are anti with the boys [hilmi: laugh]
Hilmi: so you guys? Why individual?
Aisyah: because I inaudible from
Hilmi: why is it?
Aisyah: because Im I.. only as inaudible make the work [hilmi: ok] inaudible we hhhs @
Hilmi: pardon? Ahha
Aisyah: cough, we inaudible
Hilmi: you dont include anyone else [aisyah: its just me] [Akmal:inaudible]
Akmal: you can do anything you want so its less inaudible
Hilmi: so the group team, why?
Nor: I think, <x we X> can discuss about problem and uh cooperate
(D) Personality Trait and Ways to Handle Rumors and Gossip
Hilmi: so basically the work is much much [nor: ah teamwork] leeway right? Ok, leading to that
question, in ten second tell me what kind of personality you have. Who are you. If im for
example I say im a humorous guy, and like to joke [Akmal: a fat guy] a fat guy perhaps, ok. for
example of me. So in ten seconds please tell us what kind of personality you guys have.
Kithana: inaudible so aa I need someone to talk to me [hilmi: laugh] and so I cannot stay alone.
Thats why aa although my roommate wont be there in the room, Ill listen to songs singing
and all the thing, call my mum, and sometimes people disturb me means I get what inaudible
[Akmal: hurm] so like there few people in front there and I dont like means I dont like you. Dont
talk to me at all. I wont tell this person is like this to other person bring stories and so on
Hana: inaudible [hilmi; hmm] everything is so inaudible
96 | P a g e

Aisyah: I am inaudible .. cough I am funny


Izzati; so you love to make jokes? Tell funny story, like
Aisyah: yeah inaudible [Hilmi: laugh] inaudible and er = cop this friend [hilmi: hmm] err...
inaudible err inaudible laugh
Izzati: mean you laugh and making jokes [aisyah: laugh] is it is it because you want to bring the
happiness to everyone because just err .. just all the time
Akmal: and everybody love your jokes [aisyah: laugh]
Hilmi: all right then, how about [Akmal: how about you] you?
Nor: I think im friendly [hilmi: hmm] I inaudible long pause
Hilmi: because you like to make friends is it?
Nor: inaudible
Nina: inaudible long pause
Akmal: a shy person [nor: laugh]
Nina: really shy
Hilmi; ok then, erm let say that someone.. that you love.. you knew them, they stab you from
the back. Tikam belakang. How do you react?
Izzati: somebody cheat on you, telling ^liars, ^lies, like that. how do you react to that?
Hilmi: what would you do? What would you say to them. let say, you have a friend and
somehow in front of you this friend say good thing about you, but beside you, behind you she
said something horrible, something is not good about you. How do <x you x>.. , what do you say
about that?
Hana: ignore her [hilmi: ignore her] inaudible
Hilmi: forgive. Ok, ok we got answer for this.
Nor: advise [hana: advice]
Hilmi: ok you got advice
97 | P a g e

Hana: forgive and inaudible


Hilmi: forgive and forgot perhaps
Nina: inaudible = talk
Nor: talk to her [aisyah: sometimes]
Hilmi: so let say you experience this particular event, say err.. , this is a real situation where you
in who by someone else who you are not forgive (1) in any way, ok.. How do you handle this,
how do you face (1) this event? What did you do?
Kithana: I think I will ask for some help because if she a true friend she wont do like this.
Something is there, thats why she tend to do like that [hilmi: hmm] so Ill ask my self what then
ask my, approach another friend tell me what, what have I mean, hot temper or what like, or
what. Then after that Ill err.. usually ask my mum la (Hx), because mum is the good friend of me
and the bestest and shell call her and tell her everything from there I know this is the real story.
[hilmi: hmm] then after that I inaudible the inaudible this thing la you tell this thing thats why (H)
im bad with you. Then Ill do forgive you [hilmi; thats it?] thats it. End of story (Hx) inaudible
Hilmi: you meet him meet her and slap her in the face perhaps (Hx). (H) You talk bad about me
eh? You talk bad about me! [aisyah: no] or you just simply walk away. What do you do in this
situation?
Nina: < X hmm? X>
Hilmi: what would you do?
Nina; inaudible got this inaudible <X hmm X> meet her and ask her, ask <X her X> about
why, why [hilmi: why she do that] inaudible
Izzati: so you said that you want to confront her right? You want to ask her whether what kind of
mistake did you make, and make her do things, things that is bad, terrible like that. so what is
the first step would you take bg coughing, laugh
Hana: make her inaudible [izzati: ok] cough
(E) Cooking Stuff

98 | P a g e

Izzati: ok, so move to the next question^. Moving on. So.. , im aware that all of you are women,
you know how to cook rice, right?

So could you tell me, the steps needed..(1) to be done to

prepare a fried chicken


Kithana: for me I dont know how to cook (Hx).
Izzati: ok.. for you you dont know how to cook.
Kithana: but I do know how to make salad
Izzati: so you dont know how to fry chicken? [kithana: no]
Kithana: because since born.., I got maid so everything the maid [hilmi: laugh] so I dont know
how to cook. [hilmi: ok]
Nina: inaudible flou inaudible inaudible then mix all this [Izzati: turmeric?] then inaudible kuali
inaudible
Izzati: just wait for it to be fully cooked. So err.. do you need err.. , do we need to err like
waiting for the oil to err.. to be like hot or something like that?
Nina: < X hmm? X>
Hilmi: do.. we need after (1) we pour the oil into the pan, do we need to wait first or simply
[aisyah; wait first] put in the chicken
Aisyah: wait first [hana: wait first]
Hilmi: wait first, ok. Wait until the, the oil become hot [hana; yes]
Izzati: so how you decide that the~ the chicken is already [hilmi: cooked] cooked
Nina: < X yellow X>
Izzati: yellow. Ok, so.. do you prefer to cook or dine outside? Of course you like.. prefer to dine
outside right? Hhh Bg laugh you dont have to cook [kithana: yeah] you have maid. You?
Nor: cough I like to buy, to buy food.
Izzati: so (1) you live in hostel right [nor: yea] so.. you are not allowed to cook? So just its all,
the solution is just to [nor: buy] buy outside. Just buy everything. Ok

99 | P a g e

Hilmi: which one do you prefer, buy the food at caf or.. just make it yourself, cook.
Aisyah: cook [hilmi: pardon?]
Izzati: cook. Because you live outside right? So erm do you buy the groceries like monthly or
everyday?
Aisyah: inaudible
Izzati: monthly [hilmi: monthly] so you prefer to share with you friends or just individual?
Aisyah: share
Izzati; share with friend. So what kind of thing that you share with your friend? Like the rice or
Hana: inaudible
Izzati: ok.. So is it, is it make it more is it make it more like erm..
Hilmi: is it much save for you? [izzati: yea] is it you save more money when you share food?
Hana: inaudible

(F) Beauty vs Brain


Izzati: ok so.. moving on. Which one do you think is better? Beauty or brain?
Hilmi: as for woman, which one is.. compulsory for them? be smart or to look cute?
Kithana: smart
Hilmi: smart.
Izzati: why is it so?
Kithana: how, everyone want to look beautiful means every inaudible. This is the wise the god
creates us so inaudible with ease heart. So brain means the brain, woman cant er.. know er..
everything inaudible. If you want to marry a guy, a guy should see hows talent is the girl. Not
like someone who look beautiful but theres nothing inside them. Inaudible we cannot do
anything with just pretty only, we have to be smart inaudible.

100 | P a g e

Izzati: so which one is more lasting? Beauty or the brain? The beauty?
Kithana: if you are smart, beauty is there.
Izzati: ok [ hilmi: hmm] have you ever find thats close to you that have both trait? Beauty and
brain [kithana: yeah].
Kithana: well she [izzati: yeah] shes erm, doing medical science degree scholarship in
australia. Shes very beauty and smart [izzati: hmm] inaudible inaudible
Nina: inaudible inaudible because they inaudible [izzati: hmm]
Izzati: so guy might point that a women with brain is beautiful. So you erm, having a brain is a
good enough right? So does it mean that we dont need beauty at all?
Nina: inaudible [izzati: hmm] inaudible
Izzati: so we need both. Ok.. so what about you? Need right?
Nor: I think brain is important
Hilmi: is it more important compared to beauty?
Nor: yes err.. inaudible
(G) Of being a Superhuman and desired Superpower
Hilmi: because [izzati: he meant to ask laugh] so you give up. Ok. Long pause. Ah right,
another question. If you were to have a superpower ok, what kind of superpower do you want to
have? ..For me I like to have a super strength. So may I ask, what is it?
Kithana: inaudible [hilmi: what again?] to get on somewhere
Hilmi: to get on somewhere is your superpower right?
Izzati: so you might need a teleport. You might need.. be there, here and there, at the library at
the same time. You can do something at room
Kithana: all at once [izzati: yeah]
Izzati: so what about you?
Hana: inaudible, cough.
101 | P a g e

Hilmi: you want to be able to do everything? Why is that? long pause so you can do
everything? You?
Nina: inaudible
(H) Marriage and Relationship
Izzati: ok, this superpower thingy is so complicated laugh. So we move [hilmi: we move on] we
move on to the more simple question. If somebody ask you right now in this very time, ask for
your hand for a marriage. What would you, <x what x> would you answer.
Hilmi: someone what to marry you right now [izzati: yeah] inaudible
Hana: I will say no inaudible
Kithana: ill ask my friend, because from friend only you know inaudible
Hilmi: ok
Kithana: from there I can know if the guy is good for me, because for me that is inaudible but if
they say no, so~ first parents, from parents i can know whether the guy is suitable for them
because when im married to him they have to marry my family so, so their parents still living
with us so its ok, then there will be togetherness so ill ask my parents first.
Izzati: so every decision that you make depends on your parents?
Kithana: aaa not everything. But Ill put my parents at the first decision.
Izzati: you its about their priority [kithana: yeah] ok.
Hilmi: hmm over here? What will you say?
Aisyah: cough think first
(I) Biggest Challenge Faced in Life
Hilmi: think first. Long pause or you have someone already in your mind? Laugh. Ok then,
moving on. Ok, err I believe that you are, I believe you are all twenty and above is it? Twenty
years old and above. Ok so what are the challenges that you face throughout your life. The
most, the most challenging thing of all.
Hana: inaudible
102 | P a g e

Hilmi: hmm? Study? Study is the most challenging stuff that you face.
Nor: many, many assignment. Before finish, before graduate.
Nina: yes, assignment [hilmi: yes?]
Hilmi: you guys?
Aisyah: speaking [izzati: public speaking?]
Hilmi: where was it? When was it? When, when, when do you need to, [aisyah: presentation]
pardon? Ah ok, presentation . not assignment perhaps.
Izzati: so is it difficult? Erm, we need to prepare right a lot?
Kithana: communicate with the people who are not from each [izzati: ok] er.. like Europeans,
Africans [hilmi: aha] err.. the people differently err you couldnt meet them on us.
Izzati: so.. is it because of the accent?
Kithana: aa maybe and their style they are free. Everything, like their lifestyle. So to
communicate with them you have to know them first like [izzati: so] .
(J) Preferences on Exotic Animals
Hilmi: so we are coming to almost the end of the question. Just go to the last question. Who
would take exotic animal as a pet? Exotic by mean er.. like er.. iguana or snake [izzati: lion] yea
lion. You? No. how about you over here? No.? no. ?
Kithana: I like snake.
Hilmi: snake? Why is that?
Kithana: err because how to put, reptiles like that [izzati: ok] Ive seen exhibition on er.. snake.
Because erm.. snake everybody say they really poison and none of them go near at them so
this give me encourage why not im the first person to touch it and bear the feeling, like that
Izzati: so you dare to challenge right?
Hilmi: so why do you guys say no?
Hana: inaudible
103 | P a g e

Hilmi: scared. Yes of aa exotic animal. You? Is it because you scared [nina: inaudible] what
pardon?
Nina: geli
Hilmi: geli laugh. <x Or or or x> you feel err... uncomfortable with it? Is it?
Izzati: but what about a baby lion? The fluffy one. [nor: just see] just see? You dont want to
touch it? Even though its small, little curl
Aisyah: inaudible
Hilmi: incomprehensible. Ahaa. Ok laugh, to end pur interview today, just a simple question
one. What do you think about this interview, is it difficult or is it err.. Mesmerizing with your mind
is it? Do you think this activity that we done right now is really difficult? No? what?
Nor: some question is.. tricky [izzati: difficult?] no, tricky
Hilmi: tricky, right. Over here ?
Izzati: how do you find the question? bg phone bg announcement
Hilmi: I think is ok, its ok laugh
Kithana: was very easy by the time with third question.
Hilmi: third question, right. So erm with that comment. Ok, cool.
(K) Random Thought on this Interview
Izzati: can you possibly guess what we want to do with this interview? What we are conducting
actually. X:err Do you have an idea or not?
Kithana: err.. to know the capacity of student in their err.. what inaudible English and sorry to
say but why do you conduct I dont know. Erm.. which faculties students use English [izzati: ok]
Izzati: so close enough [hilmi: you?] I think so
Hilmi: and you, what do you think?
Hana: inaudible

104 | P a g e

Hilmi: you got no idea, laugh right. So thats it [izzati: thats it]. So thank you guys for lending <x
us x> your time with the interview and I bid you farewell and thank you again.
Kithana: may I know for what the interview inaudible

4.2) Analysis of the Transcription

(A) Introductory Remark


Hilmi: Right, Bismillahhirrahmannirrahhim, Assalamualaikum. First of all thank you you guys for
participating in our~ inaudible emm.. first of all we are from Bachelor of English student, we are
currently in semester seven doing research pertaining the error in er.. speaking er.. so basically
can we first (1) could you guys please first introduce yourself. Right, so we get from the right
here.
Addition(Simple Addition-you)
Thank you you guys for participating in our
Thank you guys for participating in our
Misordering

105 | P a g e

We are from Bachelor of English student


We are student from Bachelor of English
Misordering
Could you guys please first introduce yourself?
Could you guys please introduce yourself first?
Misinformation-Alternating Form (get-have)
So we get from the right here
So we have from right here
Addition (article-the)
So we get from the right here
So we have from right here

KIthana: introduce myself [ hilmi: introduce yourself] my name is Kithana,(1) errr .. Im from
Klang, Selangor and Im a law student, second year.
Omission (Verb inflection- ing)
Introduce ( ) myself
Introducing myself

Hana: ok my name inaudible hana. Err..(1.2)

from Besut, Terengganu. (1.2) And study

usuluddin
Omission (Verb Auxiliaries-is)
My name ( ) Hana.
My name is Hana.

106 | P a g e

Omission (Personal Pronouns- I)


Err (

) from Besut, Terengganu

Err I am from Besut, Terengganu


Omission (Verb Auxiliary-am)
Err (

) from Besut, Terengganu

Err I am from Besut, Terengganu

Nor: ok my name is Tengku Norhafizan binti Shari. Im from Kelantan. Erm.. My course is
dakwah (1) Im <X second X> years
Omission (Preposition)
I am (

) second years

I am in my second year
Omission (Possessive Pronoun)
I am (

) second years

I am in my second year
Misinformation (Archi-Form)
I am (

) second years

I am in my second year
*One-singular = First year
*Two-plural = Second years

107 | P a g e

(B) Latest Issue in Unisza

Hilmi: so if I could recap again and you you are from what faculty?
Addition (Simple Addition-If)
So if I could recap again
If I could recap again
Addition (Simple Addition-you)
and you you are from what faculty?
and you are from what faculty?
Misordering
you are from what faculty?

108 | P a g e

Which faculty you are from?


Addition (Simple Addition-and)
So if I could recap again and you you are from what faculty?
So if I could recap again and you you are from what faculty?

Kithana : Law Faculty.


Omission (-s)/ (Preposition -of)
Law Faculty
Laws faculty @ Faculty of Law

Nor: we all FKI FKI, (1) the same


Omission ( Auxiliary Verb are)
We ( ) all (

We are all FKIs


Omission ( Possessive- s)
We ( ) all (

We are all FKIs


Omission (noun-all, faculty)
(

) The same (

All from the same faculty.

109 | P a g e

Hilmi: FKI, alright. Erm (bg cough) major question over here, are you guys happy studying in
unisza?
Omission (Article-the)
(

) Major question over here

The major question over here

HIlmi: of course no. (laugh) @ Ok of course no, that theres theres an issue over here. Eh why
is that?
Addition (Simple addition-directive determiner that)
That theres theres an issue over here
There is an issue over here

Omission ( -so)
Why is that?
Why is that so?

Kithana: Because~ Im from Klang and the lifestyle is totally different [Hilmi: hmm] and I cant
adopt this situation. First is I like to shopping (bg laugh). There are no shopping mall at all and
so proper with the dress code, cannot wear this type of dress, cannot wear that type of dress,
and cannot like Indians we normally like very close to all the Chinese you know talk to them
guys sitting together to eat. In Klang its normal, we are friends, nothing between us. But here, at
night, we cannot sit together or do assignment also, nothing is there. See thats the problem in
unisza, its like this.
Addition (Auxiliary verb-is)
First is I like to shopping

110 | P a g e

First, I like to shop


Addition (verb inflection-ing)
First is I like to shopping
Firstly, I like to shop
Misinformation (-auxiliary verb is to signal pluralization)
There are no shopping mall at all
There is no shopping mall at all
Omission (personal pronouns-we)
( ) talk to them
we talk to them

Omission (Auxiliary Verb-is)


nothing ( ) between us
nothing is between us
Misordering
we cannot sit together or do assignment
we cannot sit or do assignment together
Misinformation (Alternating Form)
its like this.
its like that.

Izzati: so~ thats one of the issue [Kithana: yeah] that make you felt... disappointed?

111 | P a g e

Omission (Noun Inflection)


Thats one of the issue( )
Thats one of the issues

Hilmi: you are done? So you guys over here say you guys are happy studying in unisza :long
silence: anyone? Perhaps you?
Misordering
You are done?
Are you done?
Omission (Verb Inflection to show past event)
So you guys over here say you guys are happy
So you guys over here said you guys are happy
Addition (Simple Addition-guys)
So you guys over here say you guys are happy
So you guys over here said you are happy
Misordering
Perhaps you?
You want to answer perhaps?
Omission
Perhaps you?
You want to answer perhaps?

112 | P a g e

Akmal: Like you can meet new friends or you got the course that you want [many: yes][izzati:
like the environment]
Omission (have)
You got the course that you want
Youve got the course that you want

Izzati: You are from Kelantan right?


Nor: Kelantan.
Omission
Kelantan.
Yes, I am from Kelantan.

Hilmi: Then so we went to the second question. Do you guys aware of any issue that happen in
unisza right now?
Addition (Simple addition-then)
Then so we went to the second question
So we went to the second question
Misinformation (went)
Then so we went to the second question
So we go to the second question.
Misinformation
Do you guys aware of any issue that happen
Do you guys aware on any issue that happen

113 | P a g e

Aisyah: err.. same hhh @ [hilmi: same with you]


Omission
Same.
(I have the) same (problem too.)

Hilmi: Right, PRK versus flood. Ok erm .. Could you please describe about the issue. What the
PRK. What is it about?
Omission (-all)
Right, PRK versus flood.
All right, PRK versus flood.

Addition (Simple Addition)


Could you please describe about the issue
Could you please describe the issue?
Omission (Verb Auxiliaries)
What ( ) the PRK?
What is PRK?
Addition (Article-the)
What the PRK?
What is PRK?
Misordering
What is it about?
114 | P a g e

What it is about?

Kithana: Okay. PRK is of course everywhere got pembangkang and opposition and it was like I
didnt think that this same current issue will happen in unisza too. And those student if the HEPA
know this student is from opposition, they will try their best to cancel their name [hilmi: hmm]
and Im one of the victim.
Addition (Simple addition)
got pembangkang and opposition
got opposition
Misinformation (Alternating form)
I didnt think that
I dont think that
Misinformation (Archi-form)
they will try their best to cancel their name
they will try their best to cancel his/her name.

Akmal: How about you guys? Like [hilmi: About the flood] about the flood?
Addition(Simple Addition)
Like about the flood
Like the flood.

Nor: ehem, I cannot attend to class, cant go % anywhere [hilmi: hmm] just aa... just just stay at
hostel
Misinformation (Alternative Form)
115 | P a g e

I cannot attend to class.


I cannot go to class.
Omission (Personal Pronouns-I)
( ) Just stay at hostel.
I just stayed at hostel.
Omission (Verb inflection-ed)
Just stay at hostel.
I just stayed at hostel.

Hana: hhhs @ [hilmi: how bad is it?] so bad because aa we live err [hilmi: outside?]
outside yea, from unisza, so--- hard to come to unisza bg laugh [izzati: difficult?] yes
Misinformation (Alternative Form)
So hard to come to unisza
So difficult to come to Unisza

Hilmi: so erm.. The flood affect your house outside? No? You are not living outside is it?
Omission ( Verb Inflection)
The flood affect your house
The flood affects your house

Kithana: Because the flood we got one day off right from unisza. Can sleep, bg laugh finish
assignment, [Akmal: but mostly sleep]laugh but its so bad.
Omission (Preposition)

116 | P a g e

Because ( ) the flood


Because of the flood

(C) Topic on Class and Assignment


Hilmi: So, ok you are saying about assignment, so, do you have any assignment due this
week? I mean you need to send the assignment this week.
Misordering
I mean you need to send the assignment this week.
I mean the assignment you need to send this week.

Kithana: I just cleared up already [hilmi: all of the assignment?] now, just now only, ten minutes
ago [Hilmi: aa}
Misordering
Just now only
Only just now
117 | P a g e

Hilmi: How about you guys? Any assignment [nor: Well] need to be sent?
Omission (Noun Inflection-s)
Any assignment( ) need to be sent?
Any assignments need to be sent?

Hilmi: I bet today last day, right? Because its Thursday and you are supposed hand in the
assignment then it must today right. Is it? Bg laugh. Do you guys have any assignment?
Omission ( Auxiliary verb-is & Article-the)
I bet today (

) last day, right?

I bet today is the last day, right?


Omission (Preposition-to)
You are supposed ( ) hand in the assignment.
You are supposed to hand in the assignment.
Omission (Copula be)
It must ( ) today right?
It must be today right?
Omission (Negation)
Is ( ) it?
Isnt it?

Akmal: What, what are your assignment about?


Omission (noun inflection-s)
118 | P a g e

What are your assignment about?


What are your assignments about?

Nor: we-we .., we need to search from .. book about hadis


Misinformation (Alternating form)
We need to search from book about hadis
We need to search a book about hadis

Akmal: And you guys, same work?


Nina: Yes [Akmal: ok] all of this individual
Misordering
All of this individual
This is for individual

Akmal: All of this is individual work? [Izzati: Is it individu?]


Omission
Is it individu?
Is it individual?

Hilmi: Like you say before you got seven assignment in law is it. So how do you find it, the
assignment?
Omission (noun inflection-s)
you got seven assignment( )
119 | P a g e

you got seven assignments


Omission (negation)
is it.
isnt it.
Kithana: Very terrible [very terrible laugh] because for us third sem there is no university subject
about us so in one law subject means everything will push through to toward to ready inaudible
so really hate it.
Misordering
because for us third sem there is no university subject
because there is no university subject for us in third sem
Omission (Personal pronouns-I)
so ( ) really hate it.
so I really hate it.

Hilmi: So basically you are saying that you find it inaudible. Ok, do you guys like doing
individual assignment or group assignment?
Addition (Simple Addition-doing + assignment)
do you guys like doing individual assignment or group assignment?
do you like individual or group assignment?

Aisyah: Us group.
Omission (Auxiliary verb-is & Conjunction-for)
Us group.

120 | P a g e

For us is group.

Hilmi: Group over here, anyone [Hana: Individual] Individual, Individual, Individual, [Nina:
Group] Group, ok. Team group. Team individual. Hana individual. Why individual?
Omission (Auxiliary verb-is)
Hana (

) individual.

Hana is for individual.

Omission (Conjunction-for)
Hana (

) individual.

Hana is for individual.

Kithana: The first thing now because its raining outside [Hilmi: hmm] so its so tough for us to
come together, sit together doing stuff and that. Another thing is Okay la if we choose our own
group member we know that, okay people is capable to do this or not. If the lecturers choose
means some of them is lazy to work and they you know they kind of another party that, sure this
girls will finish for us. So we really hate this, and theres group mate have some problems with
their friends [Hilmi: hmm] and this group thinks we are anti with the boys [Hilmi: laugh]
Misordering
The first thing now because its raining
The first thing because its raining now

Nor: I think, <x we X> can discuss about problem and uh cooperate.
121 | P a g e

Omission (Article-the)
can discuss about problem
can discuss about the problem

(D) Personality Trait and Ways to Handle Rumors and Gossip


Hilmi: So basically the work is much much [nor: Ah teamwork] leeway right? Ok, leading to that
question, in ten second tell me what kind of personality you have. Who are you? If Im for
example I say Im a humorous guy, and like to joke [Akmal: A fat guy] A fat guy perhaps, ok. For
example of me. So in ten seconds please tell us what kind of personality you guys have.
Misinformation ( Alternative form)
leading to that question
moving to next question...
Misinformation ( Alternative form)
If Im for example
If me for example...
Misordering
For example of me.
Me for example
122 | P a g e

Kithana: inaudible So aa I need someone to talk to me [hilmi: laugh] and so I cannot stay alone.
Thats why aa although my roommate wont be there in the room, Ill listen to songs singing
and all the thing, call my mum, and sometimes people disturb me means I get what inaudible
[Akmal: Hurm] so like there few people in front there and I dont like means I dont like you.
Dont talk to me at all. I wont tell this person is like this to other person bring stories and so on.
Addition ( Personal Pronouns-me)
I need someone to talk to me
I need someone to talk to

Addition (Simple Addition-conjunction so)


and so I cannot stay alone.
and I cannot stay alone.
Omission (Auxiliary Verb are)
there ( ) few people
there are few people

Akmal: And everybody love your jokes [Aisyah: laugh]


Omission (Inflectional Verb-s)
And everybody love( ) your jokes
And everybody loves your jokes
Hilmi: All right then, how about [Akmal: How about you] you?
Nor: I think Im friendly [hilmi: hmm] I inaudible long pause
123 | P a g e

Hilmi: Because you like to make friends is it?


Misordering
Because you like to make friends is it?
Is it because you like to make friends?

Izzati: Somebody cheat on you, telling ^liars, ^lies, like that. How do you react to that?
Addition
telling liars
telling lies

Kithana: I think I will ask for some help because if she a true friend she wont do like this.
Something is there, thats why she tend to do like that [Hilmi: hmm] So Ill ask myself what then
ask my, approach another friend tell me what, what have I mean, hot temper or what like, or
what. Then after that Ill err.. Usually ask my mum la (Hx), because mum is the good friend of
me and the bestest and shell call her and tell her everything from there I know this is the real
story. [Hilmi: hmm] Then after that I inaudible the inaudible this thing la you tell this thing thats
why (H) Im bad with you. Then Ill do forgive you [Hilmi; thats it?] Thats it. End of story (Hx)
inaudible.
Omission (Auxiliary Verb-is)
if she a true
if she is a true
124 | P a g e

Addition (Simple Addition)


she wont do like this
she wont do this
Addition (Simple Addition)
she tend to do like that
she tend to do that
Omission (Preposition-to)
approach another friend tell me what
approach another friend to tell me what
Misinformation (Alternating Form)
mum is the good friend of me
mum is the good friend of mine
Addition (Simple Addition)
Then Ill do forgive you
Then Ill forgive you

125 | P a g e

(E) Cooking Stuff


Izzati: Ok, so move to the next question^. Moving on. So.. , Im aware that all of you are
women; you know how to cook rice, right?

So could you tell me, the steps needed..(1) to be

done to prepare a fried chicken.


Addition(Simple addition)
the steps needed to be done to prepare a fried chicken.
the steps needed to prepare a fried chicken.

Kithana: Because since born.., I got maid so everything the maid [Hilmi: laugh] so I dont know
how to cook. [Hilmi: ok]
Addition (Simply addition)
Because since born...
Since I was born
Omission (Personal Pronouns-I)

126 | P a g e

Because since born...


Since I was born

Omission (Auxiliary verb-was)


Because since born...
Since I was born

Hilmi: Do.. We need after (1) we pour the oil into the pan, do we need to wait first or simply
[aisyah; wait first] put in the chicken?
Addition (Simple Addition)
or simply put in the chicken?
or simply put the chicken?

Hilmi: Is it much save for you? [izzati: Yea] is it you save more money when you share food?
Hana: inaudible
Misinformation (Alternative form)
Is it much save for you?
Is it much economic for you?

127 | P a g e

(F) Beauty vs Brain


Kithana: How, everyone want to look beautiful means every (inaudible). This is the wise the god
creates us so inaudible with ease heart. So brain means the brain, woman cant er.. know er..
everything inaudible. If you want to marry a guy, a guy should see hows talent is the girl. Not
like someone who look beautiful but theres nothing inside them. Inaudible we cannot do
anything with just pretty only, we have to be smart inaudible.
Omission( Noun Inflection-ed)
a guy should see hows talent is the girl
a guy should see hows talented is the girl
Omission( Copula be)
we cannot do anything with just pretty only
we cannot do anything with just being pretty only

Izzati: So which one is more lasting? Beauty or the brain? The beauty?
Misordering
128 | P a g e

So which one is more lasting?


So which one is lasting more?

(G) Of being a Superhuman and desired Superpower


Izzati: So you might need a teleport. You might need.. be there, here and there, at the library at
the same time. You can do something at room
Omission (Preposition-to)
You might need.. be there
You might need to be there

129 | P a g e

(H) Marriage and Relationship


Izzati: Ok, this superpower thingy is so complicated (laugh). So we move [Hilmi: we move on]
we move on to the more simple question. If somebody ask you right now in this very time, ask
for your hand for a marriage. What would you, <x what x> would you answer.
Addition (simple addition-more)
more simple question.
simpler question.

Kithana: Ill ask my friend, because from friend only you know inaudible
Misordering
because from friend only you know
because you know only from friend

130 | P a g e

Kithana: From there I can know if the guy is good for me, because for me that is inaudible but if
they say no, so~ first parents, from parents i can know whether the guy is suitable for them
because when im married to him they have to marry my family so, so their parents still living
with us so its ok, then there will be togetherness so ill ask my parents first.
Misinformation (Alternative form-modal can)
From there I can know
From there I will know
Misinformation (Alternative form-modal can)
from parents I can know whether the guy is suitable
from parents I will know whether the guy is suitable

Misordering
from parents I can know whether the guy is suitable
I will know whether the guy is suitable from parents

131 | P a g e

(I) Biggest Challenge Faced in Life


Hilmi: Think first. [Long pause] Or you have someone already in your mind? Laugh. Ok then,
moving on. Ok, err I believe that you are, I believe you are all twenty and above is it? Twenty
years old and above. Ok so what are the challenges that you face throughout your life. The
most, the most challenging thing of all.
Misordering
Or you have someone already in your mind?
Or you already have someone in your mind?
Omission (Negation)
are all twenty and above is it?
are all twenty and above isnt it?

Izzati: So is it difficult? Erm, we need to prepare right a lot?

132 | P a g e

Misordering
We need to prepare right a lot?
we need to prepare a lot right?

(J) Preferences on Exotic Animals


Hilmi: So we are coming to almost the end of the question. Just go to the last question. Who
would take exotic animal as a pet? Exotic by mean er.. like er.. iguana or snake [izzati: lion] yea
lion. You? No. how about you over here? No.? no. ?
Misordering
So we are coming to almost the end of the question.
So we are coming almost to the end of the question.

Hilmi: Snake? Why is that?


Kithana: err Because how to put, reptiles like that [izzati: ok] Ive seen exhibition on er.. snake.
Because erm.. snake everybody say they really poison and none of them go near at them so
this give me encourage why not im the first person to touch it and bear the feeling, like that.
Omission (verb inflection-ed)
133 | P a g e

everybody say they really poison


..everybody said they are really poisonous
Omission (auxiliary verb-are)
everybody say they (

)really poison

..everybody say they are really poisonous


Misinformation(Alternative form)
everybody say they really poison(

..everybody said they are really poisonous

Hilmi: [Incomprehensible]. Ahaa. Ok [laugh], to end out interview today, just a simple question
one. What do you think about this interview, is it difficult or is it err.. Mesmerizing with your mind
is it? Do you think this activity that we done right now is really difficult? No? What?
Nor: Some question is.. tricky [izzati: Difficult?] no, ricky
Hilmi: Tricky, right. Over here?
Izzati: How do you find the question? [bg phone bg announcement]
Hilmi: I think is ok, its ok [laugh]

Kithana: Was very easy by the time with third question.


Omission (Personal pronouns-It)
Was very easy
It was very easy
Hilmi: Third question, right. So erm with that comment. Ok, cool.

134 | P a g e

(K) Random Thought on this Interview


Izzati: Can you possibly guess what we want to do with this interview? What we are conducting
actually. X: err Do you have an idea or not?
Kithana: err.. To know the capacity of student in their err.. what inaudible English and sorry to
say but why do you conduct I dont know. Erm.. Which facultys students use English [izzati: Ok]
Misinformation (Alternating form)
sorry to say but why do you
sorry to ask but why do you

Izzati: So close enough [Hilmi: you?] I think so


Hilmi: And you, what do you think?
Hana: inaudible
Hilmi: You got no idea, laugh right. So thats it [izzati: Thats it]. So thank you guys for lending
<x us x> your time with the interview and I bid you farewell and thank you again.

135 | P a g e

Misinformation (Alternating form)


You got no idea..
You have no idea..

Kithana: May I know for what the interview [inaudible]


Misordering
May I know for what the interview?
May I know the interview for what?

ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEW


THEMATIC

SURFACE

TRANSCRIBED

CONTENT OF

STRATEGY

SENTENCE

THE INTERVIEW

TAXONOMY
Addition

(VERBATIM)
Thank you you guys for Thank you guys for

Simple addition of

participating in our

participating in our

personal pronouns

Could you guys

You
Sentence

INTRODUCTORY

CORRECTION

REMARKS
Misordering

Could you guys please

first introduce yourself? please introduce

EXPLANATION

misordering

We are from Bachelor

yourself first?
We are student from

Sentence

of English student

Bachelor of English

misordering

Misinformatio

So we get from the

So we have from right

(Alternating Form)

right here

here

(get-have)

Addition

So we get from the

So we have from right

(article-the)

right here

here

Misordering

136 | P a g e

Omission

Introduce ( ) myself

Introducing myself

(Verb inflection- in

Omission

My name ( ) Hana.

My name is Hana.

(Verb Auxiliaries-i

Omission

Err (

Err I am from

(Personal Pronoun

Terengganu

Besut, Terengganu

I)

Err (

Err I am from

(Verb Auxiliary-am

Omission

) from Besut,

) from Besut,

Terengganu
Omission

I am (

Besut, Terengganu

) second years I am in my second

(Preposition)

year
Omission
Misinformatio

LATEST ISSUES
IN UNISZA

I am (

) second years I am in my second

(Possessive

I am (

year
) second years I am in my second

Pronoun)
(Archi-Form)

n
Addition

So if I could recap

Addition

again
and you you are from and you are from

Misordering

what faculty?
you are from what

what faculty?
Which faculty you

Addition

faculty?
So if I could recap

are from?
So if I could recap

(Simple Addition-

again and you you are

again and you you are

and)

from what faculty?


Law Faculty

from what faculty?


Laws faculty @

(-s)/ (Preposition

We ( ) all (

Faculty of Law
We are all FKIs

-of)
( Auxiliary Verb

Omission
Omission

year
If I could recap again

(Simple Addition-I
(Simple Additionyou)

Omission
Omission

We ( ) all (
)
(
) The same

We are all FKIs


All from the same

are)
( Possessive- s)
(noun-all, faculty)

Omission

(
(

faculty.
The major question

(Article-the)

)
) Major question

137 | P a g e

Addition

over here
That theres an issue

over here
There is an issue over

(Simple addition-

over here

here

directive determine

Omission
Addition

Why is that?
First is I like to

Why is that so?


First, I like to shop

that)
( -so)
(Auxiliary verb-is)

Addition

shopping
First is I like to

Firstly, I like to shop

(verb inflection-ing

Misinformatio

shopping
There are no shopping

There is no shopping

(-auxiliary verb is

mall at all

mall at all

to signal

we talk to them

pluralization)
(personal pronouns

we)
(Auxiliary Verb-is)

Omission

( ) talk to them

Omission

nothing ( ) between

nothing is between

Misordering

us
we cannot sit

us
we cannot sit or do

together or do

assignment together

Misinformatio

assignment
its like this.

its like that.

(Alternating Form)

n
Omission

Thats one of the issue(

Thats one of the

(Noun Inflection)

Misordering
Omission

)
You are done?
So you guys over here

issues
Are you done?
So you guys over here

(Verb Inflection to

say you guys are happy

said you guys are

show past event)

Addition

So you guys over here

happy
So you guys over here

(Simple Addition-

Misordering

say you guys are happy


Perhaps you?

said you are happy


You want to answer

Perhaps you?

perhaps?
You want to answer

You got the course that

perhaps?
Youve got the course

you want

that you want

Omission
Omission

guys)

(have)

138 | P a g e

Omission

Kelantan.

Yes, I am from

Addition

Then so we went to the

Kelantan.
So we went to the

(Simple addition-

Misinformatio

second question
Then so we went to the

second question
So we go to the

then)
(went)

n
Misinformatio

second question
Do you guys aware of

second question.
Do you guys aware on

any issue that happen any issue that


Same.

happen
(I have the) same

Omission

Right, PRK versus

(problem too.)
All right, PRK versus

(-all)

Addition

flood.
Could you please

flood.
Could you please

(Simple Addition)

Omission
Addition
Misordering
Addition

describe about the issue


What ( ) the PRK?
What the PRK?
What is it about?
got pembangkang

describe the issue?


What is PRK?
What is PRK?
What it is about?
got opposition

Misinformatio

and opposition
I didnt think that

I dont think that

(Alternating form)

n
Misinformatio

they will try their

they will try their

Archi-form

best to cancel their

best to cancel his/her

Addition
Misinformatio

name
Like about the flood
I cannot attend to class.

name
Like the flood.
I cannot go to class.

(Simple Addition)
(Alternative Form)

n
Omission

( ) Just stay at hostel.

I just stayed at hostel.

(Personal Pronouns

Omission
Misinformatio

Just stay at hostel.


So hard to come to

I)
I just stayed at hostel. (Verb inflection-ed
So difficult to come to (Alternative Form)

n
Omission

unisza
The flood affect your

Unisza
The flood affects your

house

house

Omission

(Verb Auxiliaries)
(Article-the)
(Simple addition)

( Verb Inflection)

139 | P a g e

TOPIC ON CLASS

Omission
Misordering

Because ( ) the flood


I mean you need to

Because of the flood


I mean the assignment

send the assignment

you need to send this

Misordering
Omission

this week.
Just now only
Any assignment( ) need

week.
Only just now
Any assignments need (Noun Inflection-s)

Omission

to be sent?
I bet today (

) last

to be sent?
I bet today is the last

( Auxiliary verb-is

Omission

day, right?
You are supposed ( )

day, right?
You are supposed to

Article-the)
(Preposition-to)

hand in the assignment.

hand in the

Omission
Omission
Omission

It must ( ) today right?


Is ( ) it?
What are your

assignment.
It must be today right? (Copula be)
Isnt it?
(Negation)
What are your
(noun inflection-s)

Misinformatio

assignment about?
We need to search from

assignments about?
We need to search a

(Alternating form)

n
Misordering
Omission
Omission

book about hadis


All of this individual
Is it individu?
you got seven

book about hadis


This is for individual
Is it individual?
you got seven

(noun inflection-s)

Omission
Misordering

assignment( )
is it.
because for us third

assignments
isnt it.
because there is no

sem there is no

university subject for

university subject
so ( ) really hate it.

us in third sem
so I really hate it.

(Personal pronouns

do you guys like

do you like

I)
(Simple Addition-

doing individual

individual or group

doing + assignmen

assignment or group

assignment?

assignment?
Us group.

For us is group.

Hana (

Conjunction-for)
Hana is for individual. (Auxiliary verb-is)

& ASSIGNMENTS

Omission
Addition

Omission
Omission

) individual.

(Preposition)

(negation)

(Auxiliary verb-is

140 | P a g e

Omission
Misordering

Hana (
) individual.
The first thing now

Hana is for individual


The first thing

because its raining

because its raining

Omission

can discuss about

now
can discuss about

(Article-the)

PERSONALITY

Misinformatio

problem
leading to that

the problem
moving to next

( Alternative form)

TRAITS & WAYS

n
Misinformatio

question
If Im for example

question...
If me for example...

( Alternative form)

n
Misordering
Addition

For example of me.


I need someone to talk

Me for example
I need someone to talk ( Personal Pronoun

Addition

to me
and so I cannot stay

to
and I cannot stay

me)
(Simple Addition-

Omission

alone.
there ( ) few people

alone.
there are few

conjunction so)
(Auxiliary Verb

Omission

And everybody love( )

people
And everybody loves

are)
(Inflectional Verb-s

Misordering

your jokes
Because you like to

your jokes
Is it because you like

Addition
Omission
Addition
Addition

make friends is it?


telling liars
if she a true
she wont do like this
she tend to do like

to make friends?
telling lies
if she is a true
she wont do this
she tend to do that

(Auxiliary Verb-is)
(Simple Addition)
(Simple Addition)

Omission

that
approach another

approach another

(Preposition-to)

Misinformatio

friend tell me what


mum is the good

friend to tell me what


mum is the good

(Alternating Form)

n
Addition

friend of me
Then Ill do forgive

friend of mine
Then Ill forgive

(Simple Addition)

Addition

you
the steps needed to

you
the steps needed to

(Simple addition)

be done to prepare a

prepare a fried

fried chicken.

chicken.

TO HANDLE
RUMOURS &
GOSSIP

COOKING STUFF

(Conjunction-for)

141 | P a g e

Addition
Omission

BEAUTY VS

Since I was born


Since I was born

(Simply addition)
(Personal Pronouns

Since I was born


or simply put the

I)
(Auxiliary verb-wa
(Simple Addition)

Omission
Addition

Because since born...


or simply put in the

Misinformatio

chicken?
chicken?
Is it much save for you? Is it much economic

n
Omission

(Alternative form)

a guy should see

for you?
a guy should see

hows talent is the girl

hows talented is the

we cannot do

girl
we cannot do

anything with just

anything with just

Misordering

pretty only
So which one is more

being pretty only


So which one is

Omission

lasting?
You might need.. be

lasting more?
You might need to be

there

there

Addition

more simple

simpler question.

Misordering

question.
because from friend

because you know

Misinformatio

only you know


From there I can

only from friend


From there I will

(Alternative form-

n
Misinformatio

know
from parents I can

know
from parents I will

modal can)
(Alternative form-

know whether the guy

know whether the guy

modal can)

Misordering

is suitable
from parents I can

is suitable
I will know whether

know whether the guy

the guy is suitable

is suitable
Or you have someone

from parents
Or you already have

already in your mind?

someone in your

BRAIN
Omission

OF BEING

Because since born...


Because since born...

SUPERHUMAN

( Noun Inflection-e

( Copula be)

(Preposition-to)

AND DESIRED
SUPERPOWER
MARRIAGE &
RELATIONSHIP

BIGGEST
CHALLENGE

Misordering

(simple additionmore)

142 | P a g e

FACED IN LIFE
Omission

are all twenty and

mind?
are all twenty and

Misordering

above is it?
We need to prepare

above isnt it?


we need to prepare a

Misordering

right a lot?
So we are coming to

lot right?
So we are coming

OF EXOTIC

almost the end of the

almost to the end of

ANIMALS
Omission

question.
everybody say they

the question.
..everybody said they

(verb inflection-ed

Omission

really poison
everybody say they (

are really poisonous


..everybody say they

(auxiliary verb-are

Misinformatio

)really poison
everybody say they

are really poisonous


..everybody said they

(Alternative form)

n
Omission

really poison(
Was very easy

are really poisonous


It was very easy

(Personal pronouns

PREFERENCES

(Negation)

RANDOM

Misinformatio

sorry to say but why

sorry to ask but

It)
(Alternating form)

THOUGHT ON

n
Misinformatio

do you
You got no idea..

why do you
You have no idea..

(Alternating form)

n
Misordering

May I know for what

May I know the

the interview?

interview for what?

THE INTERVIEW

TABLE 6: Full Analysis of Transcribed Interview


4.3)

Calculation on the Percentage of Recurring Error

TYPES OF ERROR

RECURRING

PERCENTAGE (%)

Addition
Misordering
Misinformation
Omission
TOTAL

FREQUENCY
25
21
20
53
119

21.01
17.65
16.8
44.54
100.00
143 | P a g e

TABLE 7: Total Percentages of Error Committed by Learner

TYPE OF SIMPLE ADDITION

FREQUENC

MAJOR

PERCENTAGE (%)

Personal Pronouns (You)


Personal Pronouns (Me)
Article (The)
Conjunction (Because)
Conjunction (And)
Conjunction (so)
Directive Determiner (That)
Verb Inflection (-ing)
Verb Inflection (-s)
Auxiliary Verb (Is)
Auxiliary Verb (doing)
Auxiliary Verb (do)
Preposition (in)
Repeated Word
TOTAL

Y
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
8
25

FREQUENCY
3

12.00

2
4

8.00
16.00

1
2

4.00
8.00

16.00

1
8
25

4.00
32.00

TABLE 8: Percentage of Error Occurrences for Element in Simple Addition

TYPE OF SENTENCE

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE (%)

MISORDERING
Explanation
Interrogative
Statement
Imperative
Descriptive
Narrative
TOTAL

6
9
4
1
1
1
22

27.27
40.91
18.18
4.55
4.55
4.55
100

TABLE 9: Percentage of Error Occurrences for Misordering Error

144 | P a g e

LANGUAGE

FREQUENC

PERCENTAGE

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

COMPONENTS

(%)

OF MAJOR

(%)

OMITTED
Verb inflection (- ing)
Verb Inflection (-ed)
Verb Inflection (-s)
Verb Auxiliaries (is)
Verb Auxiliaries (are)
Verb Auxiliaries (be)
Verb Auxiliaries (was)
Verb Auxiliary (am)
Auxiliary Verb (are)
Personal Pronouns ( I)
Personal Pronouns (We)
Personal Pronouns (It)
Possessive Pronouns
Preposition
Preposition (of)

COMPONENT
1
4
1
7
2
3
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
5
1

1.92
7.69
1.92
13.46
3.85
5.77
1.92
1.92
1.92
7.69
1.92
1.92
3.85
9.62
1.92

Noun
Noun Inflection
Article (the)
Conjunction
Determiner
Negation

2
5
3
3
1
3

TOTAL

52

11.54

15

28.85

15.38

3.85
9.62
5.77
5.77
1.92
5.77

6
2
5
3
3
1
3

11.54
3.85
9.62
5.77
5.77
1.92
5.77

100.00

52

100.00

TABLE 10: Percentage of Error Occurrences in Omission Error

145 | P a g e

ERROR
MISINFORMATION

TYPES OF ERROR
Regularization
Archi-Form
Alternating Form
TOTAL

FREQUENCY
0
4
16
20

PERCENTAGE (%)
0
20
80
100

TABLE 11: Percentage of Error Occurrences in Misinformation Error

ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEW


(ADDITION)
THEMATIC

SURFACE

TRANSCRIBED

CONTENT OF

STRATEGY

SENTENCE

THE INTERVIEW
INTRODUCTORY

TAXONOMY
Addition

CORRECTION

EXPLANATION

(VERBATIM)
Thank you you guys for Thank you guys for Simple
146 | P a g e

addition

REMARKS
Addition

LATEST ISSUES
IN UNISZA

participating in our

participating in our

personal pronouns Yo

So we get from the right

So we have from right

(article-the)

here

here

Addition
Addition

So if I could recap again


If I could recap again (Simple Addition-If)
and you you are from and you are from (Simple Addition-you)

Addition

what faculty?
So if I could recap again

what faculty?
So if I could recap (Simple Addition-and)

and you you are from what

again and you you are

Addition

faculty?
from what faculty?
That theres an issue over There is an issue over (Simple addition-dire

Addition
Addition
Addition

here
First is I like to shopping
First is I like to shopping
So you guys over here say

here
First, I like to shop
Firstly, I like to shop
So you guys over here

Addition

you guys are happy


Then so we went to the

said you are happy


So we went to the (Simple addition-then)

Addition

second question
second question
Could you please describe Could you please (Simple Addition)

Addition
Addition

about the issue


describe the issue?
What the PRK?
What is PRK?
got pembangkang and got opposition

Addition
Addition

opposition
Like about the flood
Like the flood.
do you guys like doing do
you
individual assignment or individual

or

determiner that)
(Auxiliary verb-is)
(verb inflection-ing)
(Simple Addition-guys

(Article-the)
(Simple addition)

(Simple Addition)
like (Simple Addition-doin
group assignment)

Addition

group assignment?
assignment?
I need someone to talk to I need someone to talk

Addition

me
to
and so I cannot stay and I cannot stay (Simple

Addition
Addition
Addition

alone.
telling liars
she wont do like this
she tend to do like that

Addition

alone.
telling lies
she wont do this
she tend to do that

( Personal Pronouns-m

Addi

conjunction so)
(Simple Addition)
(Simple Addition)

Then Ill do forgive

Then Ill forgive (Simple Addit

you

you
147 | P a g e

COOKING STUFF

Addition

the steps needed to the steps needed to (Simple addit


be done to prepare a prepare

MARRIAGE &

fried

Addition
Addition

fried chicken.
chicken.
Because since born...
Since I was born
or simply put in the or simply put the

(Simply addit
(Simple Addit

Addition

chicken?
more

(simple addi

RELATIONSHIP

chicken?
simple simpler question.

question.

more)

TABLE 12: Error Occurrences in Addition

ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEW


(MISINFORMATION)
THEMATIC

SURFACE

TRANSCRIBED

CONTENT OF

STRATEGY

SENTENCE

THE

TAXONOMY

(VERBATIM)

CORRECTION

EXPLANATION

INTERVIEW
Misinformation

So we get from the right

So we have from right

(Alternating Form)

here

here

(get-have)

Misinformation
Misinformation

I am ( ) second years
I am in my second year
There are no shopping There is no shopping mall

(Archi-Form)
(-auxiliary verb is to

Misinformation
Misinformation

mall at all
at all
its like this.
its like that.
Then so we went to the So we go to the second

signal pluralization)
(Alternating Form)
(went)

second question

question.
148 | P a g e

Misinformation

Do you guys aware of any Do you guys aware on

Misinformation
Misinformation

issue that happen


I didnt think that
they will try their best to

any issue that happen


I dont think that
they will try their best

Misinformation
Misinformation

cancel their name


I cannot attend to class.
So hard to come to unisza

to cancel his/her name


I cannot go to class.
(Alternative Form)
So difficult to come to (Alternative Form)

Misinformation

Unisza
We need to search from We need to search a book
about hadis
book about hadis
leading

TRAITS &
Misinformation
Misinformation

question
question...
If Im for example
If me for example...
mum is the good friend mum is the good friend

Misinformation

of me
Is it much save for you?

of mine
Is it much economic for (Alternative form)

Misinformation

From there I can know

you?
From there I will know

(Alternative

form-

Misinformation

modal can)
from parents I can know from parents I will (Alternative

form-

HANDLE
RUMOURS &

that moving

GOSSIP

whether

RANDOM

guy

next ( Alternative form)


( Alternative form)
(Alternating Form)

is know whether the guy is modal can)

Misinformation

suitable
everybody

Misinformation

really poison(
)
really poisonous
sorry to say but why do sorry to ask but why do (Alternating form)

Misinformation

you
You got no idea..

THOUGHT ON
THE

the

to

(Alternating form)

PERSONALITY Misinformation
WAYS TO

to

(Alternating form)
Archi-form

say

suitable
they ..everybody said they are

you
You have no idea..

(Alternative form)

(Alternating form)

INTERVIEW
TABLE 13: Error Occurrences in Misinformation

149 | P a g e

ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEW


(MISORDERING)
THEMATIC

SURFACE

TRANSCRIBED

CONTENT OF

STRATEGY

SENTENCE

THE

TAXONOMY

(VERBATIM)

CORRECTION

EXPLANATION

INTERVIEW
Misordering

Could you guys please

Could you guys

first introduce yourself?

please introduce

We are from Bachelor of

yourself first?
We are student

English student

from Bachelor of

Misordering

you

English
Which

Misordering

faculty?
you are from?
we cannot sit together we cannot sit or EXPLANATION

Misordering

Misordering
Misordering
Misordering

are

from

what

INTERROGATIVE

STATEMENT

faculty INTERROGATIVE

or do assignment

do

assignment

You are done?


Perhaps you?

together
Are you done?
You want to answer

INTERROGATIVE
IMPERATIVE

What is it about?

perhaps?
What it is about?

INTERROGATIVE
150 | P a g e

TOPIC ON

Misordering

CLASS &

I mean you need to send I


the assignment this week.

ASSIGNMENTS

assignment

the EXPLANATION
you

need to send this


week.
Only just now
This
is

Misordering
Misordering

Just now only


All of this individual

Misordering

individual
because for us third sem because there is EXPLANATION
there

is

no

university no

subject
Misordering

Misordering
Misordering

The

DESCRIPTIVE
for EXPLANATION

university

subject for us in
first

third sem
now The first

thing

thing MAKING STATEMENT

because its raining

because its raining

For example of me.


Because you like to make

now
Me for example
Is it because you

friends is it?

like

to

NARRATIVE
INTERROGATIVE

make

Misordering

friends?
So which one is more So which one is INTERROGATIVE

Misordering

lasting?
because

from

lasting more?
friend because

only you know


Misordering

Misordering

CHALLENGE

know

only

you MAKING STATEMENT


from

friend
from parents I can know I will know whether EXPLANATION
whether the guy is suitable

BIGGEST

mean

the guy is suitable

from parents
Or you have someone Or you already INTERROGATIVE
already in your mind?

have someone in

Misordering

We need to prepare right a

your mind?
we need to prepare INTERROGATIVE

PREFERENCES Misordering

lot?
So we are coming to

a lot right?
So we are coming MAKING STATEMENT

OF EXOTIC

almost the end of the almost to the end of

ANIMALS

question.
the question.
May I know for what the May I know the INTERROGATIVE

FACED IN LIFE

Misordering

interview?

interview for what?

151 | P a g e

TABLE 14: Error Occurrences in Misordering

ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEW


(OMISSION)
THEMATIC

SURFACE

TRANSCRIBED

CONTENT OF

STRATEGY

SENTENCE

THE

TAXONOMY

(VERBATIM)

CORRECTION

EXPLANATION

INTERVIEW
Omission

Introduce ( ) myself

Introducing

(Verb inflection- ing)

Omission

My name ( ) Hana.

myself
My name is Hana.

(Verb Auxiliaries-is)

Omission

Err ( ) from Besut,

Err I am from

(Personal Pronouns- I)

Terengganu

Besut, Terengganu

Omission

Omission

Err (

) from Besut,

Err I am from

(Verb Auxiliary-am)

Terengganu

Besut, Terengganu

I am (

I am in my second (Preposition)

) second years

year
Omission
Omission
Omission
Omission
Omission
Omission

I am (

) second years

I am in my second (Possessive Pronoun)

Law Faculty

year
Laws

We ( ) all (
)
We ( ) all ( )
(
) The same (

Faculty of Law
We are all FKIs
We are all FKIs
All from the same

) Major question over

faculty

@ (-s)/ (Preposition -of)


( Auxiliary Verb are)
( Possessive- s)
(noun-all, faculty)

faculty.
The major question (Article-the)

152 | P a g e

Omission
Omission
Omission

here
Why is that?
( ) talk to them
nothing ( ) between us

over here
Why is that so?
( -so)
we talk to them
(personal pronouns-we)
nothing
is (Auxiliary Verb-is)

Omission

Thats one of the issue( )

between us
Thats one of the (Noun Inflection)

Omission

issues
So you guys over here say So you guys over (Verb Inflection to show
you guys are happy

here said you guys past event)

Omission

Perhaps you?

are happy
You want to answer

Omission

You got the course that you

perhaps?
Youve
got

Omission

want
Kelantan.

course that you want


Yes, I am from

Omission

Same.

Kelantan.
(I have the) same

Omission

Right, PRK versus flood.

(problem too.)
All
right,
PRK (-all)

Omission
Omission

What ( ) the PRK?


( ) Just stay at hostel.

versus flood.
What is PRK?
I just stayed

(Verb Auxiliaries)
at (Personal Pronouns-I)

Omission

Just stay at hostel.

hostel.
I just

at (Verb inflection-ed)

Omission

The flood affect your house

hostel.
The flood

Omission
Omission

Because ( ) the flood


Any assignment( ) need to

your house
Because of the flood (Preposition)
Any
assignments (Noun Inflection-s)

Omission

be sent?
I bet today (

need to be sent?
I bet today is the last ( Auxiliary verb-is &

Omission

right?
day, right?
Article-the)
You are supposed ( ) hand You are supposed to (Preposition-to)

Omission
Omission

) last day,

the (have)

stayed

in

affects ( Verb Inflection)

in the assignment.

hand

the

It must ( ) today right?

assignment.
It must be today (Copula be)

Is ( ) it?

right?
Isnt it?

(Negation)
153 | P a g e

Omission

What are your assignment

Omission
Omission

about?
Is it individu?
you
got

Omission
Omission
Omission

assignment( )
is it.
so ( ) really hate it.
Us group.

Omission

Hana (

your (noun inflection-s)

assignments
isnt it.
so I really hate it.
For us is group.

) individual.

Hana

is

(negation)
(Personal pronouns-I)
(Auxiliary verb-is &

Conjunction-for)
for (Auxiliary verb-is)

individual.
Hana is for
(Conjunction-for)
individual
can discuss about (Article-the)
the problem
there are few (Auxiliary Verb are)

Omission

Hana (

Omission
Omission

can discuss about


problem
there ( ) few people

Omission

people
And everybody love( ) your And

Omission
Omission

jokes
loves your jokes
if she a true
if she is a true
(Auxiliary Verb-is)
approach another friend approach another (Preposition-to)

Omission
Omission
Omission

BRAIN

) individual.

Omission

everybody (Inflectional Verb-s)

friend to tell me

what
Because since born...
Since I was born
(Personal Pronouns-I)
Because since born...
Since I was born
(Auxiliary verb-was)
a guy should see hows a guy should see ( Noun Inflection-ed)
talent is the girl

Omission

OF BEING

are

assignments about?
Is it individual?
seven you got seven (noun inflection-s)

tell me what

BEAUTY VS

What

hows talented is the

girl
we cannot do anything we cannot do ( Copula be)
with just pretty only

anything with just

You might need.. be there

being pretty only


You might need to (Preposition-to)

SUPERHUMAN

be there

AND DESIRED
SUPERPOWER
Omission

are all twenty and above

Omission

is it?
everybody

say

are all twenty and (Negation)

above isnt it?


they ..everybody

said (verb inflection-ed)

154 | P a g e

really poison

they

are

really

Omission

poisonous
everybody say they ( ..everybody say they (auxiliary verb-are)

Omission

)really poison
Was very easy

are really poisonous


It was very easy

(Personal pronouns-It)

TABLE 15: Error Occurrences in Omission

5.0) CONCLUSION
Based on the analysis conducted, it can be concluded that the highest error committed by the
student learning the second language in their spoken utterances would be Ommission
155 | P a g e

(44.54%), followed by the Addition (21.01%), Misordering (17.65%) and finally Misinformation
(16.80%). Looking closely into the pattern of error produced by the learner, it can be further
concluded that learner tend to make a recurring error when it comes to the verb.
For instance, in analyzing the linguistic component of language which prone to be
omitted and lacing the source of erroneous utterances among the learner would be verb
auxiliaries (28.85%), personal pronouns (15.38%) and verb inflection (11.54%) which constitute
the major percentage of 55.77 % of omission errors. The same goes to the misinformation
errors in which speakers tend to commit alternating-form type of error which constitutes higher
percentage of 80%. As for the misordering error, speakers are prone to conduct an error
whenever it comes to the construction of Interrogative sentence which constitutes larger
percentage of 40.91% followed steeply by Explanation and Statement with 40.91% and 18.18 %
respectively. In the case of Addition error, simple addition was largely commits by the speaker
contributing to the 100% of the types of addition error committed by the learner. However, upon
close inspection, it can be further positioned that the major linguistic components that contribute
to the error would be random repeated word constitute major percentage of 32% followed by
conjunction (16%), auxiliary verb (16%) and personal pronouns (12%).
In reexamining the occurrences of pattern made by the speaker in producing the
verbatim error, it can be further concluded that the main emphasis should be critically placed on
the correct usage of verb auxiliaries and personal pronouns. These two elements should be
more emphasized by the language instructor on their correct usage in order to prevent the
learners from making the similar mistake in the future.

6.0) RECOMMENDATION
Based on the analysis of the finding, there are some recommendations for practice that can be
utilized both by teacher and student:
156 | P a g e

1. The major interference problem faced by the student should be addressed clearly by the
instructor to make them aware on the situation they were currently in. Any ungrammatical
sentence construction made by the student must be corrected immediately by the instructor
and further explained to avoid confusion among the learner. In giving the feedback, the
instructor must possess the good command in both first and second language knowledge so
that the input given are more effective and free from any oversight error.
2. More emphasis should be given to written exercises and practice both inside and outside
the classroom. This is to ensure that the student able to effectively conveyed their abstract
knowledge on the linguistic component of the language (competency) into the concrete form
of the language structure affectively (performance) without being tarnished by any repetitive
error.
3. Linguistic error caused not only by pedagogical but also emotional factors. In helping the
student to advance their understanding on this issue, any kinds of discussions conducted
between teacher and student on possible ways to detect the error and plausible factors that
lead to the error are deemed importance to enhance greater students understanding on this
issue. Teacher should allocate some time for the extra consultation with the student to help
the student in shaping their learning strategy as well as giving continuous feedback.
4.

Any exceptions to the rule in the English language regarding grammar, terminology and
verbal articulation must be clearly explained by the teacher to the student in any effective
way possible. Via this effort, the students are expected to become highly motivated to learn
and explore further on language content and structure. Extra materials and activities that
were based on the target language also have to be frequently conducted as a stimulus
inside the class to ensure that the student receive optimum reinforcement on the language,
thus help them to reinforce positive routine of proper habit on acquiring the second language
system correctly.

5. As a language instructor, teacher must always frequently remind the student to be aware on
their underlying knowledge of the first language and encourage the student to frequently
practicing thinking in target language whenever they want to produce a written material to
avoid any language interference effect. This kind of encouragement may facilitate in
familiarizing student with the authenticity of the native language structure of the foreign
language and minimizing recurring error that sometimes can also be caused by the students
inability to apply the rule of the know language system correctly.

157 | P a g e

6. Every language instructor most possesses their own teaching material that is not only
genuine but also creative. Any variety of teaching techniques needs to be exposed to the
student in order to familiarize them to the correction without any indication of mistake. Some
of the suggested methods would be hearing correction, underlining mistake or searching
using the correct language.

7.0) REFERENCES

Bibliography
Adeniyi, H. (2010). ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY. Kano, Abuja, Nigeria: NATIONAL OPEN
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA.
Ali, A. S. ( 2013). The Verbal System of Malay and Arabic: Contrastive Analysis.
International Journal of Business and Social Science , 21-37.
158 | P a g e

Baharom, N. (2002). Kamus Dewan Edisi Ketiga. Kuala Lumpur: DBP.


Hawkins, J. (2007). Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford Fajar. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar.
Heah, L. (1989). The Influence of English on Lexical Expansion of Bahasa Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Igaab, Z. K. (2010). Reduplication in English and Arabic: A Contrastive Study. Iraq.
Karim, N. S. ( 2007, Oktober 17). Kata Adverba (Bahagian II). PEDOMAN BAHASA .
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: BERITA HARIAN.
Kroeger, P. R. (2005). Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Leech, G. (2006). A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press.
Maros, M., Hua, T. K., & Salehuddin, K. (2007). Interference in Learning English:
Grammatical Error in English Essay Writing Among Rural Malay Secondary School
Students in Malaysia. Jurnal e-Bangi , 1-15.
Nian, O. S., Jubilado, R. C., Dumanig, F. P., & Noor, A. H. (2012). A Contrastive
Analysis of the Reduplication Process. Polyglossia , 67-71.
Rashidi, S. N. (2011). An Analysis on the Plural Inflection of English Language
Among Malay Student. Marine Frontier-MIMET Technical Bulletin , 67-76.
Tham, S. (1990). A Study of the Evolution of the Malay Language: Social change and
cognitive development. Singapore: NUS.
Umera-Okeke, N. (2008). Exploring Affixation in English. African Research Review
Journal (AFRREV) , 9-35.
Yap, F. H. (2006). Nominalizers (and Copulas) in Malay. Hong Kong: Chinese
University of Hong Kong.

Corder, S. (1981). Error Analysis And Inter Language. London: Oxford University
Press.
Fadzilyna. (2010). ERRORS IN USING PAST TENSE MADE BY EIGHTH GRADERS OF
MTsN MODEL TRENGGALEK. Indonesia: State University of Malang.
Khansir, A. A. (2012). Error Analysis and Second Language Acquisition. Theory and
Practice in Language Studies , 1027-1032.

159 | P a g e

160 | P a g e