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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

power lter under distorted voltage conditions

Mohamed Abdusalam a , Philippe Poure b, , Shahram Karimi a , Shahrokh Saadate a

a

b

Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), CNRS UMR 7037, France

Laboratoire dInstrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), EA 3440, Universit Henri Poincar Nancy Universit, B.P. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre ls Nancy Cedex, France

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 21 December 2007

Received in revised form 30 July 2008

Accepted 13 October 2008

Available online 19 December 2008

Keywords:

Active lter

Harmonics isolator

Distorted voltage conditions

Self-tuning lter

Modulated hysteresis current control

a b s t r a c t

In this paper, a new reference current computation method suitable for shunt active power lter control

under distorted voltage conditions is proposed. The active power lter control is based on the use of selftuning lters (STF) for the reference current generation and on a modulated hysteresis current controller.

This active lter is intended for harmonic compensation of a diode rectier feeding a RL load under

distorted voltage conditions. The study of the active lter control is divided in two parts. The rst one

deals with the harmonic isolator which generates the harmonic reference currents and is experimentally

implemented in a DS1104 card of a DSPACE prototyping system. The second part focuses on the generation

of the switching pattern of the inverter by using a modulated hysteresis current controller, implemented in

an analogue card. The use of STF instead of classical extraction lters allows extracting directly the voltage

and current fundamental components in the axis without phase locked loop (PLL). The performances

are good even under distorted voltage conditions. First, the effectiveness of the new proposed method is

mathematically studied and veried by computer simulation. Then, experimental results are presented

using a DSPACE system associated with the analogue current controller for a real shunt active power lter.

2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Generally, harmonic currents are mostly generated by the AC/DC

power conversion units and the power electronic equipments, used

in domestic and industry applications. The harmonic currents are

the source of adverse effects for many types of equipments such

as heating in distribution transformer, perturbation of sensitive

control equipments and resonances with the grid.

Many solutions are proposed and studied in the literature to

compensate the harmonics such as ltering (passive, active, and

hybrid) with various topologies (shunt, series) for two-wire singlephase, three-wire three-phase and four-wire three-phase systems

[1]. These solutions have been proposed using current and voltage

source inverters to improve the mains power quality.

The passive ltering is a simple way to eliminate the harmonic

currents. However, it does not allow to completely eliminate all of

them and has many drawbacks such as series or parallel resonance

with the system impedance. Moreover, the compensation performances depend on the mains impedance. The active lters (series

and shunt) were also developed and widely used to overcome the

E-mail addresses: Mohamed.Abdusalam@green.uhp-nancy.fr (M. Abdusalam),

philippe.poure@lien.uhp-nancy.fr (P. Poure).

0378-7796/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2008.10.009

well known, the parallel active lters are controlled to generate in

real time the harmonic currents produced by the non-linear loads

[2].

The performances of an active lter mainly depend on the reference current generation strategy. Several papers studied and

compared the performances of different reference current generation strategies under balanced, sinusoidal, unbalanced or distorted

alternating current (AC) voltages conditions [35]. In all of them,

authors demonstrated that under balanced and sinusoidal AC voltages conditions, the strategies such as the so-called pq theory and

Synchronous Reference Frame Theory (SRF) provide similar performances. Differences arise when one works under distorted and

unbalanced AC voltages. In real conditions, the mains voltages are

distorted, which decreases the lter performances [6]. In this case,

the pq theory performances are poor, from the harmonics point of

view, and the best results are obtained with the SRF. However, the

SRF theory requires a phase locked loop (PLL) which increases the

complexity of the control system: an additional card is usually used

and the controller implementation is more complex. In this paper,

we theoretically and experimentally studied a new reference current generation suitable for shunt active power lter control under

distorted voltage conditions by using self-tuning lters (STF) for the

reference current generation and a modied version of the classical

pq theory.

760

directly from electrical signals (distorted voltage and current) in

reference frame. In the following, the frequency and dynamic

responses of the STF are mathematically analyzed and discussed.

The major advantages of the STF are cited hereby:

no phase delay and unity gain at the fundamental frequency;

no PLL required;

easy to implement in digital or analogue control system.

3. Control strategy

In this paper, we validated the STF performances in a real shunt

active power lter. A theoretical and experimental study of a threephase parallel active lter for harmonic compensation (Fig. 1) is

presented. Improved harmonic isolator based on STF and threephase modulated hysteresis current control are used. In Section 2,

the system conguration is presented. Then, in Section 3, the lter control strategy is discussed. We used STF instead of classical

harmonic extraction based on high pass lters (HPF) or low pass

lters (LPF). A focus is made on the STF performances by mathematical analysis under distorted voltage conditions. The current

controller is also presented [7]. In Sections 4 and 5, simulation and

experimental results are presented, respectively.

2. System conguration

Fig. 1 presents the shunt active lter topology based on a threephase voltage source inverter, using IGBT switches, connected in

parallel with the AC three-phase three-wire system through three

inductors LF . The capacitor C is used in the DC side to smooth the

DC terminal voltage. The non-linear load is a three-phase diode

rectier supplying a RL load. This load generates harmonic currents

in the supply system.

The proposed control strategy can be divided in two parts. The

rst part is the harmonic isolator (reference current generation). It

consists in generating the harmonic current references and uses STF

instead of HPF or LPF usually used in the pq theory rst proposed

by Akagi et al. [8]. This harmonic isolator will be implemented

into a DSPACE system (DS1104 card) in the experimental study. The

second part is the current control of the power converter. This controller generates the suited switching pattern to drive the IGBTs of

the inverter by using a modulated hysteresis current controller. In

the experimental study, this controller is implemented into an analogue card. Fig. 2 shows the schematic diagram of the active power

lter system.

According to Fig. 2, the voltage vdc , the load currents iLa and

iLb , and the source voltages vsa and vsb of the three-phase threewire system are acquired and converted into digital signals at the

inputs of the DSPACE system by Analogue-to-Digital converters. The

sampling period for acquisition is equal to 30 s. The current iLc

is computed by iLc = (iLa + iLb ) and the voltage vsc is calculated by

vsc = (vsa + vsb ). Then, we apply a modied version of the pq theory

(see Section 3.3) developed in our laboratory for generating the

, i and i (see Fig. 2).

current references ifa

fb

fc

These digital references are the outputs of the DSPACE system

and are converted into analogue signals by Digital-to-Analogue

converters. By using an analogue card developed in our laboratory,

we generate the switching pattern for the inverter by implementing

the analogue modulated hysteresis current controller (see Section

3.4).

3.2. Self-tuning lter

3.2.1. Principle and frequency response of the STF

Hong-sock Song studied the integration in the synchronous reference frame [9]. He demonstrated that:

Vxy (t) = e

jt

(1)

where Uxy and Vxy are the instantaneous signals, respectively before

and after integration in the synchronous reference frame. The previous equation can be expressed by the following transfer function

after Laplace transformation:

H(s) =

Vxy (s)

s + j

= 2

Uxy (s)

s + 2

(2)

761

sation. One can see that small value of K increases lter selectivity.

Dynamic response consideration is studied in the following section.

Thus, by using a STF, the fundamental component can be extracted

from distorted electrical signals (voltage or current) without any

phase delay and amplitude changing.

3.2.2. Dynamic response of the STF under distorted conditions

A three-phase distorted electrical signal x(t) can be expressed in

Fourier series by Eqs. (8a)(8c) as follows:

xa (t) = X1 sin(t + 1 ) +

n

Xh sin(ht + h )

(8a)

h=2

to obtain a STF with a cut-off frequency c so the previous transfer

function H(s) becomes:

H(s) =

Vxy (s)

(s + K) + jc

=K

Uxy (s)

(s + K)2 + 2

x (s) =

K(s + K)

(s + K)2 + c2

Kc

2

(s + K) + c2

x (s)

x (s) +

Kc

(s + K)2 + c2

K(s + K)

2

(s + K) + c2

x (s)

(4)

x (s)

(5)

n

Xh sin ht + h

2

3

(8b)

2

3

n

Xh sin ht + h +

2

3

(8c)

h=2

reference frame by using the Concordia transformation:

x

x

1

2 1

2

=

3

3

2

2

3

xa

xb

xc

(9)

respectively before and after ltering (see Fig. 4).

Eqs. (4) and (5) can be expressed as follows:

x (t) =

3

X1 sin(t + 1 ) +

2

x (t) =

3

X1 cos(t + 1 )

2

3

Xh sin(ht + h )

2

(10)

h=2

3

Xh cos(ht + h )

2

n

(11)

h=2

K

c

[x (s) x (s)]

x (s)

s

s

(6)

K

c

x (s) = [x (s) x (s)] +

x (s)

s

s

(7)

x (s) =

(3)

2

3

h=2

xc (t)=X1 sin t + 1 +

By introducing the parameter K in H(s), the transfer function magnitude is limited and more particularly equal to one for = c .

Moreover, the phase delay is equal to zero for the cut-off frequency

c . By replacing the input signals Uxy (s) by x (s) and the output

signals Vxy (s) by x (s), the following expressions can be obtained:

x (s) =

xb (t) = X1 sin t + 1

depicted in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows the frequency response of the STF versus different values of the parameter K for fc = 50 Hz. One can notice

that no displacement is introduced by this lter at the system pul-

Eqs. (4) and (5) and by applying the inverse Laplace transformation,

the following instantaneous expressions for the STF outputs are

obtained:

x (t) =

3

X1 (1 eKt ) sin(t + 1 ) +

2

3

X

h

2

1+A

n

h=2

(12)

x (t) =

3

X1 (1 eKt )cos(t + 1 )

2

3

X

h

2

1+A

n

h=2

(13)

Fig. 4. Bode diagram for the STF versus pulsation for different values of the parameter K (fc = 50 Hz).

with Ah = (1 h)/K.

From the analytical Eqs. (12) and (13), we examined the dynamic

response and the inuence of the parameter K on the STF performances. The time constant of the STF is equal to1/K. Therefore, the

transient time is increased when K is decreased. Additionally, the

STF is stable for any positive value of the parameter K.

Also, the phase delay for the fundamental component is zero and

is approximately equal to 90 for the other harmonics. Moreover,

762

gain equal to:

Gh =

1 + Ah 2

for h 1

K 2 + (1 h) 2

(14)

(fundamental component), this gain is equal to 1. This performance

is illustrated by the frequency response of the STF shown in Fig. 4.

The load currents, iLa , iLb and iLc of the three-phase three-wire

system are transformed into the axis (see Fig. 5) as follows:

i

i

1

2 1

2

=

3

3

2

2

3

iLa

iLb

(15)

iLc

decomposed into DC and AC components by

i = i + i

i = i + i

(16)

Then, the STF extracts the fundamental components at the pulsation c directly from the currents in the axis. After that, the

harmonic components of the load currents are computed by

subtracting the STF input signals from the corresponding outputs

(see Fig. 3). The resulting signals are the AC components, i and i ,

which correspond to the harmonic components of the load currents

iLa , iLb and iLc in the stationary reference frame.

For the source voltage, the three voltages vsa , vsb and vsc are

transformed to the reference frame as follows:

v

v

1

2 1

2

=

3

3

2

2

3

vsa

vsb

vsc

(17)

Then, we applied self-tuning ltering to these voltage components. This lter allows suppressing of any harmonic component

of the distorted mains voltages and consequently leads to improve

the harmonic isolator performance.

After computation of the fundamental component v and the

harmonic currents i , we calculate the p and q powers as follows:

p = i v + i v

(18)

(19)

where

p = p + p

q = q + q

(20)

The power components p and q related to the same voltages

and currents can be written as follows:

q = i v i v

p

q

v v

v v

i

i

(21)

voltage, pc , to the alternative component of the instantaneous real

power, p (see Fig. 5), the current references in the reference

, are calculated by

frame, i

=

i

=

i

v

v 2

2

+ v

v

v 2 + v 2

(p + pc )

(p + pc ) +

(22)

v

q

v 2 + v 2

(23)

v 2

+ v

i

= i +

= i +

i

v

v 2

+ v

v

v 2 + v 2

pc

(24)

pc

(25)

Current references obtained from Eqs. (24) and (25) include two

terms, the rst term contains the harmonic current components

and the second one is a fundamental current component in phase

with the supply voltage. Consequently, a small amount of active

power is absorbed from or released to the DC capacitor so as to

regulate the DC bus voltage. Then, the lter reference currents in

the abc coordinates are dened by

ifa

ifb

ifc

1

1

2

3 2

1

0

3

2

i

.

i

(26)

763

Fig. 7. Reference and measured current.

Consider now the current controller. With linear controllers

using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques, a constant

switching frequency can be achieved and a well-dened harmonic

spectrum can be obtained, but with limited dynamic properties. Compared with linear controllers, non-linear ones based on

hysteresis strategies allows faster dynamic response and better

robustness with respect to the variation of the non-linear load

[7]. Nevertheless, with non-linear current controllers, the switching frequency is not constant and this technique generates a large

side harmonics band around the switching frequency. To x the

switching frequency, one solution could consist in using a variable

hysteresis bandwidth [7]. This solution which implies the knowledge of the system model and its parameters with enough precision

is difcult to implement experimentally. Here, we implemented a

non-linear current controller, so-called modulated hysteresis current controller [10].

Fig. 6 presents the modulated hysteresis current controller. The

principle of this controller consists in adding to the error signal

X (X = if if ) a triangular carrier signal (Tr ) with amplitude (Atr )

and period (T). The carrier frequency is chosen equal to the desired

switching frequency for the voltage inverter. The resulting signal

(H) constitutes then the new reference of a classical hysteresis controller with a bandwidth of 2Bh . The outputs of the hysteresis block

are the switching pattern.

In order to set the switching frequency in steady state, it

should exist during each switching period T, only two intersections

between the error X and the triangular signal: the rst one with the

higher limit of the hysteresis controller and the second one with its

lower limit (Fig. 7).

To control the active lter at xed switching frequency, the triangular signal amplitude Atr and the hysteresis bandwidth Bh for the

modulated hysteresis current controller must be carefully selected.

If these parameters are not well chosen, the effective switching frequency would be either higher or lower than the desired one set by

the triangular signal as illustrated in Fig. 8.

Shamsi et al. investigated a high frequency average model of the

controller to dene the suited parameters [10]. Thanks to a limit

orbit analysis, they demonstrated that with appropriate values of

Atr and Bh , irregular orbits can be avoided. For any value of the

load parameters, it has been shown that the current waveform is

Fig. 8. Examples of bad design of control parameters leading to: (a) switching frequency larger than the desired one; (b) switching frequency lower than the desired one.

Fig. 9. Simulation results for the phase 1 under sinusoidal voltage conditions: (a) load current; (b) supply current after compensation.

764

Table 1

Power system parameters.

System frequency

System voltage

Inductor: LF

Inductor: LC

DC bus voltage

Capacitor: Cd

Resistor: Rd

Inductor: Ld

50 Hz

130 Vmax

3 mH

0.8 mH

400 V

1100 F

48.6

40 mH

Bh are correctly chosen [10].

3.5. DC bus voltage control

A DC bus controller is required to regulate the DC bus voltage

vdc and to compensate for the active lter losses. The measured

DC bus voltage vdc is compared with its reference value vdc . The

resulting error is applied to a proportional integral (PI) regulator. So,

the active lter can build up and regulate the DC capacitor voltage

without any external power supply.

Fig. 11. Experimental waveforms for the harmonic reference currents ifa

, ifb

and ifc

(5 A/div, 10 ms/div).

4. Simulation results

Fig. 9 shows the simulation results for the system depicted in

Fig. 2 under sinusoidal voltage conditions. The simulation parameters are dened in Table 1. They correspond to the experimental

parameters. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the load current

is equal to 28.08%. The THD of the supply currents is reduced to 2.3%

(K = 80 for the STF) after compensation. A difference can be noticed

in Fig. 9 between the fundamental component of the load current

and the supply current. It is justied by the fundamental component of the lter current in phase with the supply voltage to regulate

the DC bus voltage. Fig. 10 illustrates the simulation results under

distorted voltage conditions. In this case the supply voltage is not

sinusoidal and includes a 5th harmonic component (THD = 9.96%).

The THD of the supply current under this condition is equal to 2.4%

after ltering. The simulation results verify the effectiveness and

performances of the proposed harmonic isolation under distorted

voltage conditions.

5. Experimental results

The experimental active lter was realized according to Fig. 2.

It consists in a three-phase source voltage inverter based on IGBT

power semiconductors. The harmonic isolator uses STFs and was

Fig. 12. Experimental results for the phase a, from top to bottom: load current iL

(A), lter current iF (A) and source current iS (A) (5 A/div, 10 ms/div).

pattern produced by the modulated hysteresis current controller.

The non-linear load is a diode rectier feeding a RL load and the

THD of the supply voltage is equal to 3.7%. The harmonic isolator

is implemented by using a DSPACE DS1104 development board. It

generates the harmonic current references. Fig. 11 shows the threephase harmonic current references generated at the output of the

DSPACE system.

The switching frequency of the power semiconductors is set at

20 kHz by choosing a suited triangular carrier signal at the same

Fig. 10. Simulation results for the phase 1 under distorted voltage conditions: (a) supply voltage; (b) supply current after compensation.

765

Fig. 13. Harmonic spectrum of the source current: (a) before compensation; (b) after compensation.

0.15 A and the bandwidth Bh is equal to 0.05 A [10].

Fig. 12 shows the experimental waveforms for the currents of

the studied system. The THD of the non-linear load iL is equal to

26% while it is equal to 2.5% for the source current iS after ltering.

Fig. 13 presents, for the phase 1, the harmonic spectrum of the

source current before and after active ltering. It demonstrates the

effectiveness and the efciency of the proposed control scheme.

Fig. 14 shows experimental results for the DC bus controller. The

voltage vdc on the DC side of the inverter is stable and regulated

around its reference.

With the modulated hysteresis current controller (Atr , Bh ), the

active lter generates the suited currents to efciently track the

references produced by the harmonic isolator. The use of the STF

directly after transformation in the control system allows us

to isolate the fundamental component of the supply voltages and

guarantees high performances to extract the AC components.

6. Conclusion

This paper has discussed the control and performances of a

shunt active power lter under distorted voltage conditions. The

hardware implementation has been performed based on the optimisation of the reference current generation and using a modied

version of the pq theory. The control of the active lter was divided

in two parts, the rst one realized by the DSPACE system to gen-

analogue card for the switching pattern generation, implementing

a modulated hysteresis current controller.

Self-tuning lters have been introduced in the proposed modied version of the pq theory instead of classical extraction lters

(high pass and/or low pass lters) for both grid voltages and load

currents. The use of this lter experimentally leads to satisfactory performances since it perfectly extracts the harmonic currents

under distorted conditions. For the current controller, we implemented the modulated hysteresis current controller to obtain a

xed switching frequency for the IGBTs.

The simulation and the experimental results have demonstrated

and conforted the major advantages of using STF and modulated

hysteresis current controller in the lter control. In conclusion,

the proposed control for shunt active power lter is effective in

installation on an actual power system under distorted conditions.

References

[1] B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, A. Chandra, A review of active lters for power quality improvement, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 46 (October (5))

(1999) 960971.

[2] S.A. Gonzalez, R. Garcia-Retegui, M. Benedetti, Harmonic computation technique suitable for active power lters, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics 54 (October) (2007) 27913279.

[3] G.W. Chang, C.M. Yeh, Optimisation-based strategy for shunt active power lter control under non-ideal supply voltages, IEE Proceedings Electric Power

Applications 152 (March (2)) (2005) 182190.

[4] S. George, V. Agarwal, A DSP based optimal algorithm for shunt active lter

under nonsinusoidal supply and unbalanced load conditions, IEEE Transactions

on Power Electronics 22 (March) (2007) 593601.

[5] M. Montero, E.R. Cadaval, F. Gonzalez, Comparison of control strategies for shunt

active power lters in three-phase four-wire systems, IEEE Transactions on

Power Electronics 22 (January) (2007) 229236.

[6] T.C. Green, J.H. Marks, Control techniques for active power lters, IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications 152 (March (2)) (2005) 369381.

[7] M.P. Kazmierkowski, L. Malesani, Current control techniques for three-phase

voltage source PWM converters: a survey, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 45 (5) (1998) 691703.

[8] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, Generalized theory of the instantaneous

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[9] S. Hong-Seok, P. Hyun-Gyu, N. Kwanghee, An instantaneous phase angle detection algorithm under unbalanced line voltage condition, in: IEEE 30th Annual

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[10] M. Nejad, S. Pierfederici, J.P. Martin, F. Meibody-Tabar, Study of an hybrid current controller suitable for DCDC or DCAC applications, IEEE Transactions on

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