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EXPERIMENT 3: KINETICS (ORDER OF REACTION)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the order of a reaction.


INTRODUCTION
The dependence of a reaction on concentration and order of reaction is
described by a rate law that has the following form:
Rate = k [A]x [B]y[C]z
Where k is the rate of constant, x is the order of a reaction with respect to
reactant A, y is the order of reaction with respect to reactant B, z is the
order of reaction with respect to reactant C and [] represent concentration
in moles per litre. The sum of c, y and z is known as the overall order of
reaction. Even though temperature is not included in the rate law, its
plays an important role in the rate of reaction so it must be held constant
during a kinetic experiment. The rate of a reaction must be determined
experimentally and it cannot be determined by looking at the balanced
chemical equation.
APPARATUS
1.
2.
3.
4.

50 mL Burette
Conical flask
15 cm test tube
Stop watch

CHEMICALS

1. Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4), 0.020M.


2. Oxalic acid, (H2C2O4), 0.50M.
PROCEDURE
1. Three burettes, one containing KMnO4 (~0.02M), one with H2C2O4
(~0.5M) and one with distilled water were set up. Each burette was
labelled. The exact molarities of the KMnO4 and H2C2O4 were
recorded.
2. The required amount of H2C2O4 and any distilled water were placed
into thoroughly washed and dried Erlenmeyer flask.
3. The required amount of KMnO4 was placed in 15 cm test tube.

4. The permanganate was added to the oxalic acid and the timing was
started as the permanganate tube was emptied.
5. The conical flask was swirled thoroughly to mix the solution and was
continue swirled until the solution turns a light yellow or brown
colour. The time was stopped and recorded when the reaction takes
place.
6. Steps 3 to 5 were repeated for experiment 2 and 3.
7. The rates for each of the three experiments were determined.
8. Full rate equation for each experiment was written and the value of
k, x and y was determined.
RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
DATA COLLECTED
1. The molarity of KMnO4 and H2C2O4
2. The volumes used
3. The time it took for each trial for each experiment
Reagents

H2C2O4
KMnO4
H2O

Molarity

0.020 M
0.50 M
_

Trial 1
Experiment 1 205.2
Experiment 2 243.0
Experiment 3 371.4

Experiment

Experiment

Experiment

1 (mL)

20.00
10.00
0.00

(mL)
20.00
5.00
5.00

(mL)
10.00
10.00
10.00

Trial 2
205.8
247.2
379.2

Trial 3
204.6
241.2
383.4

CALCULATIONS
1. The concentration of KMnO4 used in each experiment

Average (s)
205.2
243.8
378.0

2. The concentration of H2C2O4 used in each experiment

3. The average time for each experiment

4. The initial rate for each experiment.

Summary of the results show:


1. The order with respect to KMnO4 and H2C2O4

2. The overall order of this reaction


3. The rate constant for the reaction

QUESTIONS
1. In this experiment the orders of reaction x and y are obtained by
taking ratios of rates for two trials or experiments
a) Explain how this experiment can be modified so that the orders of
reaction can be obtained by plotting appropriate graphs.

b) What plots must be done and explain how the orders of reaction can
be determined from the plots

c) Would this method (graphically) be more accurate that what has


been done experimentally?

2. Orders of reaction are normally integers. It is possible to have nonintegers e.g fractions as order of reaction? If yes give an example of
such reaction.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE
M.T. Abas, (2011), Physical Chemistry: Electrochemistry, New Edition, UiTM
Publications
R. Chang,
Publications

Chemistry

10th

Edition:

Electrochemistry,

McGraw-Hill