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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

reinforced concrete shear walls subjected to cyclic loading

Naohiro Nakamura a,∗ , Naohiko Tsunashima b , Tomio Nakano c , Eizaburo Tachibana d

a

Research & Development Institute, Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Ohtsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395, Japan

b

Nuclear Power Division, The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka, Japan

c

Newjec Inc., Osaka, Japan

d

Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

article info a b s t r a c t

Article history: An analytical study using the nonlinear finite-element method was conducted for reinforced concrete

Received 6 March 2008 shear wall tests under cyclic loading to estimate the damage from the aspect of energy consumption. First,

Received in revised form the validity of the analytical method was confirmed by studying the load–displacement relationship, the

17 December 2008

condition of the cracking, and a comparison between the total strain energy of the analysis and the loaded

Accepted 17 December 2008

Available online 16 January 2009

energy of the test. Next, the distribution of the energy consumption was investigated, and the division

between rebars and concrete was studied. It was determined that energy consumption is an effective

Keywords:

method for estimating damage of shear walls.

Reinforced concrete © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shear wall

Energy consumption

3D-FEM

Nonlinear analysis

be considered for this purpose. In order to estimate the damage

The finite element method (FEM) is useful for structural to an RC structure, a number of investigations based on energy

analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Many studies, absorption ability have been carried out recently [e.g., [12,13]]. A

following the first conducted by Scordelis et al. in 1967 [1], fragility assessment method in which consumed energy is used as

have resulted in improvements in the constitutive models and

an index has been proposed as well [e.g., [14,15]].

development of solutions to static cyclic loading and dynamic

However, the results of these studies were obtained mainly

problems [e.g., [2,3]]. Furthermore, to validate these methods,

numerous experiments were performed [e.g., [4,5]], and many from beams and columns that rupture because of bending. The

researchers continue to improve the accuracy and practicality of mechanisms of energy consumption and the energy absorption

the methods [e.g., [6–9]]. ability in the case of shear failure are not well understood yet.

The authors investigated the ultimate behavior of nuclear There are few examples of energy estimation with regard to shear

power plant buildings at their failure stage, using five times walls that are greatly affected by shear deformation. This energy

the design-level ground motion [10], and the effects of the estimation is important, especially for nuclear power facilities. In

soil–structure interaction [11] by conducting seismic response particular, the distribution and allotment of energy consumption

analyses using detailed nonlinear FEM models of the buildings. in shear walls have not always been investigated satisfactorily

In the seismic design of nuclear power facilities in Japan, because they are difficult to measure experimentally.

nonlinear seismic-response analyses of buildings have been

In RC nonlinear analyses, the damage conditions are estimated

performed mainly using lumped-mass system models and the

generally using figures of concrete cracks, rebar yielding condi-

shear–strain of each storey has been used as a damage assessment

tions, etc. They provide important information about the damage

index. When FEM is used, local damage to each part of the building

can be understood in detail. However, estimating damage to the condition. However, the information is completely separated be-

entire building is necessary for seismic design. tween concrete and rebar at each position. On the other hand, since

energy consumption is a common and unified index, it is an effec-

tive estimation tool for surveying the total damage conditions. It

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 476 47 1700; fax: +81 476 47 7744. can elucidate how the energy inputted to the specimen by the im-

E-mail address: nakamura.naohiro@takenaka.co.jp (N. Nakamura). posed loads is shared between the concrete and rebar, and clarify

0141-0296/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.12.013

1000 N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009

to different failure modes.

As a basic study on the energy assessment of cylindrical and

I-shaped shear walls (hereafter referred as ‘‘RC shear walls’’),

Fig. 3. Crack and yield surface.

the energy consumption and damage to the RC shear walls

subjected to cyclic loading performed in simulation analyses in

past experiments are investigated, in this study.

First, the results obtained from the experiments of the

load–displacement relationship and cracking are compared with

the analytical results to confirm the accuracy of the analysis. Next,

the relationship between rotational angles and hysteretic absorbed

energy (hereafter referred to as consumed energy) is investigated

to confirm the validity of the hysteresis models used in the analysis.

Furthermore, the distribution of the energy consumed in the test

specimen is investigated. In particular, by dividing the burden of

rebars and concrete, the characteristics of the energy consumed

for each are investigated and compared with the damage

conditions.

Fig. 4. Envelope curve of stress–strain of concrete.

2. Analysis method

occurs, the stress–strain relationship of the point can be expressed

In this study, simulations of tests are performed using the as follows:

3D nonlinear analysis method. The validity and efficiency of the (

1σ1

) "

E1 (ε1 ) 0 0 1 ε1

# ( )

analysis program used in this study were confirmed by simulation 1σ2 = 0 E2 (ε2 ) 0 · 1 ε2 (1)

analyses of many shear wall specimens, i.e., cyclic loading tests [16] 1τ12 0 0 G12 (γ12 ) 1γ12

and dynamic shaking table tests [17,18]. An outline of the analysis

method is shown below. where σ1 and ε1 are the stress and strain, respectively, in the

The RC wall is modeled using layered shell elements fabricated direction perpendicular to the crack surface; σ2 and ε2 are the

by substituting layers for rebars and concrete under consideration stress and strain, respectively, in the direction parallel with the

of the antiplane bending (see Fig. 1). The nonlinearity of materials crack surface; and τ12 and γ12 are the shear stress and strain,

is considered for the in-plane stress–strain components, and the respectively, along the crack surface.

out-of-plane shear component is dealt with as linearity. Note that in this equation, the direction of the second crack is set

at right angles to the direction of the first crack. Fig. 4 indicates the

envelope curve of the stress–strain relationship for both directions

2.1. Modeling of concrete (σ1 –ε1 and σ2 –ε2 ) used in Eq. (1). The curve was determined based

on Fafitis and Shar [19] and Stevens et al. [20].

The uniaxial stress–strain relationship of concrete before Moreover, the compressive stiffness and strength in the

cracking was approximated from a tri-linear curve, as shown in direction parallel with the crack surface is reduced by the constant

Fig. 2. As shown in Fig. 3, before cracking, the concrete is an coefficient λ, based on the following equation proposed by

elasto-plastic body, which conforms to the Drucker–Prager yield Naganuma [21]:

condition.

The cracked concrete is expressed using the smeared crack λ = 0.74 − σc2 /255. (2)

model. The first crack occurs when the main tensile stress reaches In this study, the value of λ was set as 0.63 for all specimens.

σcr at each Gaussian point in each concrete layer. Once a crack This value corresponds to σ c2 = 29 N/mm2 . The hysteresis

N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009 1001

Fig. 5. Hysteresis curve for the stress in the case of cyclic loading.

loading was approximated using a hyperbola based on the results

of investigations carried out by Stevens et al. [20] and Karsan

Fig. 6. Shear stiffness after cracking.

et al. [22] (see Fig. 5).

The hyperbolic function fitted between points b and c shown

in the figure was determined using the positions of points b and c

as well as the gradient at point b. The maximum tensile value was

applied to point c and the gradient at point b was set as a slope

(Ep ) connecting point a and the plastic strain point (εp , 0). εp can be

calculated using the following equation [22]:

εp εmax 2 εmax

= 0.145 + 0.13 (3)

εc2 εc2 εc2

εmax and εc2 indicate the maximum compressive strain and the

strain in the case of the maximum compressive stress, respectively.

Fig. 7. Hysteresis curve of reinforcement.

Furthermore, the hyperbolic function between points d and e was

determined by both the positions of points d and e and the gradient

at point e. As for the position, the decrease in the stress caused 2.2. Modeling of rebars

by cyclic loading was considered, as shown in the following. The

gradient was set to be 0.9 times the value at point b. The rebars were considered uniaxial materials in a bar arrange-

Yamada et al. [23] proposed an experimental formula (Eq. (4)) ment direction with a bilinear restoring force corresponding to the

concerning the decrease in the strength in the case of cyclic loading kinematic hardening rule, as shown in Fig. 7. The second gradient

by conducting constant strain amplitude cyclic compressive tests. was set to be 1/100 of the initial stiffness. It was assumed that the

n, σ1 , and σn in Eq. (4) indicate the number of cyclic loading, steel bars are completely bonded to the concrete.

the stress for the maximum strain in the case of the initial cyclic

loading, and the stress at the nth loading stage, respectively. The 2.3. Estimation of energy quantum

coefficient a, which is a function of the compressive strain ε

obtained from the tests, is expressed as Eq. (5). The total amount of external energy (W ) that has been input

Under the condition that Eq. (4) can also be applied to the to the test specimen is indicated in Eq. (7) as the sum of imposed

random strain amplitude in this paper, Eq. (6) was used. σn in this loads. M in this equation represents the number of loading points.

equation indicates the compressive stress caused by the previous Pi and δi indicate the load and the displacement in a loading

cyclic loading for the maximum compressive strain (εmax ), and direction at point i, respectively.

σn+1 is the stress for the same strain as that caused by the new In cases where the loading is carried out at a low speed, the

cyclic loading with consideration to the decrease in the stress. kinetic energy as well as the absorbed energy due to viscous

damping can be neglected, and W is consumed as internal strain

σn = na · σ1 (4)

energy U. This internal energy can be calculated using Eq. (8) as the

0.657

a = −5.41ε (5) sum of the strain energy of each layer for each element where N is

a the number of elements, Ak is the area of the element number k, L is

n+1

σn+1 = σn · . (6) the number of layers in a corresponding element, tj is the thickness

n of layer j, and {εj } and {σj } are the strain and stress vectors of layer

In Fig. 5, the stress at point a corresponds to σ1 and the stress at j, respectively.

point e corresponds to σn+1 (σ2 in this case) obtained from Eq. (6). M Z

Moreover, cases in which the increment in the strain starts from

X

W = Pi · dδi (7)

point e and it reaches the envelope curve, the stress is to be reset i=1

as n = 1. !

N L Z

As for the shear stiffness of elements after cracking, the X X T

dεj · σj Ak .

equation regarding the shear transmitting stiffness on the crack U = tj · (8)

k=1 j =1

surface proposed by Yamada et al. [24] is used (see Fig. 6). The

value 3.53 to calculate Gs is also shown in the paper based on their The consumed energy of the concrete and rebar (Uc and Us ) can

experiments. be calculated by applying Eq. (9) to the concrete and rebar layers

1002 N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009

Table 1

Re-bar arrangement for single surface of shear wall for test specimens. (All re-bars

are arranged for both surface of the wall.)

Specimen Vertical direction Transversal direction

C-2 D6 @ 4.5 (degree)b D6 @89 (mm)

I-1 D10 @82 (mm) D10 @82 (mm)

I-2 D10 @61 (mm) D10 @61 (mm)

a

D6 means the deformed bar whose equivalent diameter is 6 mm.

b

The angle at the circumference.

Furthermore, in the case of the increment value of δi being 1δi , the

increment value of the concrete and that of the rebar in the bearing

load (1Pci and 1Psi ) at each loading stage can be obtained by

Eq. (10). As a result, the load–displacement relationship, in which

the composite shell element is divided into the concrete and the

rebar, can be illustrated.

!

N Lc Z

X X T

dεj · σj Ak

Uc = tj ·

k =1 j=1

N Ls Z ! (9)

X X T

dεj · σj Ak

Us = tj ·

k=1 j =1

1U 1UC 1US

1Pi = , 1PC i = , 1PS i = . (10)

1δi 1δi 1δi

cylindrical shear walls and I-shaped shear walls [25] are carried

out.

With regard to the former, two specimens C25-A2-12 and

C25-A2-24 (hereafter, C-1 and C-2), which were obtained from

the horizontal loading test for the cylindrical shear walls shown Fig. 8. Test specimen’s shape for cylindrical shear walls (C-1, C-2).

in reference [26], are subjected to the investigation. Their

reinforcement ratios are different from each other.

As for the latter, two specimens 36-M8-30 and 48-H8-30 angle. In the vicinity of R = 0.3 × 10−3 , shear cracks occurred

(hereafter, I-1 and I-2) are investigated. They were obtained from a on the web surface (the surface where the center directions are

series of tests shown in reference [27]. Their concrete compressive ±90◦ in Fig. 8) of the cylindrical wall. In the case of R = 2 × 10−3 ,

strengths are similar, but the reinforcement ratios are different. the transverse rebars at the center of the web and the vertical

Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate the shape of each specimen. In C-1 rebars at the bottom of the flange on the tensile side yielded

and C-2, the displacement for calculating the rotational angle was almost simultaneously. Then, with an increase in the rotational

measured at the position on the ±90◦ direction web surface and angle, the number of yielding points increased. After that, the

50 mm below the lower end of the loading slab. In I-1 and I-2, it was test specimen showed high deformability. The compression failure

measured on the center of the loading direction and at the lower of concrete at the bottom on the compressive side of the flange

end of the loading slab. These positions are shown in Figs. 8 and 9. surface was not discernible. In the vicinity of R = 40 × 10−3 ,

Table 1 shows the reinforcement pattern of each specimen. Table 2 the central part of the web surface of the cylindrical wall swelled

lists material characteristics, the scale of the tests, and an outline conspicuously toward the outside and the specimen reached shear

of the test results. The loading patterns of the test are shown in failure.

Fig. 10(a) and (d). The reinforcement ratios of these specimens are Test specimen C-2 behaved in almost the same manner as

high because the specimens are modeled as parts of nuclear power C-1. However, at the end of the test, compression failure of concrete

facilities. began to occur in the area at almost ±60◦ from the compressive

edge center in the direction of 180◦ , as shown in Fig. 8. The

3.1. Failure behavior of cylindrical specimen compression failure spread horizontally toward the compressive

edge, and the specimen completely collapsed at R = 17 × 10−3 .

This test was conducted to estimate the effects of the concrete

strength and the reinforcement ratio upon its load–displacement 3.2. Failure behavior of I-shaped specimen

relationship of the cylindrical RC shear wall. The scale of specimens

was 1/38 for shear walls of a real nuclear power building. The As for test specimen I-1, diagonal cracks at the area peripheral

reinforcement ratio was determined so that the specimen can to the web wall as well as bending cracks at the bottom of the

show shear failure. flange wall occurred in the proximity of R = 0.3 × 10−3 . Near

Regarding specimen C-1, bending cracks occurred on the flange R = 0.7 × 10−3 , shear cracks occurred at the lower part of the web

surface (the surface where the center directions are 0◦ or 180◦ in wall, and the stiffness of the specimen decreased slightly. Then,

Fig. 8) of the cylindrical wall near R = 0.1 × 10−3 for the rotational as the displacement amplitude increased, the number of cracks

N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009 1003

Fig. 9. Test specimen’s shape for I-shaped shear walls (I-1, I-2).

(a) Loading pattern for specimens C-1, C-2. (b) Specimen C-1.

(c) Specimen C-2. (d) I Loading pattern for specimens I-1, I-2.

Fig. 10. Time history of strain energy for entire body and re-bar (Internal strain energies are used for all lines).

Table 2

Material properties and outline of results of test specimens.

Specimen no. C25-A2-12 C25-A2-24 36-M8-30 48-H8-30

Model scale 1/38 1/38 Not defined Not defined

Shear span ratio 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8

Elastic modulus of concrete (N/mm2 ) 2.26 × 104 2.06 × 104 2.36 × 104 3.49 × 104

Compressive strength of concrete (N/mm2 ) 23.0 25.2 39.3 41.8

Reinforcement ratio 1.2%, 0.6% 2.4%, 1.2% 1.16% 1.56%

Elastic modulus of re-bar (N/mm2 ) 2.07 × 105 2.07 × 105 1.93 × 105 1.93 × 105

Yield stress of re-bar (N/mm2 ) 324 324 296 296

Average axial stress (N/mm2 ) 0 0 1.96 1.96

Maximum strength (kN) 414 639 1901 2264

Rotational angle for maximum load (rad) 41 × 10−3 17 × 10−3 10.0 × 10−3 6.0 × 10−3

Failure mode Shear bond Shear compression Shear slip Shear slip

Load for failure (kN) 414 639 1754 2156

Rotational angle for failure (rad) 41 × 10−3 17 × 10−3 12.2 × 10−3 10.0 × 10−3

increased. In the case of R = 2.6 × 10−3 , both the vertical rebars R = 8 × 10−3 . The specimen reached the maximum load near

at the web part and the transverse cracks at the bottom of the R = 10 × 10−3 and ruptured in the shear sliding failure.

flange on the tensile side yielded. Compression failure began to Test specimen I-2 behaved in almost the same manner as I-1.

occur at the bottom on the compressive side of the web wall at The compression failure began to occur at R = 6 × 10−3 and the

1004 N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009

Fig. 12. Cracking conditions of specimen C-1 at failure stage. (a) Test web part (on the side of 90◦ ), (b) Analysis web part (on the side of 90◦ ), (c) Test flange web part (on

the side of 0◦ ), (d) Analysis flange web part (on the side of 0◦ ).

specimen reached the maximum load at almost the same time. It Table 3

Marks in figures for cracking condition (Figs. 12 and 13).

ruptured in the shear sliding failure at R = 8 × 10−3 .

Cracking (Closed at the final step)

4. Outline of simulation analyses Cracking (Opened at the final step)

Strain is greater than the steel yielding strain after cracking.

Simulation analyses are performed for each test and the

Axial crash after cracking.

accuracy and validity of the analyses are investigated.

Fig. 11 illustrates the analysis model for each specimen. The Strain perpendicular to the crack is greater than the steel yielding strain.

loading slab of the cylindrical specimen was made using linear

elements and those of the I-shaped model were made with a rigid

the yield strain of the rebars. The analysis results of the yield

body. In the analyses, the enforced displacement was given to the

conditions of the rebars correspond quite well to the test results.

loading points at the ends of both specimens.

Furthermore, the analysis results of C-2 and I-2, which are nearly

It was confirmed that each specimen can be analyzed in a range

equivalent to those of C-1 and I-1, correspond quite well to the test

up to the vicinity of the failure rotational angle. In this paper, in

results.

order that the consumed energy at the failure stage may easily be

Fig. 14 shows the comparison in the load–displacement

compared after loading up to R = 15 × 10−3 for the cylindrical

relationship of each specimen between the tests and the analyses.

specimen or up to R = 10 × 10−3 for the I-shaped specimen, the

elastic strain was released by decreasing the loading value to 0 as Although slight differences are discernible in the loop of the

the final step for the analyses. I-shaped specimen, the analysis results correspond quite well to

Figs. 12 and 13 compare the cracking conditions of C-1 and the test results as a whole.

I-1 between the tests and the analyses. Table 3 explains the Thus, it can be thought that these analyses could simulate the

marks used in the figures. At both the web and flange parts, the tests well. With regard to the relationship between the rotational

cracking conditions obtained from the analyses correspond quite angle R and the horizontal displacement δ (mm), R was set as

well to the results of the tests. The colored parts indicate the parts δ/1150 for the cylindrical specimens and δ/1400 for the I-shaped

where the strain in a direction perpendicular to the cracks exceeds specimens.

N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009 1005

(a) Specimen C-1. (b) Specimen C-2. (c) Specimen I-1. (d) Specimen I-2.

5. Study on energy consumption in analyses consumption amount increases, the increment in the energy is

absorbed mainly by the rebars, and the consumption amount of

5.1. Comparison of strain energy energy absorbed by concrete does not increase to a high degree. It

is considered that the aforementioned characteristics are related

Fig. 15 shows the comparison in the relationship between to the high ductility and the failure mode led by the yielding of the

the rotational angle and the strain energy. The external energy rebars of the specimens.

obtained from Eq. (7) is used for the tests and the internal strain On the other hand, almost all the energy input to the I-shaped

energy computed using Eq. (8) is used for analyses. Fig. 15(a) specimen is absorbed by the concrete from the earlier stage, and

the quantity absorbed by the rebars decreases. It is considered that

and (b) illustrates the analysis results up to the final stage, which

this phenomenon corresponds to the low ductility and the failure

directly correspond to the test results, from R = −10 × 10−3

mode led by the crushing of the concrete of the specimens.

for the rotational angle through the point where the loading value

Moreover, the reinforcement ratio of specimen C-2 is two times

decreases to 0.

that of specimen C-1. The reinforcement ratio of specimen I-2 is

Overall, the analysis values are almost equivalent to the test

34% greater than that of specimen I-1, and the elasticity modulus of

results. However, the former is slightly smaller than the latter.

the concrete is large. In the analyses, both the maximum strength

In particular, some differences for the cylindrical walls (C-1 and

and total consumed energy for C-2 and I-2 increase more than

C-2) are seen in Fig. 15(a) and (b), while the load–displacement

those for C-1 and I-1. The rates of increase in the strength and

analysis results seems to correspond well to the test results shown

energy are almost similar. Furthermore, the distribution rates of

in Fig. 14(a) and (b). From these tendencies, it is considered that

the consumed energy for the rebars and concrete are therefore the

the area of the analysis hysteresis loop, which corresponds to the

same.

consumed energy, is almost accurate in the large strain regions, but

As can be considered from the characteristics shown in Fig. 5,

it is smaller than that of the test in the small strain regions.

the amount of energy absorbed by the tensile side of the concrete

is small for all the specimens. In these analyses, the amount of

5.2. Consumed energy of rebars and concrete energy absorbed by the shear stiffness shown in Fig. 6 on the

cracking surface was also small. As a result, most of the energy was

The time history of strain energy for each specimen was consumed due to the compression side on the cracking surface.

illustrated in Fig. 10 with the loading pattern. The broken lines Fig. 16 shows the load–displacement relationship obtained

indicate the strain energy absorbed by the rebars, and the from the allotted loads of the rebars and the concrete, which

difference between the solid and broken lines implies the strain have been computed using Eq. (10). In particular, the hysteresis

energy absorbed by the concrete. These values were calculated characteristics of the rebars and the concrete for test specimen

using Eq. (9). The lateral axis in each figure indicates the analysis C-1 are clearly presented. Moreover, in the proximity of the area

step. where the concrete displacement reaches the peak, a part in which

As for the cylindrical specimens, most of the input energy is the load–displacement relationship reverses can be seen. It is

absorbed by the rebars for both C-1 and C-2. In particular, even in considered that this is due to the effects of a rapid variation in the

the stages after the two hundredth analysis step where the energy load allotment of the rebars and the concrete.

1006 N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009

(a) Specimen C-1. (b) Specimen C-2. (c) Specimen I-1. (d) Specimen I-2.

Fig. 15. Comparison in rotational angle of member–energy relationship (External energy is used for Test, internal strain energy is used for Analysis).

(a) Specimen C-1. (b) Specimen C-2. (c) Specimen I-1. (d) Specimen I-2.

(e) Specimen C-1. (f) Specimen C-2. (g) Specimen I-1. (h) Specimen I-2.

(a) Specimen C-1. (b) Specimen C-2. (c) Specimen I-1. (d) Specimen I-2.

5.3. Distribution of consumed energy parts and is large near their lower parts. It is considered that this

is caused mainly by the effects of the bending moment. On the

Fig. 17 shows the vertical distribution of the consumed energy contrary, the consumed energy in the concrete shows a relatively

in the final step. It is observed that the amount of consumed uniform distribution in a vertical direction. This distribution is

energy in the rebars for all of the specimens is small at their upper considered to correspond to the shear distribution.

N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009 1007

(a) Consumed energy distribution of entire body. (b) Consumed energy distribution of re-bar.

Fig. 18. Consumed energy distribution of cylindrical test specimen (web surface).

The amount of consumed energy at the lowest parts of the Interesting correspondences can be seen between them while the

cylindrical specimen is the maximum, but the amount in the studied cases were limited.

parts second from the lowest of the I-shaped test specimen is the In RC nonlinear analyses, the damage conditions are estimated

maximum. It is considered that this is because the flange wall generally using figures of concrete cracks, rebar yielding condi-

restrains the side-bottom of the web wall, and the failure occurred tions, etc. The condition of the consumed energy is thought to be

at the slightly higher position for the I-shaped specimen. effective as a means to make a survey of the total damage condi-

Figs. 18 and 19 show the contour with regard to the consumed tions. Moreover, more appropriate design of shear walls might be

energy of the cylindrical specimens and the I-shaped specimens, possible by studying and controlling the consumed energy condi-

respectively. The consumed energy is shown as the amount per tion.

unit volume of the RC, and the total consumed energy, i.e., the

consumed energy of the rebars and the consumed energy of the 6. Conclusions

concrete, are compared to each other. The consumed energy of the

rebars concentrating to the flange part corresponds to the bending In this paper, in order to estimate the damage to RC shear

failure mode. A tendency, in which the consumed energy of the walls using the consumed energy simulation analyses of the cyclic

concrete that is generated at the web part corresponds to the shear loading tests were performed. In the simulation analyses, the

failure mode, can be seen. distribution of consumed energy at each part of the specimen as

For the cylindrical specimens, the energy of the concrete well as the allotment of rebars and concrete was investigated.

concentrates in the lower part of the web center. However, the Furthermore, the progress of the energy consumption in the

degree of energy concentration is fairly small and the energy specimen was analyzed. As a result, the following points were

expands widely over the entire web part. This corresponds to the deduced:

damage conditions illustrated in Fig. 12. It can be considered that (1) The analyses satisfactorily simulate the tests and the validity

this relatively uniform energy distribution is related to the high of the analysis method was confirmed.

ductility of the cylindrical test specimen. (2) The allotment of the consumed energy to rebars and concrete

On the contrary, the energy in the concrete for the I-shaped was calculated. The allotment of the load–displacement

specimen concentrates in the small area at the side-bottom of the relationship was also calculated. Concerning the studied

web where the compression failure occurs. This corresponds to the specimens, it was shown that the effects of the rebars were

damage conditions shown in Fig. 13. greater for the cylindrical walls (C-1 and C-2) and the effects of

the concrete were greater for the I-shaped walls (I-1 and I-2)

5.4. Relationship between consumed energy and damage condition from these calculations. However, these tendencies were not

confirmed because the studied cases were limited.

From above results, Table 4 summarized the relationship (3) A tendency in which the consumed energy distribution of

between the consumed energy and the damage condition. rebars is connected with the bending failure and the consumed

1008 N. Nakamura et al. / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 999–1009

(a) Consumed energy distribution of entire body. (b) Consumed energy distribution of re-bar.

Table 4

Summaries of results.

Shape of shear wall Energy consumed mainly in: Failure mode Concentration of consumed energy in concrete Ductility

I-shaped Concrete Shear Large Low

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