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Internal Assessment Guide

IA Section B - Summary of Evidence (6 marks)

Markbands and student examples
A suggested number of words for this section is 500600.
The summary of evidence should indicate what the student has found out from the sources he or she has used. It will take
the form a bullet-pointed list. Any illustrations, documents, or other relevant evidence should be included in an appendix
and will not be included in the word count.
This section should consist of factual material that is:
drawn from sources that are appropriate for the investigation (scholarly books - not encyclopedias or brief
correctly and consistently referenced (Works Cited)
organized thematically OR chronologically.

This section should be organized and referenced and provide evidence of thorough research.

Assessment Objectives
Application and interpretation
o Present a summary of evidence
Use of historical skills
o Demonstrate evidence of research skills, organization and referencing

Guidelines and Suggestions

Everything that is included in this section WILL be analyzed in Section D.
You have to include evidence of different possible answers. Every question can have more than one correct perspective.
You must have evidence that considers other interpretations. See above.
Do NOT use judgment or analysis in this section. You will do this in Section D.
Here you are simply listing excerpts from the research you have done and referencing them properly. And, by using bullet
points, this promotes the idea that is a listing of relevant information.
Section is is worth 6 / 25 marks (24% of your entire grade)
Stay within 500 to 600 words. If you have less than 500 you probably do not have enough evidence.
Your evidence must clearly be connected to your research question
Present the most significant evidence that helps to answer your question. Non-significant evidence is a waste of
Keep this a summary. Use short, clear sentences. Choose words carefully.
o Write [Subject, Verb and fact]
o Example: George Washington served as first president.
NOT: George Washington was chosen by the people and served 8 years as the United States' first
All of your evidence must be cited using the Turabian style. You should have at least five sources, if not more.
Make sure you present ample evidence from the two sources you'll discuss in Section C.

Examples of Section B
For example, if your question is:
"To what extent was the United States firebombing of Dresden in 1945 an act of terrorism?" you may want to approach it
like this:

Here is a summary of evidence from the various sources and viewpoints researched to help answer this question.
This section will start with a couple of widely accepted definitions of terrorism:
In order to fully answer this question, the bombing has to be put into historical context. Here are a few of the
things happening during WWII that may help the reader judge whether it was an act of war or terrorism.
Here is a summary of evidence that supports the idea that the bombing was indeed a terrorist act:
Here is a summary of evidence that suggests the bombing was simply an act of war:
You must gather enough evidence that will allow you to evaluate different interpretations. If you have evidence
that supports only one possible answer, then you will have nothing to evaluate and analyze in section D.
Make sure you define terrorism so you can evaluate whether the bombing fits the description. You may include
different definitions from different views, which can be avaluated later in section D.
Research 2-3 views that argue that it was terrorism.
Try to get primary sources of people involved in the actual decision and/or were affected by the bombings .
Research 2-3 views that argue is was NOT terrorism, but an act of war.
Present evidence that puts the event into historical context, like the fact that Germany had bombed London, or
was currently implementing the Final Solution.
Alternatively, part of the historical context could be the US knew the war was won by this time; but bombed them
It is important that these suggestions to not limit your research but are designed to give you ideas! Go BEYOND
my suggestions!

IA Section C - Evaluation of Sources (5 marks)

Markbands and student examples
A suggested number of words for this section is 400 (200 per source).
This section should consist of:
a critical evaluation of two important sources appropriate to the investigation
explicit reference to the origin, purpose, value and limitation of the selected sources.
The two sources chosen should be appropriate for the investigation and could, for example, be written, oral or
archeological. The purpose of this section is to assess the usefulness of the sources but not to describe their content or

Guidelines and Suggestions

Put simply, you are creating an OPVL for two of your sources.
When stating the name of the title of your book use this format:
Title: Sub-title. (Make sure you separate title from subtitle with a colon and capitalize major words.
Within ORIGIN you must provide the academic credentials of the author; if you cannot find anything on the author in the book, search
the internet. If you still cannot find information on your author, SAY SO. It is not necessary to put in every academic post or
professorship the authors have held.
For PURPOSE: The best authors will typically express purpose in the preface/introduction/first chapter. You may have to search for the
purpose. NOTE: even narratives have a purpose. If you cannot locate a clearly articulated purpose, you may use language such as: It
appears that the authors purpose is
For VALUE AND LIMITATIONS: These sections may not be balanced. One side of the argument may be more substantive than the
VALUE: Explain why this source is valuable in general, and address why it is particularly important to your research. Make specific
references to the text and its sources; use quotes. You may comment on footnotes of the book, what kinds of sources the author used,
LIMITATIONS: Again, you must be specific, providing examples from the text, quotes, etc. Limitations could include a critique of
sources; a critique of whether or not the coverage is too broad to meet the authors objectives; if the author is using out of date
scholarship, relying on only newspaper articles, etc. Why might a historian need to show some degree of caution using this source?
It is like going to a Chinese restaurant and complaining there isn't any pizza on the menu.

Examples of Section Cs
Example 1

Example 1
Word Count: 365
Marks: 3 of 4
Applebaum, Anne. 2003. Gulag: A History. Great Britain
Published in 2003, Anne Applebaum's, Gulag: A History is a chronological history of the Gulag camps. Applebaum has tried to give
readers a look into the logic behind the creation of the camps, and events leading up to their installation. This source was very well
written, blending historical fact with interesting prose. Since the source was written fifty years after the events took place, there seems
to be no real bias by the author. All sources used in the book, are clearly noted by the author, and there are quite an array adding
perspective. Applebaum looked at the events surrounding the formation of the Gulags; she also included a large section about life
inside the camps. Extensive personal accounts are quoted throughout, allowing the reader to hear firsthand how prisoners worked, ate,
lived, and died. Although this has been an excellent source, one limitation is the vast amount of information contained in the book. A
limitation to this source when using it to research the gulags, was that it was hard to find where a specific topic was described, when the
book was written like a novel.
Solzhenitsyn, Alexsandr I. 1973. The Gulag Archipelago 1918 - 1956. New York
Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn's epic account of the gulag system was published in 1973. The purpose of Solzhenitsyn's famous book is the
story of the gulag camp system using his firsthand knowledge. This is of great value to anyone researching the history of the gulags.
Solzhenitsyn describes daily life in the camps, along with the trial and arrest before his transport to the camps. Another value of The
Gulag Archipelago is the pictures that Solzhenitsyn includes; it allows the reader to visualize what is being described. Although this was
a very helpful source it is challenging to find specific details due to the style in which the book is written - like a novel. It is one person's
account; there is no mention of the broad spectrum of camp systems that were quite varied throughout the camps' history. It is a one
sided look at the gulags, but will forever be the breakthrough look into the world of the gulag.

Example 2
Word Count: 482
Mark: 4 of 4
McKee, Alexander. 1982. Dresden 1945: The Devil's Tinderbox. New York
Written in 1982, Alexander McKee's account of the Dresden city bombings in The Devil's Tinderbox serves as an analytical assessment
of the attacks. Alexander McKee is a widely published British military historian who was also a soldier with the 1st Canadian Army. He
witnessed the final destruction of many towns in the name of warfare and took a special interest in the validity of the bombings of
Dresden. The purpose of McKee's study is mainly to analyze both sides of the argument of whether the bombings were justified. McKee
examines stories as told by Dresden residents who survived the bombings. McKee also delves into official records recently declassified,
to examine the political aspects of the raid. In doing this McKee is able to establish the reasons put forward for allowing the raids and
the psychological effects of the raids.
This document is very valuable to my research. The author investigates a topic similar to the topic of my research. He presents valid
data including government documents that are essential to my research and analysis. Though the document is packed with valuable
information, this is also a limitation. With my time constraints it has been difficult to read through the whole book and absorb all of its
information. One other limitation that I have come across is that the author is clearly against the decision to carry out the bombings. It is
very difficult to find information supporting the bombings.
Sheehy, Dick. 1995. Dresden Plus 93 Days. Great Britain
This document is a firsthand account of the bombings of Dresden as told by Dick Sheehy who was a British prisoner of war in Dresden
at the time of the bombings. The account was written in 1995 and published in a copy of History Today. The purpose of this document
is to give a firsthand account of the bombings of Dresden. It not only tells of the night of the bombings, but also goes into detail about
the events that followed. The author accounts the physical and mental struggles that he went through as a result of the bombing.
This article has value in that it is a firsthand account. The author goes into great detail about his experience, leaving the reader to come
to his or her own conclusions about whether the bombings were justifiable. The document gives evidence that supports research into
the emotional impact of the air raids. This value, however, can also act as a limitation. Because the article is a first-hand account, there
is a strong possibility that the author has forgotten important details. Also, the author has written his account many years after the
event, allowing for his memory to have been altered. He may, as a result of the mental impacts of the war, think that some things may
have happened when in fact they did not.

IA Section D - Analysis (6 marks)

Markbands and student examples
A suggested number of words for this section is 500650.
This section should consist of:
an analysis that breaks down complex issues in order to bring out the essential elements, any underlying assumptions
and any interrelationships involved
an understanding of the issue in its historical context
a critical examination of the factual material presented in section B
an awareness of the significance of the sources used, especially those evaluated in section C
a consideration of different interpretations of evidence, where appropriate.
In this section the elements of the investigation identified in section B will be broken down into key
issues/points. Consideration of historical context can add weight and perspective to the study. Where
appropriate (depending on the scope of the investigation) links can be made with associated events and
developments to aid understanding of the historical importance of the chosen investigation.

Suggested Format of Section D

Paragraph 1 - Historical Context
Write a paragraph demonstrating your understanding of the issue in its historical context. What events were going on in
the United States (or world) during the scope of your investigation that may have led to underlying assumptions or
points of view on this issue that you will break down and analyze in this section?
Paragraph 2 - Significance of Sources from C
Write a paragraph or two that demonstrates your awareness of the significance of the sources you evaluated in Part C.
Make critical comments on evidence from those sources that could help answer your research question.
Paragraph 3 - Critical examination of one possible answer
Write a paragraph or two that examines evidence from part B that could lead to one possible answer to or interpretation
of your research question. Here it is essential you make critical comments based on your evidence. Discuss causeand-effect relationships, underlying assumptions and any interrelationships that are related to the evidence you presented.
Paragraph 4 - Critical examination of a different interpretation
Write a paragraph or two that examines evidence from part B that could lead to a different possible answer or
interpretation to your research question. Here it is essential you make critical comments based on your evidence.
Discuss cause-and-effect relationships, underlying assumptions and any interrelationships that are related to the evidence
you presented.
Paragraph 5 - Laying foundation for conclusion
Write a paragraph that considers the above interpretations and starts to transition toward what you think your conclusion
will say. Start laying the foundation for your conclusion.

To make it clear that you are placing your topic within its historical context, literally spell it out by writing, "This
investigation is important in its historical context because ___________"

Examples of historical context:

Stalin established collectivization and the five-year plans because of the very real threat of foreign invasion during the
1920s and 30s.
An example from Adam Campbell's investigation: To what extent did Stalin's Five-Year Plans improve Russias military?
This investigation is important in its historical context because Stalin's motivation to correct the problems with Russia's
military came simply from the fact that he feared other countries, due to Russias previous failures from World War I.
Russia had lost many soldiers due to Russias unequipped military, such as the 200,000 casualties in the Battle of
Masuria. As Stalin wrote about industrializing for military purposes in the Pravda, We must make good this distance in
ten years. Either we do it, or we shall be crushed.
Examiner Comment: A clear attempt at establishing historical context.
The American Progressive reform movement to establish laws to eliminate child labor gained momentum in the early
1900s as a result of the rapid, un-checked growth of industry from 1870 and 1900.
U.S. business interest in the Hawaiian Islands was fueled in part because of its natural resources, but militarily, the young
U.S. navy wanted control of the island before the British Empire took it to maintain trade between Australia and British

IA Section E - Conclusion (2 marks)

Markbands and student examples
A suggested number of words for this section is 150200.
The conclusion must be clearly stated and consistent with the evidence presented.
This section is a follow-up to section D. It requires an answer or conclusion, based on the evidence presented, which
either partially or fully addresses the question stated or implied in the investigation.

IA Section F - List of Sources (3 marks)

Markbands and student examples
A bibliography or list of sources and all citations, using one standard method, must be included; any illustrations,
documents, or other supporting evidence should be included in an appendix. None of these will form part of the word
The word count for the investigation must be clearly and accurately stated on the title page.
A recognized method of listing sources must be used consistently throughout the investigation, which will be the
Turabian Style.
NOTE: Do not miss out on three easy points. To help with properly formatting your sources use the online citation
guides found at Sturgis' Reference Room website. If you have any questions about an odd source please ask the librarians
or me.