Anda di halaman 1dari 6

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

Feedbackwillalwaysbeeffectiveinmovinglearningforward.Discuss.

Thereisanabundanceofresearchontherolethatfeedbackhasonstudentlearning.Whilst
feedbackplaysamajorroleinthelearningprocess,howitisgiven,whenitoccursand
whoisinvolvedingivingthefeedbackcanhaveadirecteffectonstudentlearning(Hattie
and Timperley, 2007). Wiliam (2011) explores the use of activating learners as
instructional resources for one another. The writer concurs with Hattie (as cited in
Lipscombe,2012)inaddressingthethreecriticalquestions;WhereamIgoing?HowamI
going?Andwheretonext?inorderforfeedbacktohaveapositiveeffect onstudent
learning.

The power of feedback to improve classroom learning can depend heavily on how
feedbackisreceived.Astudyintotheeffectivenessofprovidingstudentswithcomments,
gradesandbothcommentsandgradeswasexploredbyWiliam(2011),ashedistinguishes
feedback

into

two

classifications;

ego

and

task.

Theprovidingofcommentsalonewasseentobeparticularlyeffectiveinmovingstudents
learningforward.ThewritersviewcorrespondswithbothWiliam(2011)andLipscombe
(2012)astheyconcurthatfeedbackwhichisfocusedonthetask,helpinglearnersthinkof
whattheyneedtodotoimproveandhowtogoaboutitisthemosteffectiveconditionsin
whichfeedbackisachieved.Feedbackisconsideredtobemosteffectivewhenitprovides
information on correct rather than incorrect responses, building on changes from a
studentsprevious work (KlugerandDeNisi,ascitedinLipscombe,2012).This way,
studentscanbegintomaketheconnectionstowhattheypreviouslyknewtowhattheyare
now achieving. Wiliam (2011) explores how students receiving constructive feedback
learnedtwiceasfastasthosereceivinggrades,aswellasanincreaseinmotivationin
wantingtocontinuetolearn. Butler(ascitedinWiliam,2011)recognisesthatfeedback
through comments alone led to significant learning gains, whereas marks alone or
1
Mary Buffon

S00134651

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

accompaniedbycommentsgivingpraisedidnotattaintheselearningachievements.The
writersviewisequalwiththatofWiliam(2011)ashestatesthefeedbackthatwegive
studentssupportsaviewofabilityasincrementalratherthanfixed:byworking,youare
gettingsmarter(p.119).

Lipscombe(2012)contendsthatnotalltypesoffeedbackareeffectiveinmovinglearning
forward,withthegivingandreceivingofgradesoftenhinderingachildslearningprocess
withthisconceptcoincidingwiththeviewofthewriter. Wiliam(2011)exploreshow
feedbackthatisintheformofgrades,orpositionsinclasshasnopositiveimpacton
studentachievement.ThestudybyButler(ascitedinWiliam,2011)providessurprising
results,withtherecognitionthatbothgradesandcommentswereineffectiveinmoving
learningforward. Theseformsoffeedbackwerebothunproductiveasstudentswhogot
highscoressawthattheydidntneedtoreadthecomments,andtheoneswhoreceivedlow
scores didnt want to, often feeling demotivated and wishing to move on to the next
activity(Wiliam,2011).Therefore,howthefeedbackisbothgivenandreceivedplaysa
major role in its effectiveness. Teachers need to challenge themselves to consider the
researchedeffectsofgivingcommentsalone,gradesaloneorbothcommentsandgradesto
movelearningforward.

Whentogivefeedbackiscrucialineffectivelymovinglearningforward.Hattie(ascitedin
Lipscombe,2012)concludesthatfeedbackshouldfocusonthreecriticalquestionsinorder
tohaveapositiveaffectonstudentlearning.WhereamIgoing? HowamIgoing? and
Where to next? Wiliam (2011) explores how the timing of feedback can play a
fundamental role in either moving learning forward or impeding the learning process.
Tovani(2011)discussestheroleofformativeassessmentinempoweringstudentthinking
andparticipation.
The writers view corresponds with that of Tovani (2011) as he explores the role of
formative feedback in moving learning forward. McNair (2004) defines formative
assessmentas assessments,whichcheckforunderstandingasstudentsarelearningnew
2
Mary Buffon

S00134651

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

skillsorgainingnewknowledge (p.25).ThewriterconcurswiththeresearchofHattie
andTimperley(2007)astheyemphasizethatfeedbackismosteffectivewhenitconsistsof
informationaboutprogressandhowtoproceed,answeringthestudentquestionHowamI
going? Hattie and Timperley (2007) concur with the research of Tovani (2011) that
formative assessment plays a key role in moving learning forward, with assessment
focussed on the individual classroom, informing instructional practice and enhancing
engagementandachievement. Byprovidingformativeassessmenttostudents,teachers
identifyareasofstrengthforstudents,targetspecificfeedbackandadjusttheirinstruction
topurposefullyencourageandassiststudentstoimprovetheirlearning(Tovani,2011).
Thewriterobservedthis,recognisingtheimportanceoflettingstudentsknowwherethey
aregoingbysharingclearwrittenlearningintentionsandsuccesscriteria.Acknowledging
howtheyaregoing byhavingmeaningfulconversationswithstudentsthatencouraged
andclarifiedthinkingwhilstalsobeingmindfulofgivingfeedbackthatallowedstudentsto
knowwhethertheywereontrack,orwhetheranewdirectionwasneededwasevident.
Pearsall(2012)exploreshowlearningworksbestwhentheeverydayclassroomisthe
place to establish conversations to improve student performance, when assessment
happens minutebyminute,anddaybyday,notattheendofasequenceoflearning
(WilliamsandBlack,ascitedinPearsall,2012,p.12).

It is perceived that feedback will always have the ability to move learning forward.
However,thewritercontendswiththis,agreeingwiththeresearchofHattie(ascitedin
Lipscombe,2012)asheexploresthatfeedbackcanhaveanegativeeffectonstudents
learning and wellbeing as teachers need to learn more about the practice of effective
feedback. Summativeassessmentisoneformoffeedbackthatcanhaveadverseeffects.
SummativeAssessmentisdefinedas demonstrationsofwhatstudentshavegainedasa
resultofthelearningexperiencesprovided (McNair,2004,p.25).Studentswhoareonly
assessedsummativelyarenotgivenfeedbackastheylearn,theyareunabletoaskHow
amIgoing? toimprove theirlearning performance. Lipscombe (2012)concludes that
feedback givenonly atthe endofatopic does not havethe ability to movelearning
forward.Tovani(2011)concursthatsummativeassessmentsalonecannotsupportstudents
andteachers likeformative assessmentscanwhenitcomes todailyinstruction.Many
3
Mary Buffon

S00134651

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

teacherscontinuetorelyonisolatedtestscoresratherthantheresearchthatcitesformative
assessments matter most when it comes to achievement (Tovani, 2011). Summative
feedbackoftenfailstoconveytheinformationneededbyteachersandtheirstudentsto
helpthem knowhowtheyaregoing(Hattie andTimperley, 2007).Lipscombe (2012)
accentuatesthatfeedbackisnotalwayseffectiveinmovinglearningforward,statingthat
educatorsneedtousetheresearchevidencetoreflectandconsiderwhenfeedbackisbeing
provided.

Thenotionofwhoisgivingandreceivingthefeedbackalsoplaysanimportantrolein
effectively moving learning forward. Transforming from teacher teaching to student
learningisatransformationthatiscontinuouslydeveloping.Lipscombe(2012)explores
theshiftinpedagogyfromonethatfocusesexplicitlyonwhatwasbeentaught,toonethat
concentratesonstudentlearning,wherethestudentnotonlyreceivesfeedbackfromthe
teacherbutalsogivesfeedbacktotheteacher.ThewritersviewconcurswithLipscombe
(2012)assheexploreshowinordertomovelearningforward,thelearningneedstobe
visible, with one strategy to accomplish the task, the entwining of instruction with
feedback.Lipscombe(2012)concurswithHattieandTimperley(2007)assheexplores
feedbackas oneofthegreatestinfluencesonstudentachievement (p.20).Hattie(2012)
exploreshowfeedbackisanexceptionalwayforstudentstobothsetandattaingoalsfor
ongoinglearning.Hattie(2012)statesthatstudentfeedbackisinformationaboutthetask
fortheteacher andthelearningthatcomes fromthis.Thepowerofstudentfeedback
comesfromthewayteachersusetheevidencefoundtomakechangestotheirteaching
procedures. The use of student feedback in the classroom, allows both teachers and
students tosetnew learninggoals,whilstshaping learning(Davis,Williams &Jones,
2012).Teachersneedtofocusongivingfeedbackthatfocusesonstudentgoals,helping
studentsdistinguishwhattheyaredoingwellandwhattheystillneedtodotoaccomplish
theirgoals,solelyfocusingonthefeedbackthathelpsstudentsmoveforward(Lipscombe,
2012).
Teacher teaching, or a teachercentered classroom is where the development of the
instructionandcontrolofthelearningprocessisretainedbytheteacher(Schuh,2004).
4
Mary Buffon

S00134651

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

ResearchfromHattieandTimperley(2007)providesevidencethatinordertomovethe
learningforward,studentsneedtobeinvolvedinthelearningprocess. Therefore,these
traditionalteacherteachingpracticesareoftennoteffectiveinmovinglearningforward,as
students andteachers are notworkingtogether to distinguishand accomplish learning
goals.KlugerandDiNisi(ascitedinLipscombe,2012)informthatteachersneedtolearn
of the practices of both effective feedback and effective teaching. The feedback and
practicesthatareinmanyclassroomspresentlyarefoundtohaveanegativeeffecton
students learningprocesseswhenthestudentsarenotinvolvedinthefeedbackprocess.
Thisaccentuatestheneedforteacherstoconsidertheirteachingpracticestoensurethey
arestudentcenteredinordertoprovidefeedbackthatwillbeeffectiveinmovinglearning
forward.

Students can play akey role in improving the learning of their peers. Wiliam (2011)
exploresthenotionofactivatingstudentsasinstructionalresourcesforoneanotherashe
exploresthepowerofcollaborativelearningandfeedback.However,cooperativelearning
throughpeerfeedbackisrarelyimplementedandutilizedeffectivelywithintheclassroom.
Thewriteracknowledgesthattheuseofcooperativelearning,inactivatingstudentsas
instructionalresourcesforoneanotherisanexceptionaltoolinmovingstudents learning
forward. Wiliam (2011) explores this as he states students help their peers learning,
becauseinwellstructuredcooperativelearningsettings,itisintheirownintereststodo
so,andsoeffortisincreased (p.133).Whenstudentsworkcollaborativelythereisan
increasedmotivationtowanttomovetheirlearningforwardthroughtheuseofsocial
cohesionasstudentsprovidefeedbacktotheirpeers.Wiliamstateswhereweactivate
studentsaslearningresourcesforoneanother,therearesubstantialincreasesinstudents
learning.
However,thewriterrecognisestheevidenceprovidedbyWiliam(2011)asheexplores
how activating students as instructional resources for one another will not always be
effective in moving learning forward. Wiliam (2011) acknowledges that often peer
feedback through cooperative learning is rarely implemented effectively within the
5
Mary Buffon

S00134651

EDFD260

Assessment Task 2: Critical Essay

classroom.Thewriteracknowledgesthatwhenpeerfeedbackisnottaughtexplicitlyand
appropriately within the classroom, negative outcomes are often present impacting on
students egoandselfesteem.However,whentheprocessofcooperative learningand
feedback is taught explicitly, the outcomes can be extremely advantageous in moving
students learningforward. Thewriterobservedlearnersactingasinstructionalresources
foroneanotherwithintheclassroom.Thewriterviewedtheimportanceofinitiallyhaving
toexplicitlyteachchildrenhowtogivetheappropriatefeedbacktotheirpeersinorderto
furthermovelearningforward.Oncethishadbeendemonstratedwithintheclassroom,the
writerobservedtheabilityoflearnerstoactasinstructionalresourcesforoneanother.

Feedbackisanexceptionaltoolinmovingstudents learningforward.However,theability
tomovelearningforwardthroughtheuseoffeedbackdependsonarangeoffactors.The
writerrecognisestheimportanceofprovidingfeedbackbyconsideringhowandwhenthe
feedbackisgivenandwhoshouldbeinvolvedinthefeedbackprocess.Thewriterbelieves
thatifteacherscangiveconstant,effective,formativefeedbackthroughoutthelearning
process and provide constructive comments, the feedback will be effective in moving
students learning forward. The writers view coincides with the evidence provided by
Wiliam(2011)asheexplorestheabilityforstudentstoactasinstructionalresourcesfor
one another. However, the writer concurs with Wiliam (2011) for this process to be
effective,teachersmustexplicitlyteachstudentshowtogiveappropriatefeedbacktoone
another.Theinfluencefeedbackcanhaveonmovinglearningforwardisemphasizedby
Hattie(ascitedinAdamson,2012)ashestates, themostpowerfulsinglemoderatorthat
enhances achievement is feedback (p.37). The way teachers use feedback in the
classroom has a significant impact on the effectiveness of moving students learning
forward.

6
Mary Buffon
Word Count: 2123

S00134651