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Homework #7

Question 7.1 What are the characteristics of the surface of a ductile fracture of a metal?
Answer 7.1
A ductile fracture surface has a dull, fibrous appearance and often resembles a cup-andcone configuration.
Question 7.3 What are the characteristics of the surface of a brittle fracture of metal?
Answer 7.3
A brittle fracture surface typically appears shiny with flat facets, which are created during
cleavage fracture.
Question 7.9 How does the carbon content of a plain-carbon steel affect the ductilebrittle transition temperature range?
Answer 7.9
As the carbon content of the steel increases, the ductile-brittle transition temperature
range increases in terms of both the width of the range and the temperature values.
Question 7.12 Where do fatigue failures usually originate on a metal selection?
Answer 7.12
Fatigue failures typically originate at a point of high stress concentration, such as a sharp
corner or a notch.
Question 7.14 How does the SN curve of a carbon steel differ from that of a highstrength aluminum alloy?
Answer 7.14
A fatigue test SN curve is a plot of the fatigue stress to which a specimen is subjected
versus the corresponding cycles, or stress reversals, up to and including the point of
failure. The number of cycles is plotted on a logarithmic scale while the fatigue strength
is plotted on either a linear or logarithmic scale, depending on the data. The SN data is
typically obtained by repeatedly subjecting a rotating specimen to reverse or fluctuating
bending while counting the cycles until destruction occurs. However, specimens may also
be subjected to reversed or fluctuating axial stresses, torsional stresses, or combined
stresses in testing.
Question 7.19 Draw a typical creep curve for a metal under constant load and at a
relatively high temperature, and indicate on it all three stages of creep.

Answer 7.19

Question 7.25 Using the equation K IC = f a , plot the fracture stress (MPa) for
aluminum alloy 7075-T651 versus surface crack size a (mm) for a values from 0.2 mm to
2.0 mm. What is the minimum size surface crack that will cause catastrophic failure?
Answer 7.25

Question 7.33

Answer 7.33

Question 11.93

Answer 11.93

Question 6.21 By what mechanism do grain boundaries strengthen metals?


Answer 6.21
Grain boundaries strengthen metals by acting as barriers to dislocation movement.
Question 6.24 How is the ductility of a metal normally affected by cold working? Why?
Answer 6.24
Cold rolling normally decreases the ductility of metals because the dislocation density of
the metal is increased and thus further slip by dislocation movement is inhibited.
Question 6.25 (a) What is solid-solution strengthening? Describe the two main types. (b)
What are two important factors that affect solid-solution hardening?
Answer 6.25
(a) Solid-solution strengthening is a method of increasing a metals strength. By adding
one or more elements, dislocation movement is impeded due to lattice distortions and the
introduction of different bonding structures.
The two primary types of solid-solution strengthening are substitutional and interstitial.
(b) Two important factors that affect solid-solution hardening are: the relative size of the
atoms of the elements in the solid solution and, short-range ordering of the atoms of
different atoms into clusters.
Question 6.26 What are the three main metallurgical stages that a sheet of cold-worked
metal such as aluminum or copper goes through as it is heated from room temperature to
an elevated temperature just below its melting point?
Answer 6.26
The three main stages are recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth.
Question 6.39 A sheet of aluminum alloy is cold-rolled 30 percent to a thickness of
0.080 in. If the sheet is then cold-rolled to a final thickness of 0.064 in., what is the total
percent cold work done?
Answer 6.39

Question 6.57 The average grain diameter of an aluminum alloy is 14 m with a strength
of 185 MPa. The same alloy with an average grain diameter of 50 m has a strength of
140 MPa. (a) Determine the constants for the Hall-Petch equation for this alloy. (b) How
much more should you reduce the grain size if you desire a strength of 220 MPa?
Answer 6.57

Question 6.60

Answer 6.60