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THEME

: INTRODUCING CHEMISTRY
LEARNING AREA : 1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
Bidang Pembelajaran: Pengenalan Kepada Kimia
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
1.1
A student is able to:
Understanding
explain the meaning of
chemistry and its
chemistry,
importance

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran

1. Memahami kimia.
Aras 1
Menyenaraikan bahan kimia dalam kehidupan
list some common chemicals
harian.
used in daily life,
Memberi contoh kegunaan bahan kimia.
state the uses of common
Aras 2
chemicals in daily life,
Memerihalkan asal usul perkataan kimia.
list examples of occupations that Aras 3
require the knowledge of
Menerangkan maksud kimia.
chemistry,
list chemical-based industries in 2. Memahami kepentingan kimia.
Malaysia,
Aras 1
describe the contribution of
Menyenaraikan contoh kerjaya yang memerlukan
chemical-based industries
ilmu kimia.
towards the development of the Aras 2
country.
Menyenaraikan industri kimia di Malaysia.
Memerihalkan sumbangan industri kimia
terhadap pembangunan
negara.
Aras 3
Menerangkan kepentingan mempelajari kimia.
16

Learning Objectives

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran

1.2 Synthesising
scientific method

A student is able to:


identify variables in a given situation,
identify the relationship between two
variables to form a hypothesis,
design and carry out a simple experiment to
test the hypothesis,
record and present data in a suitable form,
interpret data to draw a conclusion,
write a report of the investigation.

3. Mensintesiskan kaedah saintifik


Aras 1
Membuat inferens.
Mengenal pasti pemboleh ubah.
Membuat hipotesis.
Aras 2
Mengawal pemboleh ubah.
Merancang kaedah penyiasatan.
Mengumpul data.
Mentafsirkan data.
Membuat kesimpulan.
Aras 3
Menyediakan laporan eksperimen.
Mengkonsepsikan kaedah saintifik.
Menerangkan kepentingan kaedah saintifik dalam
bidang kimia.

1.3
Incorporate scientific
attitudes and values in
conducting scientific
investigations

A student is able to:


identify scientific attitudes and values
practised by scientists in carrying out
investigations,
practise scientific attitudes and values in
conducting scientific investigations.

4. Mengamalkan sikap saintifik dan nilai murni dalam menjalankan


penyiasatan secara saintifik.
Mengenal pasti sikap saintifik dan nilai murni yang diamalkan
oleh ahli kimia dalam menjalankan penyiasatan.
Mewajarkan keperluan mengamalkan sikap saintifik dan nilai
murni dalam menjalankan penyiasatan sains.
Mempraktikkan sikap saintifik dan nilai murni dalam menjalankan
penyiasatan sains.

17

THEME
: MATTER AROUND US
LEARNING AREA : 2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
Bidang Pembelajaran: Struktur Atom
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
2.1
A student is able to:
Analysing matter
describe the particulate nature of matter,
state the kinetic theory of matter,
define atoms, molecules and ions,
relate the change in the state of matter to
the change in heat,
relate the change in heat to the change in
kinetic energy of particles,
explain the inter-conversion of the states of
matter in terms of kinetic theory of matter.
2.2
Synthesising atomic
structure

A student is able to:


describe the development of atomic model,
state the main subatomic particles of an
atom,
compare and contrast the relative mass and
the relative charge of the protons, electrons
and neutrons,
define proton number,
define nucleon number,
determine the proton number,
determine the nucleon number,
relate the proton number to the nucleon
number,
relate the proton number to the type of
element,

18

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Memahami jirim.
Aras
Memerihalkan teori zarah jirim.
Memerihalkan teori kinetik jirim.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan perubahan keadaan jirim dengan perubahan
haba.
Menghubungkaitkan perubahan haba dengan tenaga kinetic zarah.
Aras 3
Menerangkan perubahan keadaan jirim berdasarkan teori kinetic
jirim.
2. Mensintesiskan struktur atom.
Aras 1
Memerihalkan sejarah perkembangan model atom.
Menyatakan zarah subatom.
Membandingkan dan membezakan jisim relatif dan cas relatif
zarah subatom.
Aras 2
Menyatakan maksud nombor proton.
Menyatakan maksud nombor nukleon.
Menentukan nombor proton.
Menentukan nombor nukleon.
Menghubungkaitkan nombor proton dengan nombor nukleon.
Menghubungkaitkan nombor proton dengan jenis unsur.
Aras 3
Menulis simbol unsur.
Menentukan bilangan proton, neutron dan elektron daripada

Learning Objectives

2.3
Understanding isotopes
and assessing their
importance

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
write the symbol of elements,
determine the number of neutrons, protons
and electrons from the proton number and
the nucleon number and vice versa,
construct the atomic structure.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
nombor proton dan nombor nukleon dan sebaliknya.
Mengkonsepsikan struktur atom.

A student is able to:


state the meaning of isotope,
list examples of elements with isotopes,
determine the number of subatomic
particles of isotopes,
justify the uses of isotope in daily life.

3. Menilai kepentingan penggunaan isotop.


Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud isotop.
Memberi contoh unsur yang mempunyai isotop.
Aras 2
Menentukan bilangan zarah subatom isotop
Aras 3
Mewajarkan penggunaan isotop dalam kehidupan harian.

2.4
A student is able to:
Understanding the
describe electron arrangements of elements
electronic structure of an
with proton numbers 1 to 20,
atom
draw electron arrangement of an atom in
an element,
state the meaning of valence electrons,
determine the number of valence electrons
from the electron arrangement of an
atom.
2.5
A student is able to:
Appreciate the
describe the contributions of scientists
orderliness and
towards the understanding of the atomic
uniqueness of the atomic
structure,
structure
describe the creative and conscientious
efforts of scientists to form a complete
19

4.. Mensintesiskan susunan elektron bagi atom


Aras 1
Memerihalkan susunan elektron dalam atom.
Aras 2
Membuat gambaran mental susunan elektron bagi atom unsur.
Aras 3
Menyatakan maksud elektron valens.
Menentukan bilangan elektron valens daripada susunan elektron.
5. Mensyukuri kemampuan akal mengkonsepsikan idea tentang
ketertiban dan keunikan struktur atom.
Memerihalkan sumbangan ahli sains dalam pemahaman tentang
struktur atom.
Memerihalkan kreativiti dan ketelitian ahli sains dalam
menghasilkan suatu gambaran menyeluruh tentang jirim.

Learning Objectives

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
picture of matter.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Menggunakan pemahaman tentang struktur atom dalam
memahami tabii atom.

20

THEME
: MATTER AROUND US
LEARNING AREA : 3. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
Bidang Pembelajaran: Formula Dan Persamaan Kimia
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
3.1
Understanding and applying the
concepts of relative atomic mass and
relative molecular mass

A student is able to:


state the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12
scale,
state the meaning of relative molecular mass based on carbon-12
scale,
state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining relative
atomic mass and relative molecular mass,
calculate the relative molecular mass of substances.

3.2
Analysing the
relationship between the
number of moles with
the number of particles

A student is able to:


define a mole as the amount of matter that
contains as many particles as the number of
atoms in 12 g of 12C,
state the meaning of Avogadro constant,
relate the number of particles in one
12 mole
of a substance with the Avogadro constant,
solve numerical problems to convert the
number of moles to the number of particles
of a given substance and vice versa.

21

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Mengaplikasikan jisim atom relatif dan jisim molekul relatif.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud jisim atom relatif berdasarkan skala
karbon 12.
Menyatakan maksud jisim molekul relatif berdasarkan skala
karbon-12.
Aras 2
Menyatakan sebab karbon-12 digunakan dalam penentuan jisim
atom relatif dan jisim molekul relatif.
Aras 3
Menghitung jisim molekul relatif bahan.
2. Menganalisis hubungan antara bilangan mol dengan bilangan
zarah.
Aras 1
Mentakrifkan mol mengikut SI.
Menyatakan maksud Pemalar Avogadro.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan bilangan zarah yang terkandung dalam satu
mol bahan tertentu dengan Pemalar Avogadro.
Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang melibatkanpenukaran
daripada bilangan mol kepada bilangan zarah dan
sebaliknya.

Learning Objectives
3.3
Analysing the
relationship between the
number of moles of a
substance with its mass

3.4
Analysing the
relationship between the
number of moles of a
gas with its volume

3.5
Synthesising chemical
formulae

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
A student is able to:

state the meaning of molar mass,

relate molar mass to the Avogadro


constant,

relate molar mass of a substance to its


relative atomic mass or relative
molecular mass,
solve numerical problems to convert the
number of moles of a given substance to its
mass and vice versa.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
3. Menganalisis hubungan antara bilangan mol dengan jisim.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud jisim molar.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan jisim molar dengan pemalar Avogadro.
Menghubungkaitkan jisim molar bahan dengan jisim atom relatif
atau jisim molekul relatif bahan tersebut.
Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan daripada bilangan mol
kepada jisim dan sebaliknya.

A student is able to:


state the meaning of molar volume of a
gas,
relate molar volume of a gas to the
Avogadro constant,
make generalization on the molar volume
of a gas at a given temperature and
pressure,
calculate the volume of gases at STP or
room conditions from the number of moles
and vice versa,
solve numerical problems involving
number of particles, number of moles,
mass of substances and volume of gases at
STP or room conditions.
A student is able to:
state the meaning of chemical formula,
state the meaning of empirical formula,

4. Menganalisis hubungan antara bilangan mol dengan isipadu gas.


Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud isipadu molar gas.
Menghubungkaitkan isipadu molar dengan pemalar Avogadro.
Aras 2
Mengitlakkan tentang isipadu molar sebarang gas pada suhu dan
tekanan tertentu.
Menghitung isipadu gas pada suhu dan tekanan tertentu daripada
bilangan mol dan sebaliknya.

22

Hasil Pembelajaran Cadangan Aktiviti Pembelajaran

Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang melibatkan bilangan
zarah, bilangan mol, jisim dan isipadu gas pada s.t.p. dan pada
keadaan bilik.
5. Mensintesiskan formula kimia.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud formula kimia.

Learning Objectives

3.6
Interpreting chemical
equations

3.7
Practising scientific
attitudes and values in
investigating matter

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
state the meaning of molecular formula,
determine empirical and molecular
formulae of substances,
compare and contrast empirical formula
with molecular formula,
solve numerical problems involving
empirical and molecular formulae,
write ionic formulae of ions,
construct chemical formulae of ionic
compounds,
state names of chemical compounds using
IUPAC nomenclature.
A student is able to:
state the meaning of chemical equation,
identify the reactants and products of a
chemical equation,
write and balance chemical equations
interpret chemical equations quantitatively
and qualitatively,
solve numerical problems using chemical
equations.
A student is able to:
identify positive scientific attitudes and
values practised by scientists in doing
research on mole concept, chemical
formulae and chemical equations,
justify the need to practise positive
scientific attitudes and good values in

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Aras 2
Menyatakan maksud formula empirik.
Menyatakan maksud formula molekul.
Menentukan formula empirik dan formula molekul.
Membandingkan dan membezakan antara formula empirik
dengan formula molekul.
Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang berkaitan dengan
formula empirik dan formula molekul.
Membina formula kimia sebatian.
Menyatakan nama sebatian kimia mengikut sistem penamaan
IUPAC.
6. Menilai persamaan kimia.
Aras 1
Mengenal pasti bahan tindak balas dan hasil tindak balas.
Menyatakan maksud persamaan kimia.
Aras 2
Menulis dan mengimbangkan persamaan kimia.
Mentafsirkan persamaan kimia secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif.
Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan berkaitan dengan
persamaan kimia.
7. Mengamalkan sikap saintifik dan nilai murni dalam penyiasatan
tentang jirim.
Mengenal pasti sikap saintifik dan nilai murni yang diamalkan
oleh ahli sains dalam kajian menghasilkan idea tentang konsep
mol, formula dan persamaan kimia.
Memerihalkan sumbangan ahli sains dalam mempermudahkan
pemahaman idea jisim atom melalui konsep jisim atom relatif.

23

Learning Objectives

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
doing research on atomic structures,
chemical formulae and chemical equations,
use symbols, chemical formulae and
equations for easy and systematic
communication in the field of chemistry.

24

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Mewajarkan keperluan mengamalkan sikap saintifik dan nilai
murni dalam menjalankan penyiasatan tentang struktur atom,
formula dan persamaan kimia.
Menggunakan simbol, formula dan persamaan kimia bagi
memudahkan komunikasi secara sistematik dalam bidang kimia.

THEME
: MATTER AROUND US
LEARNING AREA : 4. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
Bidang Pembelajaran: Jadual Berkala Unsur.
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
4.1
A student is able to:
Analysing the Periodic
describe the contributions of scientists in
Table of Elements
the historical development of the Periodic
Table,
identify groups and periods in the Periodic
Table,
state the basic principle of arranging the
elements in the Periodic Table from their
proton numbers,
relate the electron arrangement of an
element to its group and period,
explain the advantages of grouping
elements in the Periodic Table,
predict the group and the period of an
element based on its electron arrangement.
4.2
A student is able to:
Analysing Group 18
list all Group 18 elements,
elements
state in general the physical properties of
Group 18 elements,
describe the changes in the physical
properties of Group 18 elements,
describe the inert nature of elements of
Group 18,
relate the inert nature of Group 18 elements
to their electron arrangements,

25

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Menganalisis Jadual Berkala Unsur.
Aras 1
Menghuraikan sumbangan ahli sains dalam sejarah
perkembangan Jadual Berkala Unsur.
Membuat inferens prinsip asas susunan unsur dalam Jadual
Berkala Unsur.
Menerangkan kebaikan pengelasan unsur dalam JadualBerkala
Unsur.
Mengenal pasti kumpulan dan kala dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan susunan elektron atom unsur dengan
kumpulan dan kala.
Aras 3
Meramalkan kedudukan unsur dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur
berdasarkan susunan elektron.
2. Menganalisis unsur dalam Kumpulan 18.
Aras 1
Menyenaraikan semua unsur dalam Kumpulan 18.
Menyatakan sifat fizik unsur Kumpulan 18.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan perubahan sifat fizik unsur Kumpulan 18.
Menghuraikan sifat ketidakreaktifan unsur dalam Kumpulan 18.
Aras 3
Menghubungkaitkan sifat kimia unsur Kumpulan 18 dengan
susunan elektron.
Menghubungkaitkan susunan elektron duplet dan oktet unsur

Learning Objectives

4.3
Analysing Group 1
elements

4.4
Analysing Group 17
elements

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
relate the duplet and octet electron
arrangements of Group 18 elements to their
stability,
describe uses of Group 18 elements in daily
life.
A student is able to:
list all Group 1 elements.
state the general physical properties of
lithium, sodium and potassium,
describe changes in the physical properties
from lithium to potassium,
list the chemical properties of lithium,
sodium and potassium,
describe the similarities in chemical
properties of lithium, sodium and
potassium,
relate the chemical properties of Group 1
elements to their electron arrangements,
describe changes in reactivity of Group 1
elements down the group,
predict physical and chemical properties of
other elements in Group 1,
state the safety precautions when handling
Group 1 elements.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
dengan kestabilan unsur.
Memerihalkan kegunaan unsur Kumpulan 18 dalam kehidupan
harian.

A student is able to:


list all Group 17 elements,
state the general physical properties of
chlorine, bromine and iodine,
describe changes in the physical properties

4. Menganalisis unsur dalam Kumpulan 17.


Aras 1
Menyenaraikan semua unsur dalam Kumpulan 17.
Menyatakan sifat fizik klorin, bromin dan iodin.
Menyenaraikan sifat kimia klorin, bromin dan iodin.

26

3. Menganalisis unsur dalam Kumpulan 1.


Aras 1
Menyenaraikan semua unsur dalam Kumpulan 1.
Menyatakan sifat fizik unsur litium, natrium dan kalium.
Menyenaraikan sifat kimia unsur litium, natrium dan kalium.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan perubahan sifat fizik dari unsur litium,natrium ke
kalium.
Menerangkan kesamaan sifat kimia unsur litium, natrium dan
kalium.
Menghubungkaitkan sifat kimia unsur Kumpulan 1 dengan
susunan elektron.
Aras 3
Menghuraikan perubahan kereaktifan unsur apabila menuruni
Kumpulan 1.
Meramalkan sifat fizik dan sifat kimia unsur lain dalam Kumpulan
1.
Menyatakan langkah keselamatan dalam pengendalian unsur
Kumpulan 1.

Learning Objectives

4.5
Analysing elements in a
period

4.6
Understanding transition
elements

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
from chlorine to iodine,
list the chemical properties of chlorine,
bromine and iodine,
describe the similarities in chemical
properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine,
relate the chemical properties of Group 17
elements with their electron arrangements,
describe changes in reactivity of Group 17
elements down the group,
predict physical and chemical properties of
other elements in Group 17,
state the safety precautions when handling
Group 17 elements.
A student is able to:
list all elements in Period 3,
write electron arrangements of all elements
in Period 3,
describe changes in the properties of
elements across Period 3,
state changes in the properties of the oxides
of elements across Period 3,
predict changes in the properties of
elements across Period 2,
describe uses of semi-metals.
A student is able to:
identify the positions of transition elements
in the Periodic Table,
give examples of transition elements,
describe properties of transition elements,

27

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Aras 2
Menghuraikan perubahan sifat fizik daripada klorin, bromin
ke iodin.
Menghuraikan kesamaan sifat kimia klorin, bromin dan iodin.
Menghubungkaitkan sifat kimia unsur Kumpulan 17 dengan
susunan elektron.
Aras 3
Menghuraikan perubahan kereaktifan unsur apabila menuruni
Kumpulan 17.
Meramalkan sifat fizik dan sifat kimia unsur lain dalam Kump 17.
Menyatakan langkah keselamatan dalam pengendalian unsur
Kumpulan 17.
5. Menganalisis unsur dalam Kala.3
Aras 1
Menyenaraikan semua unsur dalam Kala 3.
Menulis susunan elektron unsur dalam Kala 3.
Aras 2
Menyatakan perubahan sifat oksida unsur apabila merentas Kala3
Memerihalkan kegunaan unsur separuh logam.
Aras 3
Menghuraikan perubahan sifat unsur apabila merentas Kala 3.
Meramalkan perubahan sifat unsur apabila merentas kala lain.
6. Memahami unsur peralihan.
Aras 1
Mengenal pasti kedudukan unsur peralihan dalam Jadual
Berkala Unsur.
Memberi contoh unsur peralihan.
Aras 2

Learning Objectives

4.7
Appreciating the
existence of elements
and their compounds

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
state uses of transition elements in
industries.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
emerihalkan sifat unsur peralihan.
Aras 3
Menyatakan kegunaan unsur peralihan dalam industri.

A student is able to:


describe efforts of scientists in discovering
the properties of elements,
describe what life would be without diverse
elements and compounds,
identify different colours in compounds of
transition elements found naturally,
handle chemicals wisely.

7. Mensyukuri kewujudan unsur dan sebatiannya.


Memerihalkan usaha ahli sains dalam menemui ketertiban
sifat unsur.
Menggambarkan kehidupan tanpa kepelbagaian unsur dan
sebatian.
Menunjukkan minat terhadap keindahan warna sebatian unsur
peralihan dalam alam semula jadi.
Mengendalikan bahan kimia dengan bijaksana.

28

THEME
: MATTER AROUND US
LEARNING AREA : 5. CHEMICAL BONDS
Bidang Pembelajaran: Ikatan Kimia
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
5.1
A student is able to:
Understanding
explain the stability of inert gases,
formation of compounds explain conditions for the formation of
chemical bonds,
state types of chemical bonds.

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Memahami asas pembentukan sebatian.
Aras 1
Menerangkan kestabilan gas adi.
Aras 2
Menerangkan syarat pembentukan ikatan kimia.
Aras 3
Memberi contoh ikatan kimia.

5.2
Synthesising ideas on
formation of ionic bond

A student is able to:

explain formation of ions,

write electron arrangements for the


ions formed,

explain formation of ionic bond,

illustrate electron arrangement of an


ionic bond,

illustrate formation of ionic bond.

2. Mensintesiskan idea tentang pembentukan ikatan ion.


Aras 1
Menjelaskan melalui contoh pembentukan ion.
Menulis susunan elektron bagi ion yang terbentuk.
Aras 2
Menerangkan pembentukan ikatan ion.
Aras 3
Melukis gambar rajah susunan elektron bagi menunjukkan
pembentukan ikatan ion.
Membuat gambaran mental pembentukan ikatan ion.

5.3
Synthesising ideas on
formation of covalent
bond

A student is able to:

state the meaning of covalent bond,

explain formation of covalent bond,

illustrate formation of a covalent


bond by drawing electron arrangement,

illustrate formation of covalent bond,


compare and contrast formation of ionic
and covalent bonds.

3. Mensintesiskan idea tentang pembentukan ikatan kovalen.


Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud ikatan kovalen.
Aras 2
Menjelaskan dengan contoh pembentukan ikatan kovalen.
Melukis gambar rajah susunan elektron bagi menunjukkan
pembentukan ikatan kovalen.
Membuat gambaran mental pembentukan ikatan kovalen.

29

Learning Objectives

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Aras 3
Membandingkan dan membezakan pembentukan ikatan ion dan
ikatan kovalen.

5.4
Analysing properties of
ionic and covalent
compounds

A student is able to:


list properties of ionic compounds,
list properties of covalent compounds,
explain differences in the electrical
conductivity of ionic and covalent
compounds,
describe differences in melting and boiling
points of ionic and covalent compounds,
compare and contrast the solubility of ionic
and covalent compounds,
state uses of covalent compounds as
solvents.

4. Menganalisis sifat sebatian ion dan sebatian kovalen.


Aras 1
Menyenaraikan sifat sebatian ion.
Menyenaraikan sifat sebatian kovalen.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan perbezaan kekonduksian elektrik sebatian ion
dengan
sebatian kovalen.
Menghuraikan perbezaan takat lebur dan takat didih sebatian ion
dengan sebatian kovalen.
Aras 3
Membandingkan dan membezakan sifat sebatian ion dan sebatian
kovalen.
Menerangkan penggunaan sebatian kovalen sebagai pelarut.
5. Mengagumi kesepaduan sebagai asas kestabilan dan
keharmonian.
Mengitlakkan kestabilan unsur dan sebatian berpunca daripada
ikatan yang kuat.
Menghubungkaitkan pembentukan ikatan dalam unsur dan
sebatian dengan sifat dermawan dan sifat kemuafakatan dalam
kehidupan harian.

30

THEME
: INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS
LEARNING AREA : 6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Bidang Pembelajaran: Elektrokimia
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
6.1
A student is able to:
Understanding
state the meaning of electrolyte,
properties of electrolytes classify substances into electrolytes and
and non-electrolytes
non-electrolytes,
relate the presence of freely moving ions to
electrical conductivity.
6.2
A student is able to:
Analysing electrolysis of describe electrolysis,
molten compounds
describe electrolytic cell,
identify cations and anions in a molten
compound,
describe evidence for the existence of ions
held in a lattice in solid state but move
freely in molten state,
describe electrolysis of a molten
compound,
write half-equations for the discharge of
ions at anode and cathode,
predict products of the electrolysis of
molten compounds.
6.3
A student is able to:
Analysing the
identify cations and anions in an aqueous
electrolysis of aqueous
solution,
solutions
describe the electrolysis of an aqueous

31

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Memahami sifat elektrolit dan bukan elektrolit.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud elektrolit.
Aras 2
Mengelaskan bahan kepada elektrolit dan bukan elektrolit.
Aras 3
Menghubungkaitkan kekonduksian elektrik dengan kehadiran ion
bebas.
2. Menganalisis elektrolisis sebatian lebur.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud elektrolisis.
Menerangkan sel elektrolisis.
Aras 2
Mengenal pasti kation dan anion dalam suatu sebatian lebur.
Menghuraikan proses elektrolisis sebatian lebur.
Menulis setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas nyah cas ion di
anod dan di katod.
Aras 3
Meramalkan hasil elektrolisis elektrolit lebur.

3. Menganalisis elektrolisis larutan akueus.


Aras 1
Mengenal pasti kation dan anion dalam suatu larutan akueus.
Menghuraikan proses elektrolisis larutan akueus.

Learning Objectives

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
solution,
explain using examples factors affecting
electrolysis of an aqueous solution,
write half equations for the discharge of
ions at the anode and the cathode,
predict the products of electrolysis of
aqueous solutions.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Aras 2
Menjelaskan melalui contoh faktor yang mempengaruhi
elektrolisis larutan akueus.
Menulis setengah persamaan tindak balas nyah cas di anod
dan di katod.
Aras 3
Meramalkan hasil elektrolisis bagi larutan akueus.

6.4
Evaluating electrolysis
in industry

A student is able to:


state uses of electrolysis in industries,
explain the extraction, purification and
electroplating of metals involving
electrolysis in industries,
write chemical equations to represent the
electrolysis process in industries,
justify uses of electrolysis in industries,
describe the problem of pollution from
electrolysis in industry.

6.5
Analysing voltaic cell

A student is able to:


describe the structure of a simple voltaic
cell and Daniell cell,
explain the production of electricity from
a simple voltaic cell,
explain the reactions in a simple voltaic
cell and Daniell cell,
compare and contrast the advantages and
disadvantages of various voltaic cells,
describe the differences between
electrolytic and voltaic cells.

32

4. Menilai proses elektrolisis dalam industri.


Aras 1
Menyatakan kegunaan elektrolisis dalam industri.
Aras 2
Menjelaskan melalui contoh proses elektrolisis dalam
industri.
Menulis persamaan tindak balas elektrolisis dalam industri.
Aras 3
Memerihalkan masalah pencemaran alam yang berpunca
daripada industri yang menggunakan proses elektrolisis.
Mewajarkan penggunaan proses elektrolisis dalam industri.
5. Menganalisis sel kimia.
Aras 1
Menerangkan struktur sel ringkas.
Menerangkan tindak balas yang berlaku di dalam sel ringkas.
Aras 2
Menerangkan tindak balas yang berlaku dalam sel Daniell, sel
kering dan akumulator asid plumbum.
Membandingkan dan membezakan kebaikan dan kelemahan
pelbagai jenis sel kimia.
Aras 3
Menghuraikan perbezaan antara sel elektrolisis dan sel kimia.

Learning Objectives
6.6
Synthesising
electrochemical series

6.7
Develop awareness and
responsible practices
when handling
chemicals used in
electrochemical
industries

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
A student is able to:
describe the principles used in constructing
the electrochemical series,
construct the electrochemical series,
explain the importance of electrochemical
series,
predict the ability of a metal to displace
another metal from its salt solution,
write the chemical equations for metal
displacement reactions.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
6. Mensintesiskan siri elektrokimia.
Aras 1
Memerihalkan prinsip untuk membina siri elektrokimia.
Aras 2
Menerangkan kepentingan siri elektrokimia.
Membina siri elektrokimia.
Aras 3
Meramalkan kebolehan sesuatu logam untuk menyesarkan
logam lain daripada larutan garamnya.
Menulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas penyesaran
logam.
A student is able to:
7. Mengamalkan sikap bertanggungjawab dalam mengendalikan
justify the fact that electrochemical
bahan kimia yang digunakan dalam industri elektrokimia.
industries can improve the quality of life,
Mewajarkan industri elektrokimia meningkatkan mutu kehidupan.
describe the problem of pollution caused by Mempraktikkan pelupusan bateri terpakai secara selamat dan
the industrial processes involving
teratur.
electrolysis,
Mewajarkan keperluan pelupusan sisa industri elektrokimia
justify the need to dispose of waste from
secara selamat dan teratur.
electrochemical industries in a safe and
orderly manner,
practise safe and systematic disposal of
used batteries.

33

THEME
: INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS
LEARNING AREA : 7. ACIDS AND BASES
Bidang Pembelajaran: Asid, Bes dan Garam
PPSMI
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
7.1
A student is able to:
Analysing
state the meaning of acid, base and alkali,
characteristics and
state uses of acids, bases and alkalis in
properties of acids and
daily life,
bases
explain the role of water in the formation of
hydrogen ions to show the properties of
acids,
explain the role of water in the formation of
hydroxide ions to show the properties of
alkalis,
describe chemical properties of acids and
alkalis.
7.2
A student is able to:
Synthesising the
state the use of a pH scale,
concepts of strong acids, relate pH value with acidic or alkaline
weak acids, strong
properties of a substance,
alkalis and weak alkalis relate concentration of hydrogen ions with
pH value,
relate concentration of hydroxide ions with
pH value,
relate strong or weak acid with degree of
dissociation,
relate strong or weak alkali with degree of
dissociation,
conceptualise qualitatively strong and weak
acids,

34

Chemistry Form 4
Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Menganalisis konsep asid dan bes
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud asid
Menyatakan maksud bes dan alkali.
Menyatakan penggunaan asid dan bes dalam kehidupan harian.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan peranan air dalam pembentukan ion hidrogen
untuk menunjukkan sifat asid
Menghuraikan peranan air dalam pembentukan ion hidroksida
untuk menunjukkan sifat alkali.
Aras 3
enghuraikan sifat asid dan sifat alkali.
2. Mensintesiskan konsep asid kuat, asid lemah , alkali kuat dan
alkali lemah
Aras 1
Menyatakan kegunaan skala pH.
Menghubungkaitkan nilai pH dengan keasidan atau kealkalian
sesuatu bahan.
Menghubungkaitkan kepekatan ion hidrogen dengan nilai pH.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan asid kuat dan asid lemah dengan darjah
penceraiannya.
Menghubungkaitkan alkali kuat dan alkali lemah dengan darjah
penceraiannya.
Aras 3
Mengkonsepsikan asid kuat dan asid lemah secara kualitatif.
Mengkonsepsikan alkali kuat dan alkali lemah secara kualitatif.

Learning Objectives

7.3
Analysing
concentration of acids
and alkalis

7.4
Analysing
neutralisation

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
conceptualise qualitatively strong and weak
alkalis.
A student is able to:
state the meaning of concentration,
state the meaning of molarity,
state the relationship between the number
of moles with molarity and volume of a
solution,
describe methods for preparing standard
solutions,
describe the preparation of a solution with
a specified concentration using dilution
method,
relate pH value with molarity of acid and
alkali,
solve numerical problems involving
molarity of acids and alkalis.
A student is able to:
explain the meaning of neutralisation,
explain the application of neutralisation in
daily life,
write equations for neutralisation reactions,
describe acid-base titration,
determine the end point of titration during
neutralisation,
solve numerical problems involving
neutralisation reactions to calculate either
concentration or volume of solutions.

35

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran

3. Menganalisis kepekatan asid dan alkali


Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud kepekatan.
Menyatakan maksud kemolaran.
Menyatakan hubungan antara bilangan mol dengan kemolaran
dan isipadu suatu larutan.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan kaedah penyediaan larutan piawai.
Menghuraikan penyediaan larutan dengan kepekatan tertentu
melalui kaedah pencairan.
Aras 3
Menghubungkaitkan nilai pH dengan kemolaran asid dan alkali
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang melibatkan
kemolaran asid dan alkali
4. Menganalisis peneutralan
Aras 1
Menerangkan peneutralan.
Menulis persamaan tindak balas peneutralan.
Menerangkan aplikasi peneutralan dalam kehidupan harian.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan proses pentitratan asid-bes.
Menentukan takat akhir peneutralan melalui pentitratan.
Aras 3
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang melibatkan
peneutralan.

36

THEME
: INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS
LEARNING AREA : 8. SALTS
Bidang Pembelajaran: Asid, Bes dan Garam
Chemistry Form 4
PPSMI
Semakan Semula
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
Hasil Pembelajaran
8.1
A student is able to:
5. Mensintesiskan garam
Synthesising salts
state examples of salts used in daily
Aras 1
life,
Menyatakan contoh garam dan penggunaannya dalam kehidupan
explain the meaning of salt
harian.
identify soluble and insoluble salts,
enerangkan maksud garam.
describe the preparation of soluble
Mengenal pasti garam terlarutkan.
salts,
Mengenal pasti garam tak terlarutkan
describe the purification of soluble salts Aras 2
by recrystallisation,
Menghuraikan proses penyediaan garam terlarutkan.
list physical characteristics of crystals,
Menghuraikan proses penulenan garam terlarutkan melalui
describe the preparation of insoluble
penghabluran semula.
salts,
Menghuraikan proses penyediaan garam tak terlarutkan
write chemical and ionic equations for
Membuat kesimpulan ciri fizik hablur
reactions used in the preparation of
Aras 3
salts,
Mereka bentuk eksperimen untuk menyediakan garam tertentu.
design an activity to prepare a specified
Membina persamaan ion melalui kaedah perubahan berterusan.
salt,
Menyelesaikan masalah penghitungan yang melibatkan penyediaan
construct ionic equations through the
garam.
continuous variation method,
solve problems involving calculation of
quantities of reactants or products in
stoichiometric reactions.
8.2 Synthesising
qualitative analysis of
salts

A student is able to:


state the meaning of qualitative
analysis,
make inferences on salts based on their
colour and solubility in water,

6. Mensintesiskan analisis kualitatif garam.


Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud analisis kualitatif.
Membuat inferens tentang garam berdasarkan warna dan
kelarutan dalam air.

37

Learning Objectives

8.3
Practising to be
systematic and
meticulous when
carrying out activities

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
describe tests for the identification of
gases,
describe the action of heat on salts,
describe the tests for anions,
state observation of reaction of cations
with sodium hydroxide solution and
ammonia solution,
2+
describe confirmatory tests for Fe ,
3+
2+
+
Fe , Pb and NH4 ,
plan qualitative analysis to identify
salts.
A student is able to:
carry out activities using the correct
techniques during preparation of salts
and crystals.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Memerihalkan ujian gas.
Aras 2
Menghuraikan tindakan haba ke atas garam.
Menghuraikan ujian bagi anion.
Menghuraikan tindak balas kation dalam larutan akueus
dengan larutan natrium hidroksida dan ammonia akueus.
Menghuraikan ujian pengesahan bagi kation Fe2+, , Fe3+ , Pb2+, dan
NH4
Aras 3
Merancang kaedah analisis kualitatif untuk mengenal pasti garam.
7. Mengamalkan sikap sistematik dan teliti dalam mengendalikan
eksperimen.
Mengeksperimen dengan teknik yang betul.
Merancang dan menjalankan eksperimen secara sistematik dan
teliti.

38

THEME
: PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURED CHEMICALS
LEARNING AREA : 9. MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY
Bidang Pembelajaran: Bahan Buatan dalam Industri
Chemistry Form 4
PPSMI
Semakan Semula
Learning Objectives
Learning Outcomes
Hasil Pembelajaran
9.1
A student is able to:
1. Memahami pembuatan asid sulfurik.
Understanding the
Aras 1
list uses of sulphuric acid,
manufacture of
Menyenaraikan penggunaan asid sulfurik.
explain industrial process in the
sulphuric acid
Aras 2
manufacture of sulphuric acid,
Menerangkan proses pembuatan asid sulfurik secara industri.
explain that sulphur dioxide causes
Aras 3
environmental pollution.
Menerangkan pencemaran alam sekitar yang diakibatkan oleh
sulfur dioksida.
9.2
Synthesising the
manufacture of
ammonia and its salts

A student is able to:


list uses of ammonia,
state the properties of ammonia,
explain the industrial process in the
manufacture of ammonia,
design an activity to prepare
ammonium fertilizer.

2. Mensintesiskan pembuatan ammonia dan garamnya.


Aras 1
Menyenaraikan penggunaan ammonia.
Menyatakan sifat ammonia.
Aras 2
Menerangkan proses pembuatan ammonia secara industri.
Aras 3
Mereka bentuk eksperimen untuk menghasilkan suatu baja
ammonium.

9.3
Understanding alloys

A student is able to:


relate the arrangement of atoms in
metals to their ductile and malleable
properties,
state the meaning of alloy,
state the aim of making alloys,
list examples of alloys,
list compositions and properties of

3. Memahami aloi.
Aras 1
Menghubungkaitkan susunan atom logam dengan sifat
kemuluran dan kebolehtempaan logam.
Menyatakan maksud aloi.
Aras 2
Menghubungkaitkan susunan atom aloi dengan sifat kekuatan
dan kekerasannya.

39

Learning Objectives

9.4
Evaluating uses of
synthetic polymers

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
alloys,
relate the arrangement of atoms in
alloys to their strength and hardness,

relate properties of alloys to their


uses.
A student is able to:
state the meaning of polymers,
list naturally occurring polymers,
list synthetic polymers and their uses,
identify the monomers in the synthetic
polymers,
justify uses of synthetic polymers in
daily life.

9.5
Applying uses of glass
and ceramics

A student is able to:


list uses of glass,
list uses of ceramics,
list types of glass and their properties,
state properties of ceramics.

9.6
Evaluating uses of
composite materials

A student is able to:


describe needs to produce new
materials for specific purposes,
state the meaning of composite

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Menyatakan tujuan pengaloian.
Aras 3
Menyenaraikan aloi, komposisi dan sifatnya.
Menghubungkaitkan sifat aloi dengan penggunaannya.
4. Menilai penggunaan polimer sintetik.
Aras 1
Menyatakan maksud polimer.
Aras 2
Menyenaraikan polimer semula jadi.
Menyenaraikan polimer sintetik dan penggunaannya.
Mengenal pasti monomer dalam polimer sintetik.
Aras 3
Mewajarkan penggunaan polimer sintetik dalam kehidupan harian.
5. M engaplikasikan penggunaan kaca dan seramik.
Aras 1
Menyenaraikan penggunaan kaca.
Menyenaraikan penggunaan seramik.
Aras 2
Menyenaraikan jenis kaca dan sifatnya.
Menyatakan komposisi utama setiap jenis kaca.
Memerihalkan pembuatan kaca terlakur.
Menyatakan komposisi utama seramik.
Menyatakan sifat seramik.
Aras 3
Menjanakan idea baru tentang penggunaan kaca.
Menjanakan idea baru tentang penggunaan seramik.
6. Menilai penggunaan bahan komposit.
Aras 1
Memerihalkan keperluan pengh asilan bahan baru untuk tujuan
tertentu.
40

Learning Objectives

9.7
Appreciating various
synthetic industrial
materials

PPSMI
Learning Outcomes
materials,
list examples of composite materials
and their components,
compare and contrast properties of
composite materials with those of their
original component,
justify uses of composite materials,
generate ideas to produce advanced
materials to fulfill specific needs.

Semakan Semula
Hasil Pembelajaran
Menyatakan maksud bahan komposit.
Menyenaraikan contoh bahan komposit dan komponennya.

Aras 2
Membandingkan dan membezakan sifat bahan komposit dengan

komponen asalnya.
Mewajarkan penggunaan bahan komposit.
Aras 3

Mereka bentuk eksperimen menghasilkan bahan komposit.

Menjanakan idea tentang penghasilan bahan termaju untuk memenuhi


keperluan tertentu.
A student is able to:
7. Mensyukuri anugerah Tuhan yang memberikan akal fikiran untuk
justify the importance of doing research menghasilkan pelbagai bahan buatan dalam industri
Mewajarkan kepentingan penyelidikan dan pembangunan yang
and development continuously,
berterusan.
act responsibly when handling
Mengamalkan sikap bertanggungjawab semasa pengendalian bahan
synthetic materials and their wastes,
buatan dan sisanya.
describe the importance of synthetic
Memerihalkan kepentingan bahan buatan dalam kehidupan harian.
materials in daily life.

PPSMI

SEMAK SEMULA

41