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1

Mathematics-I
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LESSON - 1
FIRST ORDER FIRST DEGREE
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS I
1.1

Objective:
After studying this lesson, the student will be in a position to
know about formation of differential equation, solution of
differential equation, Homogeneous differential equations and
how to solve them.

1.2

Structure:
This lesson has the following components.
1.3. Introduction.
1.4 Definitions
1.5 Formation of a differential equation
1.6 Solution of a differential equation
1.7 Geometrical meaning of a differential equation
1.8 Equations of first order first degree.
1.9 Variables separable.

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NOTES
1.10 Homogeneous equations
1.11 Equation reducible to homogeneous forms.
1.12 Summary
1.13 Technical terms
1.14 Exercise.
1.13 Introduction
Many practical problems in science and engineering are
formulated by finding how one quantity is related to one or more
quantities defined in the problem. Often, it is easier to model a relation
between the rates of changes in the variables rather than between the
variables themselves. The study of this relation ship gives rise to
differential equations. Many physical laws and relations appear
mathematically in the form of differential equations.
1.4 . Definitions
1.4.1. def: A differential equation is an equation which involves
differential coefficients or differentials.
Thus (i) exdx +eydy = 0

dy
x
(iii) y x
dx dy / dx.

(v)

(ii)

d 2x
n2 x 0
2
dt

dy 2
(iv) 1
dx

dx
dy
wy a cos pt , wx a sin pt
dt
dt

3/ 2

(vi) x

d2y
c
dx 2

u
u
y
2u
x
y

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NOTES

(vii)

2
2 y
2 y

c
are all examples of differential equations.
t 2
t 2

1.4.2. Def: An ordinary differential equation is that in which all the


differential coefficients have reference to a single independent
variable. Thus the equations (i) to (v) are all ordinary differential
equations.
1.4.3. Def: A partial differential equation is that in which there are
two or more independent variables and partial differential coefficients
with respect to any of them. Thus the equations (vi) and (vii) are partial
differential equations.
1.4.4. Def. The order of a differential equation is the order of the
highest derivative appearing in it.
1.4.5.Def. the degree of a differential equation is the degree of the
highest derivative occurring in it, after the equation has been
expressed in a form free from radicals and fractions as far as the
derivatives are concerned.
Thus, from the examples above,

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NOTES

(iii) Written as y

dy
dy
x x is clearly of the first order but of
dx
dx

second degree;
3

2
dy 2
2d y
and (iv) written as 1 c 2 is of the second order
dx
dx
2

and second degree


1.5

FORMATION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION


An ordinary differential equation is formed in an attempt to
eliminate certain arbitrary constant from a relation in the
variable and constants. It will, however be seen later that the
partial differential equations may be formed by the elimination of
either arbitrary constants or arbitrary functions. In applied
mathematics, every geometrical 0 physical problem when
translated into mathematical symbols gives rise to differential
equation

1.5.1 example:

Form the differential equation of simple harmonic

motion given by x =A cos (nt + ).


Sol. To eliminate the constants A and differentiating it twice,
we have
dx
d 2x
nA sin(nt )and 2 n 2 A cos(nt ) n 2 x
dt
dt

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NOTES

d 2x
Thus 2 n 2 x 0
dt

Is the desired

differential equation which states that the

acceleration varies as the distance from the origin.


1.5.2 Example Obtain the differential equation of all circles of radius a
and centre (h, k).
Sol. Such a circle is (x-h)2 + (y k)2 = a2

.(i)

Where h and k, the co-ordinates fo the centre, and

a are the

constants.
Differentiating it twice, we have
2

x h ( y k)

dy
d 2 y dy
0 and1 ( y k ) 2 0
dx
dx dx

Then y k

And

1 (dy / dx) 2
d 2 y / dx 2

x h ( y h)dy / dx

dy dy
1
dx dx

d 2 y / dx 2

Substituting these in (i) and simplifying, we get


[1+(dy/dx)2]3 = a2(d2y/dx2]2 at the required differential equation.
.(ii)

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NOTES

[1 (dy / dx) 2 ]3/ 2


Writing (ii) in the form
a1
d 2 y / dx 2

It states that the radius of curvature of a circle at any point is constant.


1.5.3 example

Obtain the differential equation of the coaxcial circles

of the system x 2 y 2 2ax c 2 0 where c is a constant and a is a


variable.
Sol. We have x 2 y 2 2ax c 2 0
Differentiating w.r.t. x, 2x + 2y dy/dx
Or

+ 2 = 0

dy

2a 2 x y
dx

Substituting in (i) x 2 y 2 2( x y dy / dx) x c 2 0


or

2 xy dy / dx y 2 x 2 c 2

Which is the required differential equation.


1.5.4 example: Find the differential equation of the family of curves
y Ae2 x Be 2 x for different values of A and B.

Solution: Given that y Ae2 x Be 2 x

.(i)

Differentiating 1 with respect to x, we get

dy
2 Ae2 x 2 Be 2 x
dx

.(2)

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NOTES

Differentiating 2 with respect to x, we get

d2y
4 Ae 2 x 4 Be 2 x 4( Ae 2 x Be2 x ) 4 y
2
dx

Thus the required differential equation is

d2y
4y 0
dx 2

1.5.5. Example: find the differential equation of the family of parabolas


having vertices at the origin and foci on y-axis.
solution: equation of a parabola having vertex at the origin and focus
on y-axis is
x2 = 4ay

(1)

Differentiating on both sides with respect to x., we get

2 x 4a

2x
dy
. 4a
dy
dx
dx

Substituting 4a in equation 1, we get

x2

2x
y
dy
dx

Or x

dy
2y 0
dx

x2

dy
dy
2 xy x 2 y
dx
dx

Which is the required differential equation.

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NOTES

1.6. SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION


A solution 9or integral) of a differential equation is a relation
between the variables which satisfies the given differential equation.
For example

Is a solution of

x = A cos (nt +)

d 2x
n 2 x 0 ..2
2
dt

1.6.1 Definition: The general (or complete) solution of a differential


equation is that in which the number of arbitrary constants is equal to
the order of the differential equation. Thus (1) is a general solution (2)
as the number of arbitrary constants (A, ) is the same as the order of
(2).
1.6.2 Definition: A particular solution is that which can be obtained
form the general solution by giving particular values to the arbitrary
constants.
For example x = A cos (nt + /4)
Is the particular solution of the equation (2) as it can be derived form
the (general solution 1) by putting = /4.
1.6.3 Linearly independent solution: Two solutions
(x) of the differential equation

y1 (x) and y2

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NOTES
d2 y
dy
a1 ( x) a2 ( x) y 0
2
dx
dx

. (3)

are said to be linearly independent if c1y1 + c2y2 = 0 such that c1 =0


and c2 =0
If c1 and c2 are not both zero, then the two solutions y1 and y2
are said to be linearly dependent.
If y1(x) and y2(x) any two solutions of (3), then their linear
combination c1y1 + c2y2 where c1 and c2 are constants, is also a
solution of (3).
1.6.4 Example: find the differential equation whose set of independent
solutions is {ex, x .ex }
Sol. Let the general solution of the required differential equation be
y = c1 ex + c2 xex

(i)

Differentiating (i) w.r.t.x, we get y1 c1e x c2 (e x xe x )

y y1 c2 e x
Again differentiating (ii) w. r. to x, we obtain

Y1 -y 2 = -c 2 e x
Subtracting (iii) from (ii), we get

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NOTES

y y1 ( y1 y2 ) 0 or y 2 y1 y2 0
Which is the desired differential equation.
1. 7. Geometrical meaning of a differential equation.
Consider any differential equation of the first order and first degree

dy
f ( x, y )
dx

.(1)

If P (x, y) be any point, then (1) can be regarded as an equation


giving the value of dy/dx (=*m) when the values of x and Y are known
(Fig. 1.1). Let the value of m at the point AO (xo, yo) derived from (1)
be mo. Take a neighboring point A1 (xj , y1) such that the slope of AO Al
is

m 0 Let the corresponding value of m at A, be m1 . Similarly take a

neighbouring point A2(X 2 , Y2 ) such that the slope of AIA2 is m1 and so


on.

Fig. 1.1

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NOTES

If the successive points AO, A1 , A 2 , A 3 are chosen very

near one

another, the broken curve A 0 A1A 2 A 3 ... approximates to a smooth


curve
C[y = x ] which is a solution of (1) associated with the initial point

A 0 (x 0 , y0 ). Clearly the slope of the tangent to C at any point and the


co-ordinates of that point satisfy (1).
A different choice of the initial point will, in general, give a
different curve with the same property, The equation of each such
curve is thus a particular solution of the differential equation (1). The
equation of the whole family of such curves is the general solution of
(1). The slope of the tangent at any point of each member of this family
and the co-ordinates of that point
Such a simple geometric interpretation of the solutions of a second (or
higher) order differential equation is not available.
1.8 EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER AND FIRST DEGREE
It is possible to solve such equations in general. We shall
however discuss some special methods of solutions which re applied
to the following types of equations:

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NOTES

(i) Equations where variables are separable.,


equations

(iii) Linear equations

(ii) Homogenous

(iv) Exact equations

1.9 VARIABLES SEPERABLE


If in an equation it is possible to collect all functions of x and dx
on one side and all the functions of y and dy on the other side, then the
variables are said to be separable. Thus the general form of such an
equation is f(y) dy = (x) dx
Integrating both sides, we get

f ( y)dy ( x)dx c as its solution.

1.9.1 Example

Solve dy / dx

x(2log x 1)
sin y y cos y

Sol. Given equation is x(2logx+1)dx = (sin y + y cos y)dy


Integrating both sides, 2 (log x.x x)dx sin y dy y cos y dy c

x2
1 x2 x2
Or 2 log x. . dx coy y sin y sin y.1 dy c
2
x 2 2

Or 2 x 2 log x

x2 x2
cos y y sin y cos y c
2 2

Hence the solution is 2x2 log x y sin y = c.

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13

NOTES
1.9.2 Example

solve

dy
e3 x2 y x 2e 2 y
dx

Sol. Given equation is

dy
e 2 y (e3 x x 2 )
dx

or e 2 y dy (e3 x x 2 )dx

Integrating both sides, e 2 y dy (e3 x x 2 )dx c

e 2 y e3 x x 3

c or 3e 2 y 2(e3 x x3 ) 6c
2
3
3

or

1.93 . Example

Solve

dy
sin( x y ) cos( x y ).
dx

Sol. Putting x+ y = t so that dy/dx = dt/dx -1

The given equation becomes

Or

dt
1 sin t cos t
dx

dt / dx =1 + sin t + cos t

Integrating both sides, we get

dt

dx = 1 sin t cos t c.

2d
c
1 sin 2 cos 2

[putting t = 2]

2d
sec 2

c
1 tan d c
2cos 2 2sin cos

14

Mathematics-I
NOTES

= log ( 1+ tan ) + c

1
Hence the solution is x log[1 tan ( x y )] c
2
1.9.4

Example
Solve dy/dx = (4x + y +1)2 , if y(0) =1.

Sol. Putting 4x + y + 1 = t, we get

the given equation becomes

Integrating both sides, we get

Or

dy dt

4
dx dx

dt
dt
4 t 2or
4 t2
dx
dx
dt

4t

dx c

1
t
1
1

tan 1 x c. or tan 1 (4 x y 1) x c
2
2
2
2

Or 4x + y + 1 = 2 tan 2 (x + c)

Where x = 0, y =1

1
tan 1 (1) c i.e.c / 8
2

Hence the solution is 4x + y + 1 = 2 tan ( 2x + /4).

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15

NOTES
1.9.5

Example
y dy
x2 y2 1

0.
solve x dx 2( x 2 y 2 ) 1

Sol.

Putting

x2

y2

t,

we

get

2x

dy dt
y dy 1 dt
or

1
dx dx
x dx 2 x dx

Therefore the given equation becomes

Or

1 dt
t 1
1
0
2 x dx
2t 1

1 dt
t 1 t 2
2t 1
1

or 2 xdx
dt
t2
2 x dx
2t 1 2t 1

Or 2 x dx 2
dt
t2

Integrating, we get x2 = 2t 3 log ( t + 2) + c


Or

x 2 2 y 2 3log( x 2 y 2 2) c 0

[ t = x2 + y2]

Which is the required solution.


1.10. HOMOGENOUS EQUATIONS

homogenous equation are of the form

dy f ( x, y )

dx ( x, y )

2y

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Mathematics-I

Where f(x,y) and (x,y) are homogenous functions of the same degree
in x and y

To solve a homogenous equation (i) put y = vx, then

(i)

dy
dy
vx
dx
dx,

Separate the variables v and x, and integrate.

1.10.1 example
solve (x2 y2) dx xydy = 0.

Sol. Given equation is

dx x 2 y 2

which is homogenous in x
dy
xy

and y.

Put y = vx, then

Or x

dx
dv
dv 1 v 2
v x . (i )becomes v x
dy
dx
dx
v

dv 1 v 2
1 2v 2

v
.
dx
v
v

Separating the variables,

Integrating both sides,

Or

v
dx
dv
2
1 2v
x
v dv

1 2v

dx
c
x

1 4v
dx
1
dv c or log(1 2v 2 ) log x c
2

4 1 2v
x
4

NOTES

17

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NOTES

Or 4 log x + log (1-2v2) = 4c or log x 4 (1 2v 2 ) log x 4c

Or

x 4 (1 2 y 2 / x 2 ) e 3c c '

Hence the required solution is x 2 ( x 2 2 y 2 ) c '.

1.10.2 Example:
Solve ( x tan y/x-y sec2 y/x)dx x sec2 y /x dy =0.
Sol. The given equation may be rewritten as

dy y 2 y
y
sec tan cos 2 y / x .(i)
dx x
x
x
Which is a homogenous equation. Putting y = vx, (i) becomes

v x

dv
(v sec 2 v tan v) cos 2 v
dx

Or x

dv
v tan v cos 2 v v
dx

Separating the variables

sec 2 v
dx
dv
tan v
x

Integrating both sides log tan v=-log x + log c


Or

x tan v =c or x tan y/ x=c

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NOTES

1.10.3 Example

Solve (1 + e x/y) dx + ex/y ( 1-x/y)/dy = 0

Sol. The

given equation may be rewritten as


dx
e x / y (1 x / y )
..(i)

dy
1 ex / y

Which is a homogenous equation. Putting x = vy so that (i) becomes

v y

Or

dv
e v (1 v)

dy
1 ev

dv
ev (1 v)
v ev

v
dy
1 ev
1 ev

Separating the variables, we get

dy 1 ev
d (v e v )

dv
y v ev
v ev

Integrating both sides, - log y = log (v+ ev ) + c


Or y (v ev ) e c

or x ye x / y c ' ( say )

Which is he required solution


1.10

EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO HOMOGENOUS FORM

The equations of the form

dy
ax by c

dx a ' x b ' y c '

.. (1)

Can be reduced to the homogenous form as follows:

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NOTES

a b
Case I. When

a' b'
Putting

x = X + h, y= Y + k, (h, k being constants)

So that

dx = dX, dy = dY, (1) becomes

dy
aX bY (ah bk c)

dx a ' X b 'Y (a ' h b ' k c ')

.. (2)

Choose h, k so that (2) may become homogenous.


Put

ah + bk + c =0, and ah + bk + c = 0

So that

h
k
1

bc ' b ' c ca ' c ' a ab ' ba '

bc ' bc '
ca ' c ' a
,k
ab ' ba '
ab ' ba '

Thus when ab ba 0, (2) becomes

. (3)

dY
aX bY
which is

dX a ' X b 'Y

homogeneous in X,Y and can be solved by putting Y = vX.

Case II, when

a b

a' b'

i.e.ab ba = 0, the above method as h and k become infinite or


indeterminate.

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NOTES

a b 1
Now
( say )
a' b' m

a ' am, b ' bm and (1) becomes


dy
(ax by ) c

.(4)
dx m(ax by ) c '

Putting ax + by = t, so that a+ b

dy dt

dx dx

Or

dy 1 dt
1 dt
tc

a (4)becomes a
.dx b dx
b dx

mt c '

Or

dt
bt bc (am b)t ac ' bc
a

dx
mt c '
mt c '

So that the variables are seperable. In this solution, putting t= ax + by,


we get the required solution of (1).

1.11.1 Example

Solve

dy y x 2

dx y x 4

Sol. Given equation is

dy y x 2

dx y x 4

a b

case a ' b '

. (i)

Putting x = X + h, y = Y + k, (h, k being constants) so that dx = dX, dy


= dY, (i) becomes

dY Y X (k h 2)

dX Y X (k h 4)

.. (ii)

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NOTES

Put k + h 2 = 0 and k h 4 = 0 sot that h = -1, k = 3.

(ii ) becomes

put y=vx,then

dY Y X
which is homogeneous in X and Y.

dX Y X
dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx

(iii ) becomes v X

Or

dv v 1
dv v 1
1 2v v 2
or X

v
dX v 1
dX v 1
v 1

v 1
dX
.
dv
2
1 2v v
X

Integrating both sides,

1
2 2v
dX
dv
c
2

2 1 2v v
X

Or

1
log(1 2v v 2 ) log X c
2

Or

2Y Y 2
log 1
2 log X 2 2c
X
X

( v y / x)

Or

log( X 2 2 XY Y 2 ) 2c or X 2 2 XY Y 2 e 2 c c ' (iv)

Putting X = x h = x + 1, Y = y k = y -3, (iv) becomes


(x+1)2 + 2(x+1) (y-3) (y-3)2 = c
Or x2 + 2xy y2 4x + 8y 14 = c which is th required solution.

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NOTES

1.11.2 Example

Solve (3y + 2x + 4)dx (4x + 6y + 5) dy = 0

Sol. Given equation is

dy (2 x 3 y ) 4

dx 2(2 x 3 y ) 5

(i)

Putting 2x + 3y = t so that 2 + 3

dy dt
1 dt
t4

(i ) becomes 2
dx dx
3 dx
2t 5
dt
3t 12 7t 22
2t 5
2

or
dt dx
dx
2t 5
2t 5
7t 22

Or

Integrating both sides ,

Or

7 7 . 7t 22 dt x c

or

2
9
t log(7t 22) x c
7 49

t 2 x 3 y, wehave 14(2x+3y)-9 log (14x+21y+22)=49x+49c

putting
or

2t 5
dt dt c
7t 22

21x-42y+ 9 log (14x + 21y + 22) = c which is the required

solution.
1.12. Summary:
In this lesson we discussed formation of differential equation, solution
of a differential equation by variables separable, homogeneous
method and the related problems.

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23

NOTES
1.13 Technical terms.
Homogeneous differential equation
General solution
Particular solution
1.14. EXERCISE
Form the differential equations form the following equations.
1.14.1.

x = a sin (at + b)

1.14.2.

y=ax3 + bx2

Find the differential equations of


1.14.3.

All circles of radius 5, with their centers on the y-axis.

1.14.4.

a family of circles passing through the origin and having


centers on the x- axis.

1 x 2 dy x 1 y 2 dx 0

1.14.5.

solve y

1.14.6.

Solve secx tan y dx +secy tan x dy = 0

1.14.7.

Solve

y dy
(1 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 )
x dx

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NOTES

1.14.8.

dy
Solve
e 2 x3 y 4 x 2e3 y
dx

1.14.9.

Solve (x+1)

dy
1 2e y
dx

1.14.10. Solve ( x y 1) 2

dy
1
dx

1.14.11. Solve cos(x+y) dy = dx


Solve the differential equations
1.14.12. ( x y 2)dx ( x 2 y 3)dy 0
1.14.13. (2x+y-3) dy = (x + 2y 3) dx.

1.14.14.

dy
x y 1

dx 2 x 2 y 3

1.14.15. (x + 2y) (dx dy) = dx + dy

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NOTES

LESSON - 2
FIRST ORDER FIRST DEGREE DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS - II

2.1 OBJECTIVE:
After studying this lesson, the student will be in a position to know
about linear differential equations, Bernoulls equations, exact
differential equations integrating factors and how to solve them.

2.2 Structure: The lesson has the following components.


2.3 Introduction
2.4 Linear equations
2.5 Bernoullis equations.
2.6 Exact differential equations.
2.7 Equations reducible to exact equations
2.8 Summary
2.9 Technical terms
2.10 Exercise

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26

NOTES

2.3 Introduction :
Linear differential equations occur in the study of many
problems in science and model the physical systems. The systems
which change with time are called dynamic systems. Therefore the
differential equations provide a tool for studying the phenomena which
varies continuously.
2.4 LINEAR EQUATIONS
A differential equation is said to be lenear if the dependent
variable and its differential coefficients occur only in the first degree
and not multiplied together.

Thus, the standard form of a linear equation of the first order,


commonly known as Leibnitzs linear equation, is
dy
Py Q where P,Q are the functions of x.
dx

To solve the equation, multiply both sides by

pdx

so that we get

dy
d
,e pdx y (e pdx P ) Qe pdx i.e ( ye pdx) Qe pdx
dx
dx

Integrating both sides, we get ye pdx c as the required solution.


Remark (1) The factor

pdx

on multiplying by which the left hand

side of (1) becomes the differential coefficient of single function, is


called the integrating factor (I.F.) of the linear equation (1).

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27

NOTES

It is important to remember that I.F. =

e pdx

And the solution is Y(I.F.) = . Q( I .F .)dx c.


Remark (2) Some times a given differential equation becomes linear if
we take x as the independent variable, i.e it can be written in the form
dx
p1 x Q1
dy

Where P1 and Q1 are constants or functions of y alone. In this


case the solution is
xe

p1dy

Q.e

p1dy

.dy c

2.4.1 Example
Solve ( x 1)

dy
y e3 x ( x 1) 2.
dx

Sol. Dividing throughout by (x+1), given equation becomes


dy
y

e3 x ( x 1) which is Leibnitzs equation.


dx x 1

Here P

1
dx
and pdx
log( x 1) log( x 1) 1
x 1
x 1

I .F . e pd x elog( x1)
1

1
x 1

Thus the solution of (1) is y (I.F)=

[e

3x

( x 1)]( I .F .)dx c

Or

y
1
1
e3 x dx c e3 x c or y=( e3 x c)( x 1).
x 1
3
3

Example:2.42

e 2 x
y dx
Solve

1
x
x dy

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NOTES
2

Sol. Given equation can be written as

I.F=e dx e 2
x1/2

Thus Solution of (i) is y (I.F.)=

Or

ye 2

Or

ye 2

dy
y
e x

dx
x
x

e2 x
( I .F )dx c
x

e 2 x 2 x
.e dx c
x

x 1/ 2 dx c or ye 2

Example2.4.3 Solve 3 x(1 x 2 ) y 2

Sol. Putting y 3 z and3y 2

x(1 x 2 )

2 x c.

dy
(2 x 2 1) y 3 ax 3
dx

dy dz
, thegivenequationbecomes.
dx dx

dz
(2 x 2 1) z ax3,
dx

dz 2 x 2 1
ax3

dx x x3
x x3

Or

Which is Leibnitzs equation in z

2x 2 1
I.F.=exp
dx
3
xx

Now

2x2 1
1 1
1
1
1 1 1
x x3 dx x 2 1 x 2 .1 x dx log x 2 log(1 x) 2 log(1 x)
log[ x (1 x 2 )]
I.F.=e-log[x

(1-x 2 )]

[ x (1 x 2 )]1

29

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Thus the solution of (i) 1s

ax3
( I .F .) dx+c
x x3

z ( I .F .)
Or

z
[ x (1 x 2 )]

1
x3
.
dx c a x(1 x 2 ) 3/ 2 dx
2
2
x(1 x ) x (1 x )

a
(2 x)(1 x 2 ) 3/ 2 dx c a (1 x 2 ) 1/ 2 c

Hence the solution of the given equation is

y 3 ax cx (1 x 2 )
Example: 2.4.4 Solve y (log y )dx ( x log y )dy 0
Sol. We have

dx
x
1

dy log y y

Which is a Leibnitzs equation in x


1

I.F.=e

logy dx

elog(log y ) log y

1
Thus the Solution of (i) is x (I.F)= ( I .F )dy c
y
1
1
x log y log y dy c (log y ) 2 c
y
2
i.e

1
x log y+c(logy)-1
2

Example 2.4.5 Solve (1 y 2 )dx (tan 1 y x)dy.


Sol. This equation contains

y2and tan-1 y and is, therefore,not alinear in y;but since only x occurs, it can be written as

Mathematics-I

30

NOTES
dx
dx
x
tan 1 y

(1 y 2 ) tan 1 y x or
dy
dy 1 y 2 1 y 2

Which is a Leibnitzs equation in x.

I .F . e Pdy e

1
dy
1 y 2

Thus the solution is x (I.F.)=

Or

xe

tan 1

e tan y

tan 1
( I .F .)dy c
1 y2

tet dt c t.et 1.et dt c

t.et et c (tan 1 y 1)e


Or

put tan 1 y t

dy dt
1 y 2

tan 1 y tan 1 y
y
dy c
.e
1 y2

x tan 1 y 1 ce

(Integrating by parts)
tan 1y

tan 1 y

Example 2.4.6 solver sin d (r 3 2r 2 cos cos )dr 0


Sol. Given equation can be rewritten as

sin

d 1
(1 2r 2 ) cos r 2
dr r

(i)

Put cos =y so that -sin d /dr =dy/dr


Then (i)becomes

dy 1
dy
1

2r y r 2or 2r y r 2
dr r
dr
r

2
1 2
Which is a Lebnitzs equation I .F . e (2r 1/ r )dr e r log r e r
r

2 1
1 2
Thus its solution is y e r r 2 .er . dr c
r
r

Mathematics-I

31

NOTES
2
1
1 2
ye / r e r 2rdr c er c
2
2

r2

Or

2er cos re r 2crorr (1 2ce r ) 2cos


2

Or

2.5 BERNOULLIS EQUATION


The equation

dy
Py Qy n
dx

Where P, Q are functions of x, is reducible to the Leibnitzs linear


equation and is usually called the Bernoullis equation*.
To solve (1), divide both sides by yn, so that y n

Put y1-n = z so that (1-n)y -n becomes

dy
Py1n Q
dx

1 dz
Pz Q
1 n dx

or

dz
P(1 n) z Q (1 n),
dx

Which is Leibnitzs linear in z and can be solved easily.


2.5.1 Example

solve x

dy
y x3 y 6
dx

Sol. Dividing throughout by xy 6 , y 6


Put y 5 z , so that 5 y 6

Or

dy dz

dx dx

dy y 5

x2
dx
x

(i ) becomes

1 dy z
x2
5 dx x

dz 5
z 5 x 2 which is Leibnitzs linear in z.
dx x
5
(5/ x ) dx
I.F. = e
e5log x elog x x 5

(ii)

Mathematics-I

32

NOTES

The solution of (ii)is z ( I . f .) (5 x 2 ) I . f .dx c or zx 5 (5 x 2 ) x 5 dx c

Replacing z by tan y, we get tan y =

2
1 2
( x 1) ce x which is the
2

required solution.
2.5.4 Example solve

dz z
z
log z (log z ) 2
dx x
x

Sol. Dividing by z, the given equation becomes

1 dz 1
1
log z (log z ) 2
z dx x
x
Put log z = t so that

dt t t 2

dx x x

1 dz dt
(i) becomes
z dx dx
or

1 dt 1 1 1
.
t 2 dx x t x

This being Bernoullis equation, put 1/t =v so that (ii) reduces to

dv v 1

dx x x

or

dv 1 1 1
.
dx x t x

This is Leibnitzs linear in v. I .F . e

1/ xdx

1
.
x

1
1 1
1
the solution is v. . dx c c
x
x x
x

Replacing v by 1/log z, we get (x log z)-1 = x-1 + c or (log z)-1 = 1 +cx


which is the required solution

33

Mathematics-I
NOTES

2.6 EXACT DIFFERNTIAL EQUATIONS


2.6.1 Def. A differential equation of the form M(x,y) dx + N (x,y)dy = 0
is sad to be exact if its left hand member is the exact differential of
some function u(x,y) i.e.du Mdx + Ndy = 0. Its solution , therefore is
u (x, y) = c
2.6.2 Thorem. The necessary and sufficient condition for the
differential equation Mdx +Ndy = 0 to be exact is

M N

y
x
Condition is necessary:
The equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 will be exact, if
Mdx + Ndy du..(1)

Where u is some function of x and y.


But

du =

u
u
dx dy .(2)
x
y

M
2u
N
2u
and

y yx
x xy

But

2u
2u

yx xy

(Assumption)

M N
which is necessary condition for exactness.

y
x

Condition is sufficient : i.e if

M N
, then Mdx + Ndy = 0 is exact

y
x

Mathematics-I

34

NOTES

Mdx u, where y is supposed constant while performing

Let

integration.

Then

M N
y x ( given)

(3)

2
2
and u u

yx xy

Mdx ux , i, e.M ux

M
2u
N
2u
u
or


y yx
x xy x y

Integrating both sides w.r.t.x (taking y as constant).

u
f ( y ), where f ( y ) is a funtion of y alone...............(4)
y

Mdx Ndy
[

u
dx f ( y) dy
x
y

u
u
dx y] f ( y)dy du f ( y)dy d[u f ( y)dy] 0................(5)
x
y

which shows that Mdx+Ndy=0 is exact

2.6.3: method of solution:


by(5) the equation Mdx+Ndy=0
becomes
Integrating u f ( y )dy 0

d[u+ f(y)dy]=0

Mathematics-I

35

NOTES
But u ( yconst )

Mdx and f ( y ) terms of N not containing x

The solution of Mdx +Ndy =0 is

( yconst )

Mdx (terms of N not containing x)dy c


M N

y
x

Provided

solve ( y 2e xy 4 x 3 ) dx (2 xy e xy 3 y 2 ) dy 0
2

2.6.4 Example

Solve. Here M y 2e xy 4 x3and N 2 xy e xy 3 y 2


2

2
2
M
N
2 ye xy y 2e xy .2 xy
y
x

Thus the equation is exact and its solution is

i.e

(y e

yconst )

2 y2x

Mdx (terms of N not containing x)dy c

4 x 3 ) dx ( 3 y 2 )dy c or e xy x 4 y 3 c
2

(y const.)
2.6.5 Example

Solve y 1 cos y dx ( x log x x sin y )dy 0


x

Sol. Here M=y(1+1/x) + cos y and N = x + log x x sin y

M
N
1 1/ x sin y
y
x
Then the equation is exact and its solution is

( yconst )

Mdx (terms of N not containing x)dy c

36

Mathematics-I
NOTES

i.e.,

yconst

(1 2 xy cos x 2 2 xy )dx c orx y cox x 2 .2 xdx 2 xdx c


x +y sin x2 yx2 = c.

or
2.6.7 Example

solve

dy y cos x sin y y

0.
dx sin x x cos y x

Here M = y cos x sin y y and N = sin x + x cos y + x.

M
N
cos x cos y 1
y
x
Thus the equation is exact and its solution is

yconst

Mdx (terms of N not containing x )dy c

i.e. ( y cos x sin y y )dx (0)dx c or y sin x (sin y y ) x c


(y const)
2.6.8. Example

Solve (2x2 + 3y2 7)x dx (3x2 + 2y2 8) ydy = 0

Sol. Given equation can be written as

ydy 2 x 2 3 y 2 7

xdx 3 x 2 2 y 2 8
ydy xdx 5( x 2 y 2 3

ydy xdx x 2 y 2 1

Or

xdx ydy
xdx ydy
5. 2
2 2
x y 3
x y2 1

Inegrating both sides oides, we get

[By componendo &dividendo]

37
2 xdx 2 ydy
2 xdx 2 ydy
x 2 y 2 3 5 x 2 y 2 1
or

log( x 2 y 2 3) 5log( x 2 y 2 1) log c '

or

x2 +y2 3 = c(x2 y2 1) 5

which is the required solution.

2.7 EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO EXACT EQUATIONS


Some times a differential equation which is not exact,
can be made so on multiplication by a suitable factor called an
integrating factor. The rules for finding integrating factors of the
equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 are as follows:
2.7.1 I.F. found by inspection. In a number of cases, the integrating
factor can be found after regrouping the terms of the equation and
recognizing each group as being a part of an exact differential. In this
connection the following integrable combinations prove quite useful:
Xdy + ydx = d (xy)

xdy - ydx y xdy - ydx


y
=d ;
=d log
2
xy
x
x
x
xdy - ydx
y xdy - ydx 1 y
= - d ; 2
=d tan

2
2
y
x
x x y

xdy - ydx 1
x+y
=d log

2
2
x y
x-y
2
2.7.2 Example solve y(2xy ex) dx = ex dy.

Mathematics-I
NOTES

38
Sol. It is easy to note the terms yexdx and exdy should be put
together.

(yexdx exdy ) + 2xy2 dx = 0


Now we observe that the term 2xy2 dx should not involve y2.
This suggests that 1/y2 may be I.F. multiplying through out 1/y2, it
follows

ex
ye x dx e x dy

xdx
or
d
2
0
2 xdx 0
y2
y
Integrating, we get

ex
x 2 c which is the required solution.
y

2.7.3 I.F. of a homogenous equation. If Mdx + Ndy = 0 be a


homogenous equation in x and y then 1/(Mx +Ny) is an integrating
factor (Mx + Ny 0).

2.7.4 Example Solve (x2y-2xy2) dx (x3 3x2y) dy = 0.


Sol. This equation is homogenous in x and y

I .F .

1
1
1
2
2 2
2
3
2
Mx Ny ( x y 2 xy ) x ( x 3 x y ) y x y

Multiplying through out by

1
, the equation becomes
x y2
2

1 2
x 3
dx 2 dy 0 which is exact
y
y x
y

the solution is

yconst Mdx (terms of

N not containingx)dy c

Mathematics-I
NOTES

39

Mathematics-I
NOTES

2.7.5 I.F. for an equation of the type f1 (xy) ydx + f2 (xy) xdy = 0
If the equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 be of this form, then 1/(Mx-Ny) is
an integrating factor (Mx Ny 0)
2.7.6

Example

solve (1+xy) y dx + (1-xy) x dy = 0.

Sol. The given equation is of the form f1 ( xy ) ydx f 2 ( xy ) xdy 0


Here

M = (1+xy) y, N = (1-xy) x.

I .F .

1
1
1

2 2
Mx Ny (1 xy ) yx (1 xy ) xy 2 x y

Multiplying through out by 1/2x2y2, it becomes

1
1
1
1

2 dx
dy 0 , which is an exact equation.
2
2x y 2x
2 xy 2 y

The solution is

yconst Mdx (terms of


Or

N not containingx)dy c

1 1 1
1
log x log y c
2y x 2
2

Or

log

x 1

c '.
y xy

2.7.7. In the equation Mdx + Ndy = 0,


M N

f ( x ) dx
y x
(a )if
be a function of x only = f(x) say, then e
is an
N

integrating factor.

40

Mathematics-I

N M

f ( y ) dy
x y
(a )if
be a function of y only = F (y) say, then e
is an
M

intrgrating factor.

2.7.8 Example Solve (xy2 e 1/x3 ) dx x2 ydy = 0


Sol. Here M = xy2 e 1/x3 and N = -x2y

M N

4
y x 2 xy (2 xy )

which is a function of x only.


2
N
x y
x

I .F . e

4
dx
x

e 4log x x 4

3
y2 1
y
Multiplying thorugh out by x-4, we get 3 4 e1/ x dx 2 dy 0
x
x
x

Which is an exact equation.

The solution is

Or

Or

yconst Mdx (terms of

N not containing x) dy c s

y 2 1 1/ x3
x3 x 4 e dx 0 c

y 2 x 2 1 x3
1 3 1 y 2
e (3x 4 )dx c or e x
c
2
3
3
2 x2

2.7.9 Example

Solve (xy3 + y)dx +2(x2y2+x+y4)dy = 0.

Sol.Here M= xy3 + y, N = 2(x2y2+x3+y4 )

NOTES

Mathematics-I

41

NOTES
1 N M
1
1

(4 xy 2 2 3 xy 2 1) , which is a function

2
M x y y ( xy 1
y
of y alone.

I .F . e

1/ y dy

Multiplying

elog y y

throughout

by

y,

it

becomes

(xy4

y2)dx

(2x2y3+2xy+2y5)dy=0, which is an exact equation.

Its solution is

Or

yconst ( xy

yconst M dx (terms of
y )dx
2

2 y 5 dy c

or

N not corresponding x)dy 0

1 2 4
1
x y xy 2 y 6 c
2
3

2.7.10 For the equation of the type

x a y b (my dx nx dy ) x a ' y b ' ( m ' y dx n ' x dy ) 0,


an integrating factor is xh yk
Where

a h 1 b k 1 a ' h 1 b ' k 1

m
n
m'
n'

2.7.11. Example

Solve (y log y) dx+(x-logy) dy =0

Sol. Here M = y log y and N = x-log y

1
M

N M

x y

1
1
(1 log y 1) , which is a function of y

y
y log y

alone.

I .F e

y dy

e log y

1
y

Multiplying the given equation, throughout by 1/y, it becomes

42

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
log y dx ( x log y )dy 0
y
[

Which is an exact equation

its solution is

M dx (terms of

log y
log y dx
dy c
y

Or

2.7.12 Example

x log y
(log y )

y
y
x

N not corresponding x) dy c
1
or x log y - (log y ) 2 c
2

Solve y ( xy 2 x 2 y 3 )dx x( xy x 2 y 2 )dy 0

Sol. Rewritting the equations as xy (ydx+xdy)+x2 y2 (2ydx-xdy) = 0 and


comparing with we have a=b=1, m=n=1; a = b = 2, m = 2, n = -1.

I .F . x h y k .
Where

i.e
or

a h 1 b k 1 a ' h 1 b ' k 1
,

m
n
m'
n'

1 h 1 1 k 1 2 h 1 2 k 1
,

1
1
1
2
h k = 0, h+ 2k + 9 = 0
Solving these, we get h = k = -3. I .F . 1/ x3 y 3 .

Multiplying throughout by 1/ x3 y 3. it becomes

1
1
2
1
2 dx 2 dx 0, which is an exact equation.
y
x y x
xy
The solution is

yconst M dx (terms of

N not corresponding x )dy c

43

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Or

1 1
2log x log y c
y x

Or

2log x log y 1/xy =c.

2.8

Summary: In this lesson we discussed linear differential


equation, Bernoullis equation, exact differential equations and
the related problems.

2.9

Technical terms;
Linear equation
Bernoullis equation
Exact differential equation
Integrating factors

2.10. EXERCISE
Solve the following differential equations
2.10.1 cos 2 x

dy
y tan x
dx

2.10.2 x log x

dy
y log x 2
dx

2.10.3

dy
y sin x
dx

2.10.4 xy ' y sin x


2.10.5. Solve the initial value problem Y y = ex, y(0) = 1

44
2.10.6. Solve xy +xy2 = x

2.10.7 Solve y + y = y2

2.10.8 Solve

dy
y

dx x xy

2.10.9 Solve x(x-y)dy +y2 dx = 0

2.10.10. Solve (x2 ay)dx = (ax y2 ) dy

2.10.11. Solve (x2+y2+a2) xdx +(x2 y2 - b2) y dy = 0

2.10.12 Solve xdy ydx + a(x2 + y2) dx = 0

2.10.13 Solve ydx xdy + log xdx = 0

2.10.14 Solve. (x3y2+x)dy +(x2 y3-y) dx = 0

2.10.14 Solve 2ydx + x ( xlogx-y) dy=0

Mathematics-I
NOTES

45

Mathematics-I
NOTES

LESSON 3
LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF
HIGHER ORDER WITH CONSTANT
COEFFICIENTS.
3.1 Objective :
After studying this lesson, the student will be in a position to know
about linear differential equations of higher order with constant
coefficients, complementary function particular integral, Rules for
finding the particular integral and working procedure to solve
differential equation

3.2 Structure:
This lesson has the following components.
3.3 Introduction
3.4. Definitions
3.5 Rules for finding the complementary function.
3.6 Inverse operator
3.7. Rules for finding the particular integral
3.8 working procedure to solve the equation
3.9 Summary
3.10. Technical terms
3.11 Exercise

46

Mathematics-I
NOTES

3.3 Introduction:
Linear differential equations occur in the study of many practical
problems in science and engineering. Constant coefficient equations
arise in the theory of electric circuits, vibrations etc. the solution of
constant coefficient equations can be obtained in terms of known
standard functions

3.4 DEFINITIONS
3.4.1 Linear differential equations are those in which the dependent
variable and its derivatives occur only in the first degree and are not
multiplied together. Thus the general linear differential equation of the
nth order is of the form
n2
dny
d n1 y
y
2 d

p
...... pn y X ,
1
n
n 1
n2
dx
dx
dx

Where p1 , p2 ,......, pn and X are functions of x only


3.4.2 Linear differential equations with constant co-efficients are of the
form

dny
d n1 y
d n 2 y
k
k

...... kn y X
1
2
dx n
dx n1
dx n2
Where k1, k2, .,kn are constants.
3.4.3 THEOREM
If y1, y2 are only two solutions of the equation

47

Mathematics-I
NOTES

dny
d n1 y
d n 2 y
k
k

...... kn y 0 ..(1)
1
2
dx n
dx n1
dx n2
Then c1y1 + c2y2 (=u) is also its solution

Since y = y1 and y = y2 are solutions of (1)

dny
d n1 y
d n2 y
k
k

...... kn y1c 0
1
2
dx n
dx n1
dx n2

and

(2)

dny
d n1 y
d n2 y

...... kn y2 0
k
k
1
2
dx n
dx n1
dx n2

(3)

If c1, c2 be two arbitrary constants, then

d n (c1 y1 c2 y2 )
d n1 (c1 y1 c2 y2 )

k
......kn (c1 y1 c2 y2 )
1
dx n
dx n1
dny

dny

d n1 y
d n1 y
c1 n1 k1 n11 ...... kn y1 c2 n2 k1 n12 ...... kn y2
dx
dx
dx

dx

c1 (0) c2 (0) 0
i.e

d nu
d n1u

...... kn y 0
k
1
dx n
dx n1

by [(2)and (3) ]
(4)

This proves the theorem. The equation (1) is called homogenous


equation (2) since the general solution of a differential equation of the
nth order contains n arbitrary constants, it follows, form the above, that
if y1, y2, y3,yn are n independent solutions of (1), then c1y1 +c2y2
++cnyn (=u) is its complete solution.

48

Mathematics-I
NOTES

dny
d n1 y
k

...... kn y X
1
dx n
dx n1

Then

(5)

d nv
d n1v
k

...... knv X
1
dx n
dx n1

Adding (4) and (6) , we have

(6)

d n (u v)
d n1 (u v)

...... kn (u v) X
k
1
dx n
dx n1

This shows that y = u + v is the complete solution of (5).


The part u, (solution of (1)) is called the complementary function (C.F.)
and the part v is called (The solution of (5)) is called the particular
integral (P.I) of (5)

The complete solution (C.S) of (5) is y = C.F.+P.I


Thus in order to solve the equation (5), we have to first find the
C.F., i.e., the complete solution of (1), and then the P.I., i.e. a particular
solution of (5)

3.4.4. OPERATOR D

Denoting

d d2 d3
,
,
etc.byD, D 2 , D3 etc., so that
dx dx 2 dx3

dy
d2y
d 3x
Dy, 2 D 2 y, 3 D 3 y etc., the equation (5) above can be
dx
dx
dx
written in the symbolic form

( D n k1D n1 ...... kn ) y X ,

i.e.

f(D)y=X,

where f ( D) D n k1D n1 ...... kn , i.e.a polynomial in D

49

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Thus the symbol D stands for the operation of differentiation


and can be treated much the same as an algebraic quantity i.e f(D)
can be factorised by ordinary rules of algebra and the factors may be
taken in any order. For instance

d2y
dy
2 3 y ( D 2 2 D 3) y ( D 3)( D 1) y or ( D 1)( D 3) y.
2
dx
dx

3.5 RULES FOR FINDING THE COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION


To

solve

the

homogeneous

equation

dny
d n1 y
d n 2 y
k1 n1 k2 n2 ...... kn y 0 (1)
n
dx
dx
dx
Where ks are constants.
The equation (1) in symbolic form is

( D n k1D n1 k2 D n2 ...... kn ) y 0

(2)

Its symbolic co-efficient equated to zero i.e.

D n k1D n1 k2 D n2 ...... kn 0
Is called the auxillary equation (A.E). let m1, m2,mn be its roots.
Case I. If all the roots be real and different, then (2) is equivalent to

( D m1 )( D m2 )......( D mn ) y 0
Now

(3)

will

( D mn ) y 0, i.e.by

be

satisfied

dy
mn y 0.
dx

This is a leibnitzs linear and I.F. = e mn x

by

the

solution

of

50

Mathematics-I
NOTES

ye m n x cn ,i.e. y cn em n x

Its solution is

Similarly, since the factors in (3) can be taken in any order, it will be
satisfied by the solutions of
[ (d m1 ) y 0,(d m2 ) y 0etc.i.e.byy c1e m1x , y c2em 2 etc. ]
x

Thus the complete solution of (1)is


[ y c1em1x c2e m 2 x .... cne m n x ...(4). ]
Case II. If two roots are equal (i.e.m1 m2 ), then (4) becomes
[ y (c1 c2 )e m1x c3em 3x .... cn e m n x y]

[ y Cem 1x c3 e m 3x .... cn e m n x ] [ c1 c2 onearbitrarycons tan tC ]


It has only n 1 arbitrary constants and is, therefore, not the
complete solution of (1). In this case, we proceed as follows:

The part of the complete solution corresponding to the repeated


root is the complete solution of ( D m1 )( D m1 ) y 0

Putting ( D m1 ) y z , itbecomes ( D m1 ) z 0or

dz
m1 z 0
dx

This is a Leibnitzs linear in z and I.F.


I .F . e

Thus

m1 x.

Itssolutionisze

( D m1 ) y z c1e m1x or

m1 x.

c1orz (c1e

m1 x

dy
m1 y c1e m1x ...(5)
dx

51

Its I.F.being (e

ye

m1 x.

Mathematics-I
NOTES

, )the solution of (5) is

m1x c1em1xdxc2 c1xc2ory (c1xc2 )em1x

Thus the complete solution of

(1) is y (c1 x c2 )em1x c3 e m3 x ... cn em n x


If however, the A.E. has three equal roots (i.e.m1 m2 m3 ), then
the complete solution is

y (c1 x 2 c2 x c3 )em1x c4 e m 4 x. ... cn em n x

Case

III.

If

one

pair

of

roots

be

imaginary,

i.e

m1 i , m2 i , then the complete solution is

y c1e( i ) x c2 e( i ) x c3e

m3x

.... cn emn x

e x (c1ei x c2 ei x ) c3em3 x .... cn em n x


e x [c1 (cos x i sin x) c2 (cos x i sin x)] c3e m 3x .... cn e m n x
[ byEuler ' sTheorem, ei cos i sin ]

ex (c1 cos x c2 sin x) c3em3x .... cnemnx where c1 c1 c2and c2 i(c1 c2 ).


Case IV. If two pairs of imaginary roots be equal i.e.

m1 m2 i , m3 m4 i , then by case II, the complete solution


is

52

Mathematics-I

y e x [(c1 x c2 )cos x (c3 x c4 )sin x] .... cn em n x.


3.5.1 Example

Solve

d2x
dx
dx
5 6 x 0, given x(0)=0, (0) 15.
2
dt
dt
dt

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 2 5D 6) x 0.

Its A.E.is D 2 5 D 6 0, i.e.( D 2)( D 3) 0whenceD 2, 3.

C.S .isx c1e 2t c2e 3t and

dx
2ae 2t 3c2e3t
dt

When t=0,x =0. 0=c1 c2

When t=0, dx/dt=15 15=-2c1 3c2


Solving (i )and (ii0, c1 15, c2 15.
Hence the required solution is x 15(e 2t e3t ).

Example 3.5.2
Solve
Sol.

d2x
dx
6 9 x 0.
2
dt
dt
Given

equation

in

symbolic

form

is

A.E.isD 2 6 D 9 0, i.e.( D 3) 2 0WhenceD 3, 3.


Hence the C.S is x (c1 c2t )e 3t .

Example : 3.5.3 .
solve ( D3 D 2 4 D 4) 0
Sol. Here the A.E is

D 3 D 2 4 D 4 0 i.e.(D2 4)( D 1) 0 D=-1, 2i.

( D 2 6 D 9) 0

NOTES

53

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Hence the C.S is y c1e x e0 x (c2 cos 2 x c3 sin 2 x)

y c1e x c2 cos 2 x c3 sin 2 x.

Example3.5.4 Solve(i )( D 2 2 D 4) 2 y 0

(ii ) (D 2 1)3 y 0 where D d/dx.


Sol.(i )TheA.E.equation is(D 2 2 D 4) 2 0

D=

2 4-16
(twice), D 1 3i, 1 3i
2

Hence the C.S is y e x [(c1 c2 x) cos 3x (c3 c4 x) sin 3x) [Roots being
repeated complex]

(ii )TheA.E.equation is( D 2 1)3 0

D i, i, i.
Hence the C.S. is y=eax [(c1 c2 x c3 x 2 ) cos x (c4 c5 x c6 x 2 )sin x]
i.e y=(c1 c2 c3 x 2 ) cos x (c4 c5 x c6 x 2 )sin x.
Example:3.5.5 Solve

d 4x
4 x 0.
dt 4

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 4 4) x 0

A.E.isD 4 4 0or ( D 4 4 D 2 4) 4 D 2 0or ( D 2 2) 2 (2 D) 2 0


or

(D 2 2 D 2)( D 2 2 D 2) 0

either D 2 2 D 2 0 or D2 2 D 2 0

54

Mathematics-I
NOTES

-2 (-4)
2 (4)
Whence D=
and
i.e.D 1 iand1 i.
2
2
Hence the required solution is

x e t (c1 cos t c2 sin t ) et (c3 cos t c4 sin t ).

3.6 Inverse operator

1
X is that function of x , not containing arbitrary
f ( D)

3.6.1 Definition

constants which when operated upon by f(D) gives X

i.e f(D)
X X
f(D)
Thus

1
X satisfies the equation f(D)y=x and is, therefore, its
f ( D)

particular integral. Obviously, f(D) and I/f (D) are inverse operators.

3.6.2 Theorem: prove that

Proof. Let

1
X Xdx
D

1
xy
D

Operating by D, D

1
dy
x Dyi.e. X
D
dx

Integrating both sides w.r.t. = x, y Xdx, no constant being


added as (i)doesnot contain any constant
Thus

1
X Xdx, ,
D

55

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
3.6.3. Theorem: prove that
X e ax Xe ax dx.
Da
Let

1
X y. (ii)
Da

Operating by D a, ( D a ).

0r

X=

1
X ( D a ) y.
Da

dy
dy
ay, i.e. ay X which is a Leibnitzs linear equation.
dx
dx

I.F being e-ax , its solution is

ye ax Xe ax dx, no constant being added as (ii) doesnt contain any


constant.

Thus

1
X y e ax Xe ax dx.
D-a

3.7. RULES FOR FINDING THE PARTICULAR INTEGRAL


Consider the equation

dny
d n1 y
d n 2 y
k
k

....kn y X
1
2
dx n
dx n1
dx n2

Which is in symbolic form is ( D n k1D n1 k2 D n2 .... kn ) y X .

P.I.=

D k1D
n

n 1

1
X.
k2 D n2 .... kn

3.7.1Rule I.WhenX= eax


Since

Deax ae ax

D 2eax a 2e ax
.
.

56

Mathematics-I
NOTES

D neax a ne ax

(D n k1 D n 1 ..... kn )e ax (a n k1 a n 1 ..... kn )eax i.e. f ( D)e ax f (a)


Operating on both sides by

1
1
1
1
,
f ( D)e ax
f (a )eax 0r e ax f (a)
e ax
f ( D) f ( D)
f ( D)
f ( D)

Dividing by f(a),
1
1 ax
e ax
e Pr ovidedf (a) 0 ....(i)
f ( D)
f (a)
If f(a)=0, the above rule fails and we proceed further.
Since is a root of A.E. f ( D) D n k1D n1 .... kn 0.

D a is a factor of f(D).Suppose f(D)=(D-a) (D),Where (a ) 0.Then


1
1
1 ax
1
1 ax
.
.
e ax
e
e [by(1)]
f ( D)
D a ( D)
D a (a)

1
1
1 ax ax ax
e ax
e e .e dx [by13.5(3)]
.
(a) D a
(a)

1 ax
1 ax
e dx x
e
(a)
(a)

i.e

1
1 ax
e ax
e
f ( D)
f '(a )

...(2)

[ f '( D) ( D a ) ( D) 1. ( D)
f '(a ) 0 '(a) (a)
If f '(a)=0, then applying (2) again, we get
and so on .

1 ax, 2 1 ax
e x
e , providedf '(a) 0...(3)
f (a)
f(D)

57

Mathematics-I
NOTES

3.7.2

find the P.I of ( D 2 5D 6) y e x .

Sol.

P.1

1
1
ex
x
x
e
putD
e

[
1]
.
D 2 5D 6
12 5.1 6
12

Example 13.7 find the P.I. of ( D 2)( D 1) 2 y e 2 x 2sinh x.


Sol.

P.I

1
1
[e 2 x 2sinh x]
[e 2 x e x e x ]
2
( D 2)( D 1)
( D 2)( D 1) 2
1
x r ax
ax
e
e .

r
r1
D a)

Let us evaluate each of these terms separately.

1
1 1
e 2 x
e 2 x

2
2
( D 2)( D 1)
D 2 ( D 1)

1
1
1 1 2 x
e 2 x .
e
.
2
D 2 (2 1)
9 D2

1 1
x
d
.x. e 2 x e 2 x [
( D 2) 1
9 1
9
dD
1
1
1
1 2 1 x x2 x
d2
x
x
e
e .x . e e [ 2 ( D 1) 2 2
.
2
2
dD
( D 2)( D 1)
1 2 ( D 1)
3
2
6
And

1
1
e x
x
x
e
e

( D 2)( D 1) 2
(1 2)(1 1) 2
4

x
x2
1
Hence the P.I= e2 x e x e x .
9
6
4
3.7.3 Rule ii. When X= Sin(ax b)or cos(ax b).
Since

DSin(ax b) a cos(ax+b)

58

Mathematics-I
NOTES

D 2 sin( ax b) a 2 Sin (ax+b)


D 3 Sin(ax b) a 3 cos(ax b)
D 4 Sin(ax b) a 4 Sin(ax b)
i.e D 2 Sin(ax b) (a 2 ) Sin(ax b)

( D 2 ) Sin(ax b) (a 2 ) 2 Sin(ax b).


In general ( D 2 ) r Sin(ax b) (a 2 ) r Sin(ax b).

f ( D 2 ) Sin (ax+b)=f(-a 2 ) Sin(ax b).


Operating on both Sides 1/f(D 2 ),

1
1
f (a 2 ) Sin(ax b)
. f ( D 2 ) Sin(ax b)
2
2
f (D )
f (D )
Or

Sin(ax b) f (a 2 )

Dividingbyf (a2 ).

1
Sin(ax b).
f (D2 )

1
1
Sin(ax b)
Sin(ax b) providedf (a2 ) 0 ...(4)
2
2
f (D )
f (a )

If f (a 2 ) 0, the above rule fails and we proceed further.


Since cos (ax+b)+iSin(ax+b)= ei ( axb ) .[Eulers theorem]

1
1
Sin(ax b) I .P.of
ei ( axb )
2
f(D )
f (D2 )
= I .P.of x

1
ei ( ax b )
f '(D 2 )

[Since f (a 2 ) 0 by(2)

WhereD2 a 2

1
1
Sin(aX b) X
Sin(aX b) provided f '(a 2 ) 0 ...(5)
2
2
f '(a )
f(D )

59

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
1
If f ' (a ) 0,
.Sin(aX b) X 2
Sin(aX b), provided f''(-a 2 ) 0,
2
2
f (D )
f ''(a )
2

and so on.

1
1
cos(ax b)
cos(ax b), providedf (a 2 ) 0,
2
2
f (D )
f (a )

Similarly,

1
1
cos(aX b) X .
cos(aX b), provided f'(-a 2 ) 0.
2
f (D )
f '(a 2 )

If f(-a 2 ) 0,

If
1
1
cos(aX b) X 2
cos(aX b) providedf ''(a2 ) 0
2
f (D )
f ''(a 2 )

f '(a 2 ) 0,

and so on.
3.7.4 Example Find the P.I of (D3 +1)y=cos(2x-1)
sol: P.I=

1
cos(2 x 1)
D 1
3

1
cos(2 x 1)
D(4) 1

[put D 2 =-2 2 =-4

{ Multiply and divide by 1+4D}

(1 4 D)
1
cos(2 x 1) (1 4 D).
cos(2 x 1)
(1 4 D)(1 4 D)
1 16 D 2

[put

D 2 =-2 2 =-4]
= (1+4D)

1
1
cos(2 x 1) = [cos(2 x 1) 4 D cos(2 x 1)]
1 16(4)
65

1
[cos(2 x 1) 8sin(2 x 1)]
65

put

60

Mathematics-I
NOTES

d3y
dy
4 sin 2 x.
3
dx
dx

3.7.5.Example Find theP.Iof

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 3 4 D) y sin 2 x

P.I

=x

=x

1
sin 2 x [ D 2 4 0 forD 2 22 , Apply (5)above
D( D 2 4)
1
3D 4
2

sin 2 x

d
[ D 3 4 D ] 3D 2 4
dD

1
x
sin 2 x sin 2 x. [putD 2 22 4
3(4) 4
8

3.7.6 Rule III.WhenX=X m.


Here P.I=

1 m
x [ f ( D)]1 x m.
f(D)

Expand [f(D)]-1 in ascending powers of D as far as the term in


D m and operate on x m term by term. Since the (m+1)th and higher
derivatives of x

are zero, we need not consider terms beyond Dm.

3.7.7 Example FindtheP.Iof

d 2 y dy

x 2 2 x 4.
2
dx
dx

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 2 D) y x 2 2 x 4.

P.I=

1
1
( x 2 2 x 4) (1 D) 1 ( x 2 2 x 4)
D
D(D+1)

1
1
(1 D D 2 ....)( x 2 2 x 4) [ x 2 2 x 4 (2 x 2) 2]
D
D

( x 2 4)dx

x3
4 x.
3

61

Mathematics-I
NOTES

3.7.8 Rule IV

WhenX e axV ,V being a function of x.


If u is a function of x , then

D(e axu ) eax Du aeaxu eax ( D a )u


D 2 (e axu ) a ax Du 2ae ax Du a 2eaxu e ax ( D a ) 2 u

And in general D n (e axu ) eax ( D a ) n u

f(D)(eax u ) e ax f ( D a )u
Operating both sides by 1/ f ( D),

1
1
. f ( D)(e axu )
[eax f ( D a )u ]
f ( D)
f ( D)
eaxu

1
[e ax f ( D a )u ]
f ( D)

Now put

f ( D a )u v, i.u

i.e

1
1
1
v, soe that eax
v
(eaxv)
f ( D a)
f ( D a)
f ( D)

1
1
v.
(eax v) e ax
f ( D)
f ( D a)

3.7.9 Example
Sol. P.I=

....(6)

FindP.Iof ( D 2 2 D 4) y e x cos x.

1
e x cos x [ReplaceDbyD+1]
D 2D 4
2

62

Mathematics-I
NOTES

i
1
cos x e x 2
cos x [putD 2 12 1
=e
2
( D 1) 2( D 1) 4
D 3
x

ex

1
1
cos x e x cos x.
1 3
2

3.7.10 Rule v. When X is any other function of X.


Here P.I =

1
X.
f ( D)

If ( D) ( D m1 )( D m2 )....( D mn ), resolving into partial fractions

1
A2
An
1
.....
f ( D) D m1 D m2
D mn

A1
A2
An
P.I

....
X
D mn
D m1 D m2

A1

1
1
1
X A2
X ... An
X
D m1
D m2
D mn

A1.em 1 x Xe m1x dx A2.em 2 x Xe m 2 x dx .... An .em n x Xe mn dx


x

[by13.5(3)]
Obs. This method is a general one and can, therefore, be employed to
obtain a particular integral in any given case

63

Mathematics-I
NOTES

3.8 WORKING PROCEDURE TO SOLVE THE EQUATION

dny
d n1 y
dy
k

..... kn1 kn y X
1
n
n 1
dx
dx
dx
Of which the symbolic form is
( D n k1D n1 .... kn1D kn ) y . X .

Step I. To find the complementary function

(i) Write the A.E.


i.e D n k1D n1 .... kn1D kn 0 and solve it for D
(ii)Write the C.F. as follows:

Roots of A.E.

C.F

1. m1, m2 m3.... ( real and different roots )

c1e m1x c2e m 2 x c3e m 3x ...

2. m1, m1, m3 ....(tworealandequalroots )

(c1 c2 x)em1x c3em 3x ...

3 m1, m1, m1, m4 ....(three real and equal roots )

(c1 c2 x c3 x 2 )em1x c4e me x ...

4.

i , i , m3 ...(a Pair of imaginary roots)

eax (c1 cos x c2 sin x) c3e m 3x ...

5.

i , i , m5 ....(2 Pairsofequa lim aginaryroots )

eax [(c1 c2 x) cos x (c3 c4 x)sin x] c5em 5x ..

64

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Step II. To find the particular integral


From symbolic form P.I. =

D k1D
n

n 1

1
1
1
X
or
X
f ( D) ( D 2 )
... kn1D kn

When X = eax

(i)

P.I =

1
eax , put D a,
f '( D)

x2

1
e ax , put D a,
f ''( D)

1
e ax , put D a,
f ( D)

[f(a) 0 ]

[f(a)=0,f(a) 0 ]

[ f(a)=0, f (a ) 0]

And so on
Where

f '( D) diff .coeff .of f(D)w.r.t.D

f ( D) diff . coeff.of f ,(D)w.r.t.D,etc.

(ii )When X=sin(ax +b)or cos(ax +b).


P.I .

1
sin(ax b)[or cos(ax +b)],putD2 =-a 2
(D2 )

[ (-a 2 ) 0.

1
sin(ax b)[or cos (ax +b)],putD 2 a 2 [ (a 2 ) 0, '(a 2 ) 0
2
'( D )

x2

1
sin( ax b)[or cos(ax b)], putD 2 a 2 [ '(-a 2 ) 0, ''(a 2 ) 0
''( D 2 )

and so on

65

Mathematics-I
NOTES

where '( D 2 ) diff .coeff .of ( D 2 ) w.r.t.D,

''( D 2 ) diff .coeff .of '( D 2 ) w.r.t.D, etc.


(iii)WhenX= x m, m being a positive integer.

P.I

1
x m [ f ( D )]1 x m .
f ( D)

To evaluate it, expand [f(D)]-1 in ascending powers of D by


Binomial theorem as far as D m and operate on xm term by term.

(iv)When X eax v, whereV is a Function of x.


P.I

1
1
eaxV e ax
V
f ( D)
f ( D a)

And then evaluate

1
V as in (i),(ii), and (iii).
f ( D a)

(v) When X is any function of x.

P.I

Resolve

1
X.
f ( D)

1
into partial fractions and operate each partial fraction on
f ( D)

X remembering that

1
X e ax Xe ax , dx.
Da

66

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Step III. To find the complete solution


Then the C.Sis y=.C.F.+P.I.
Example 3.8.1 Solve

d 2 y dy
y (1 e x ) 2
2
dx
dx

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 2 D 1) y (1 e x ) 2


(i) to find C.F

1
Its A.E is D 2 D 1 0, D (1 3i )
2

3
3
Thus C.F. e x / 2 c1 cos
x c2 sin
x
2
2

(ii)To find P.I.

P.I

1
1
(1 2e x e 2 x ) 2
(e0 x 2e x e 2 x )
D D 1
D D 1
2

1
1
1
2 x e2 x
ox
x
2x
e
e
e
e

2.
1
02 0 1
12 1 1
22 2 1
3
7

3
3
2
e2 x
x c2 sin
x 1 e x
(iii)Hence the C.S.isy=e x / 2 c1 cos
2
2
3
7

Example 3.8.2 Solve y '' 4 y ' 4 y 3sin x 4cos x, y (0) 1andy '(0) 0
Given equation in symbolic form is
Sol.

To find C.F ( D 2 4 D 4) y 3sin x 4cos x

Its A.E is ( D 2) 2 0 whereD=-2,-2 C.F.=(c1 c2 x)e2 x.


ii)To find P.I

P.I

1
1
(3sin x 4cos x)
(3inx 4cos x)
1 4 D 4
D 4D 4
2

67

Mathematics-I
NOTES

4D 3
(4 D 3)
(3sin x 4cos x)
(3sin x 4cos x)
2
16 D 9
16 9

1
{3(4cos x 3sin x) 4(4sin x 3cos x)} sin x
25

(iii)C.S is y= (c1 c2 )e 2 x sin x


When x=0,y=1,

1=c1

Also y ' c2e 2 x (c1 c2 x)(2)e 2 x cos x.

When x=0,y=0,

0 c2 2c1 1, i.e c2 1.

Hence the required solution is y (1 x)e 2 x sin x.

Example 3.8.3 Solve ( D 2) 2 8(e 2 x sin 2 x x 2 ).

Sol.(i)To find C.F. D 2, 2.

ItsA.E. is (D-2) 2 0, D=2,2.

Thus C.F= (c1 c2 x)e 2 x .

(ii)To find P.I.

68

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
1
sin 2 x
P.I 8
e2 x
x2
2
2
2
( D 2)
( D 2)
( D 2)

Now

1
1 2x
e2 x x 2
e [ by putting D=2, (D-2) 2 0, 2( D 2) 0
2
( D 2)
2(1)

x 2e 2 x
.
2

1
1
1
sin 2 x 2
sin 2 x
sin 2 x
2
2
( D 2)
(2 ) 4 D 4
D 4D 4

1
1 cos 2 x 2 1
sin 2 xdx
x cos 2 x

4
4
2
8

And

2
2
2
1
1 D 2 1
D (2)(3) D
2
x 1 x 1 (2)
... x
2
( D 2)
4
2
4
2! 2
2

1
3D 2
1
3
= 1 D
... x 2 x 2 2 x
4
4
4
2

Thus P.I.= 4 x 2e2 x cos 2 x 2 x 2 4 x 3.


(iii)Hence the C.S.is y= (c1 c2 x)e 2 x 4 x 2e 2 x cos 2 x 2 x 2 4 x 3.
3.8.4 Example. Find the complete solution of y '' 2 y ' 2 y x e x cos x.
Sol. Given equation in symbolic from is ( D 2 2 D 2) y x e x cos x
(i)To find C.F.

69

Mathematics-I
NOTES

2 (4 8)
1 i
Its A.E.is D 2 2 D 2 0. D
2
Thus C.F.= e x (c1 cos x c2 sin x)
(ii)

To find P.I

P.I

1
1
( x) 2
(e x cos x)
D 2D 2
D 2D 2
2

1
D2
1
x
= 1 D
(cos x)
( x) e
2
2
2
( D 1) 2( D 1) 2

1
D2
1
x
1 D
x e 2 cos x
2
2
D 1

[case of failure]

1
1
cos x
( x 1 0) e x .x
2
2D

1
xe x
1
xe x
cos
(
1)
sin x
( x 1)
xdx

2
2
2
2
1
xe x
sin x
(iii)Hence the C.S is y e x (c1 cos x c2 sin x) ( x 1)
2
2
Example 3.8.5
Solve

d2y
dy
3 2 y xe3 x sin 2 x
2
dx
dx

Mathematics-I

70

NOTES
Sol

Given

equation

in

symbolic

form

( D 2 3D 2) y xe3 x sin 2 x

(i)To find C.F

Its A.E. is D2-3D+2=0 or (D-2)(D-1)=0 whence D=1,2.

Thus C.F = c1e x c2e2 x


(ii)To find P.I
P.I =

1
( xe3 x sin 2 x)
D 3D 2
2

1
1
(e3 x .x ) 2
(sin 2 x)
D 2 3D 2
D 3D 2

e3 x .

1
1
( x)
(sin 2 x)
( D 3) 3( D 3) 2
4 3D 2

e3 x .

1
3D 2
( x)
(sin 2 x)
2
( D 3D 2)
9D2 4

e3 x 3D D 2
(3D 2)
. 1
(sin 2 x)

x
2
2
9 (4) 4

is

71

Mathematics-I
NOTES

e3 x 3D
1
. 1
... x (6 cos 2 x 2sin 2 x)

2
2
40

e3 x
3 1
x (3cos 2 x sin 2 x)
2
2 20

x 3 1
(iii)Hence the C.S is y c1e x c2 e 2 x e3 x (3cos 2 x sin 2 x)
2 4 20
Example

3.8.6 Solve

d2y
4 y x sinh x.
dx 2

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is (D2-4)y=x sin x .

(i)

To find C.F

Its A.E is D 2 4 0, whenceD 2.

Thus C.F. = c1e2 x c2e 2 x

(ii)

To find P.I

P.I .

e x e x 1 1
1
1
1

sinh
x
x
x
e x .x 2
e x .x

2
2
2
D 4
D 4 2 2 D 4
D 4

72

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
1
1
1
1
1

ex
x e x
x ex 2
x e x 2
x
2
2
2 (D 1) 4
D 2D 3
(D 1) 4 2 D 2D 3

1
1
1 e x 2 D D 2
e x 2 D D 2

= 1
1
.x
.x
3 3
2 3 3
3
3

1 2D
1
2
2

2D

= e x 1
... x e x 1
... x e x x e x x
6
3
3
6
3
3

x e x e x 2 e x e x
x
2
=

sinh x cosh x.
3 2 9 2
3
9

x
2
(iii) Hence the C.S. is y= c1e 2 x c2e 2 x sinh x cosh x.
3
9

3.8.7 Example. Solve ( D 2 1) y x sin 3 x cos x.

Sol. (i) To find C.F.

Its A.E. is D 2 1 o, whence D= 1. C.F =c1e x c2e x

(ii)To find P.I

73

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
1
1
P.I. = 2 ( x sin 3 x cos x) 2
x( I .P.of e3ix ) 2 cos x
D 1
D 1
D 1

I .Pof

1
1
cos x
e3ix .x
2
(1 ) 1
D 1
2

cos x
1
I .P. of e3ix
x
[Replacing D by D+3i
2
( D 3i ) 1
2

cos x
I .P.of e3ix 2
x
D 6iD 10
2

1 3iD D2 cos x
3ix
I .P. of e .
x
[Expand by Binomial theorem
1..
10 5 10
2

1 3iD
cos x
I .P.of e3ix .
... x
I .P.of
1
10
5
2

e3ix 3i cos x
10 x 5 2

-1
3i cos x

I .P. of (cos3x i sin 3 x) x


5
2

10

3sin 3 x
3
cos x
x cos3 x 5 i x sin 3 x 5 cos3 x 2

1
I .P.of
10

1
3
cos x
.
x sin 3 x cos3 x
10
5
2

74

Mathematics-I
NOTES

(iii)

Hence the C.S. is

y= c1e x c2e x

1
(5 x sin 3 x 3cos3 x 25cos x).
50

3.8.8.Example Solve

d2y
dy
2 y xe x sin x.
2
dx
dx

Sol. Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 2 2 D 1) y xe x sin x

(i)

To find C.F.

Its A.E. is D 2 2 D 1 0, i.e. (D-1) 2 0

D 1,1.Thus C.F.=(c1 c2 x)e x


To find P.I.
P.I=

1
1
x 2 cos x 2
x 2 (Re. p.ofeix )
2
2
( D 1)
( D 1)
2

1
Re.P.of 2
eix .x 2 Re.P.of
2
( D 1)

ix

1
x2
e
2
2
[( D i ) 1]

ix 1 i 2 2
ix
1
2
x Re.of e
1 D x
Re.P.of e
2
2
2
( D 2iD)

4 D 2

2
1 ix 1

iD
iD
Re P.of e . 2 1 2 3 .. x 2
2
D
2

4

1
1
3
Re.P.of eix . 2 x 2 2ix Re P.of
2
D
4

1 ix 1 x3
3
2
e . ix x
2
D 3
4

75

Mathematics-I
NOTES

x4 ix3 3 1
1
Re Pof
. eix x2 Re.P.of (cos x i sin x)( x4 4ix3 9x2 )
4
12 3 4 48

1
[( x 4 9 x 2 ) cos x 4 x3 sinx]
48

(ii)

Hence the C.S. is

y= (c1 c2 x) cos x (c3 c4 x)sin x

1
[4 x3 sin x x 2 ( x 2 9) cos x]
48

3.8.10 Example Solve ( D 2 4 D 4) y 8 x 2e 2 x sin 2 x

Sol.(i) To find C.F

Its A.E.is D 2 4 D 4 0i.e.( D 2) 2 0. D 2, 2

C.F . (c1 c2 x)e 2 x

(iii)
P.I=

To find P.I

1
1
(8 x 2e 2 x sin 2 x) 8e 2 x
( x 2 sin 2 x)
2
2
( D 2)
( D 2 2)

76

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1 2
1
( x sin 2 x) 8e 2 x . x 2 sin 2 xdx
8e
2
D
D
2x

8e2 x .

1 2 cos 2 x
cos 2 x
x
2x
dx
D
2
2

8e 2 x

1 x2
sin 2 x
sin 2 x
1.
dx
cos 2 x x
D 2
2
2

x2
x
cos 2 x
8e 2 x cos 2 x sin 2 x
dx
2
4
2

x 2 sin 2 x
sin 2 x x
sin 2 x
8e 2 x
( x)
dx sin 2 xdx

2
2
8

2
2
x 2 1

sin 2 x x sin 2 xdx


= 8e2 x
4 8

1 x 2
cos 2 x
cos 2 x
8e2 x sin 2 x x
1.
dx
2
2

8 4
1 x 2
x cos 2 x sin 2 x
8e2 x sin 2 x

2
4
8 2
e2 x [(3 2 x 2 )sin 2 x 4 x cos 2 x]

(iii) Hence the C.S. is y= e2 x [c1 c2 x (3 2 x 2 )sin 2 x 4 x cos 2 x]

77

Mathematics-I
NOTES

3.8.11.Example

d2y
a 2 y sec ax.
2
dx

Solve

Sol.Given equation in symbolic form is ( D 2 a 2 ) y sec ax.

(i)

To find C.F.

Its A.E. is D 2 a 2 0, D ia.

Thus. C.F.= c1 cos ax c2 sin ax.


(ii)
P.I=

To find P.I.

1
1
sec ax
sec ax
2
D a
( D ia )( D ia )
2

[Resolving into partial

fractions]

1 1
1
1 1
1

sec ax
sec ax
sec ax .

2ia D ia D ia
2ia D ia
D ia

Now

1
1
sec ax eiax sec ax.e iax dx [
X e ax Xe ax dx
D-a
D ia

= eiax

cos ax i sin ax
i

dx eiax (1 i tan ax)dx eiax x log cos ax


cos ax
a

Changing i to i, we have

78

Mathematics-I
NOTES

1
i

sec ax e iax x log cos ax .


D ia
a

Thus P.I=

1 iax
i
i

e x log cos ax e iax x log cos ax

2ia
a

x eiax e iax 1
eiax e iax x
1

2 log cos ax.


sin ax 2 log cos ax.cos ax.
a
2i
2
a
a
a

(ii) Hence the C.S is


Y= c1 cos ax c2 sin ax

1
1
x sin ax 2 .cos ax.log cos ax
a
a

3.9. Summary:
In this lesson we discussed linear differential equation of nth
order

with

constant

coefficients,

homogenous

equations,

complementary and particular solutions, complete solution, rules for


finding integrating factors and working procedure to solve the
equations. We also discussed some examples.

3.10. Technical terms:


Complementary functions
Homogenous equations
Particular integral

79

Mathematics-I
NOTES

Complete solutions or general solution.


.3.11 Exercise
3.11.1 S0lve y '' 2 y ' 10 y 0, y (o) 4, y '(0) 1
3.11.2 S0lve

d3y
y 0.
dx3

3.11.3 Solve

d4y
d2y

8
16 y 0.
dx 4
dx 2

3.11.4 Solve

d2y
dy
6 9 y 6e3 x 7e 2 x log 2
2
dx
dx

3.11.5 Solve

d 2x
n 2 x k cos(nt x).
dt 2

3.11.6 Solve
3.11.7

d 2x
dx
2 3 x sin t.
2
dt
dt

Solve ( D 2 4 D 3) y sin 3 x cos 2 x

3.11.8 Solve

d2 y
dy
2 y e 2 x cos 2 x
2
dx
dx

3.11.9 Solve ( D 3 D) y 2 x 1 4cos x 2e x


3.11.10 Solve ( D 2 1) 2 y x 2 2sin x cos 3 x
3.11.11 Solve ( D 2 4 D 3) y e x sin x xe3 x .
3.11.12 Solve ( D 2 1) y x sin x
3.11.13 Solve

( D 2 a 2 ) y tan ax

3.11.14 Solve

( D 2 3D 2) y e x .

3.11.15 Solve

( D 2 2 D 1) y x cos x.