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Singapore, 1-3 October 2007

TuB02.4

a Metal Rolling Example

Jacek Bochniak, Krzysztof Galkowski, Eric Rogers and Anton Kummert

Abstract Discrete linear repetitive processes are a distinct

class of 2D systems where the information propagates in two

independent directions, one of which is limited to a finite and

fixed duration or interval. Recently, applications areas have

been uncovered where suitably developed system theory for

repetitive processes whose dynamics switch in one or other

of the two independent directions of information propagation

has potentially much to contribute. In this paper, we continue

previous work in this general area by developing an efficient

and numerically reliable solution to the stabilization problem,

i.e. the design of a control law to ensure stability for the case of

more complicated switching schemes and, in particular, when

more than two different models are the subject of switching.

The results are in the form of sufficient conditions which can be

implemented through the use of the Linear Matrix Inequality

(LMI) algorithms.

Index Terms Repetitive processes, 2D systems, switched

dynamics, stabilization.

I. I NTRODUCTION

The unique characteristic of a repetitive process (also

termed a multipass process in the early literature) can be

illustrated by considering machining operations where the

material or workpiece involved is processed by a series of

sweeps, or passes, of the processing tool. Assuming the

pass length < + to be constant, the output vector,

or pass profile, yk (p), p = 0, 1, . . . , ( 1), (p being the

independent spatial or temporal variable), generated on pass

k acts as a forcing function on, and hence contributes

to, the dynamics of the new pass profile yk+1 (p), p =

0, 1, . . . , ( 1), k = 0, 1, . . . . This, in turn, leads to the

unique control problem for these processes in that the output

sequence of pass profiles generated can contain oscillations

that increase in amplitude in the pass-to-pass direction, i.e.

in the collection of pass profile vectors {yk }k .

Industrial examples of such processes include long-wall

coal-cutting and metal rolling, see the original papers cited

in, for example, [1] for further details. A number of socalled algorithmic examples also exist where adopting a

repetitive process setting for analysis has clear advantages

over alternative approaches to systems related analysis. These

J. Bochniak and K. Galkowski are with Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Telecommunications, University of Zielona Gora, Podgorna 50, 65-246 Zielona Gora, Poland

{kgalkows,jbochnia}@uz.zgora.pl

K. Galkowski is currently the Gerhard Mercator Guest Professor in

University of Wuppertal, Germany

E. Rogers is with Department of Electronics and Computer Science,

University of Southampton, Southampton SO 17 1BJ, United Kingdom

solution algorithms for dynamic nonlinear optimal control

problems based on the maximum principle [3]. In the case

of iterative learning control for the linear dynamics case, the

stability theory for differential (and discrete) linear repetitive

processes is one method which can be used to undertake a

stability/convergence analysis of a powerful class of such

algorithms and thereby produce vital design information

concerning the trade-offs required between convergence and

transient performance (see, for example, [4]).

Another possible area of application is the so-called

spatially interconnected systems, which have already found

numerous important physical applications, see, for example,

[5] and references therein. This arises from the fact that some

of the state-space models in this area can be rewritten as a

discrete linear repetitive process state-space model (or its

differential equivalent).

In many practical applications, e.g. metal rolling, or processing operations using multiple operation robot arms, a

number of passes may be completed under one regime and

then the dynamics change to allow further processing to take

place. One way of modelling such a case is by switching

the dynamics from one state-space model to an alternative

(or alternatives) and this paper continues the development of

tools for the analysis of such models.

The main difficulty in the analysis and the synthesis of

control laws for repetitive processes with switching dynamics

is to extend already existing results [6] for the case of

switching after the same fixed interval has elapsed between

two different state-space models to when this happens among

three different models. In particular, if this case can be solved

then the extension to the same form of switching between an

arbitrary number of models follows in a natural way. Hence,

in this paper we restrict attention to the three state-space

model case.

Note also that there is one other form of switching which

can occur in repetitive process dynamics, i.e. along the

pass. Here, however, we restrict attention to the pass-topass case since it has more obvious and immediate practical

applications.

Throughout this paper, the null matrix and the identity

matrix with the required dimensions are denoted by 0 and I,

respectively. Moreover, M > 0 (< 0) denotes a real

symmetric positive (negative) definite matrix.

II. BACKGROUND

etar@ecs.soton.ac.uk

A. Kummert is with Faculty of Electrical, Information and Media Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Rainer Gruenter Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal,

Germany kummert@uni-wuppertal.de

The most basic state-space model for discrete linear repetitive processes over p = 0, 1, . . . , ( 1), k = 0, 1, . . ., is

700

TuB02.4

given by

xk+1 (p + 1) = Axk+1 (p) + Buk+1 (p) + B0 yk (p)

yk+1 (p) = Cxk+1 (p) + Duk+1 (p) + D0 yk (p)

(1)

m1 pass profile vector, and uk (p) is the r 1 control input

vector. To complete the process description, it is necessary

to specify the boundary conditions, i.e. the state initial vector

on each pass and the initial pass profile.

Attempts to control these processes using standard (or

1D) systems theory/algorithms fail (except in a few very

restrictive special cases) precisely because such an approach

ignores their inherent 2D systems structure, i.e. information

propagation occurs from pass-to-pass and along a given

pass. Also the initial conditions are reset before the start of

each new pass and the structure of these can be somewhat

complex. For example, if they are an explicit function of

points on the the previous pass profile then this alone can

destroy stability. In seeking a rigorous foundation on which

to develop a control theory for these processes, it is natural to

attempt to exploit structural links which exist between these

processes and other classes of 2D linear systems.

The case of 2D discrete linear systems recursive in the

positive quadrant (i, j) : i 0, j 0 (where i and

j denote the directions of information propagation) has

been the subject of much research effort over the years

using, in the main, the well known Roesser and Fornasini

Marchesini state-space models (see, for example, the original

references cited in [1]). For example, productive research has

been reported on H and H2 approaches to analysis and

controller design see, for example, [7].

A critical feature of repetitive processes is that information

propagation in one of the independent directions, along the

pass, only occurs over a finite duration the pass length.

Also the boundary conditions are reset before the start of

each new pass and using the stability theory of [1] it can

be shown that if these are an explicit function of points on

the previous pass profile then this alone can destroy even the

weakest form of stability.

The stability theory for these processes consists of two distinct concepts, termed asymptotic stability and stability along

the pass respectively. These both demand bounded input

bounded output stability (defined in terms of the norm on the

underlying function space) essential difference between them

is that asymptotic stability demands this property over the

finite pass length whereas stability along the pass is stronger

since it demands this property uniformly, i.e. independent of

the pass length (and hence oscillations cannot occur either

along the pass or from-pass-to-pass).

The asymptotic stability depends on dynamics from-passto-pass, it does not depend on dynamics along-the-pass. It

guarantees only that the sequence of pass profiles converge

to a steady limit profile, which however may be unstable in

the usual 1D system sense (along the pass). (Over a finite

duration even a unstable 1D system can only produce

a bounded output.) The stability along the pass guarantees

both the existence the limit pass profile and that this is stable

in the usual 1D sense.

Numerous sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for

stability along the pass of processes described by (1) are

known [1] but these have not proved to be a suitable basis

on which to develop control law design algorithms. This has

led to the use of a Lyapunov function based approach which

results in a sufficient condition for stability along the pass

which can be computed using LMI methods. Moreover, there

is a natural extension to solve the basic control law design

problem and this fact offsets the conservativeness resulting

from the fact this approach can only give sufficient, but not

necessary stability conditions.

The starting point for the work reported here is the

following result from [8].

Theorem 1: A discrete linear repetitive process described

by (1) is stable along the pass if there exist matrices W1 > 0

and W2 > 0 such that

T W W

where

< 0

(2)

A B0

.

C D0

Previous work, see, for example [8], has used an LMI

setting to design control laws of the following form over

p = 0, 1, . . . , ( 1), k = 0, 1, . . . for processes described

by (1)

W = diag (W1 , W2 ), =

uk+1 (p) =

=

xk+1 (p)

K1 K2

yk (p)

(3)

to be designed. In effect, this control law uses feedback of

the current state vector (which is assumed to be available for

use) and feedforward of the previous pass profile vector.

In the remainder of this section we give some background

result required for the proof of main theorem reported in the

rest of the paper.

Lemma 1: Let W, L1 , L12 , L22 and V be given matrices

of appropriate dimensions with V > 0, W = WT . Then the

matrix inequality

T

W + L1 + L12 L22 V L1 + L12 L22

< 0

(4)

L1 G2

<0

L22 G2

T

V G2 G2

(5)

W

GT1 L1T

2

GT2 LT1

L12 G1

G1 GT1

GT2 L2T

2

701

TuB02.4

III. PASS - TO - PASS S WITCHING

where

for l = 0, 3, . . .

xl+1 (p + 1) =

for l = 1, 4, . . .

for l = 2, 5, . . .

(6)

C

x

(p)

+

D

u

(p)

+

D

y

(p)

1

l+1

1

l+1

01

l

for l = 0, 3, . . .

yl+1 (p) =

for l = 1, 4, . . .

C

xl+1 (p) + D3 ul+1 (p) + D03 yl (p)

for l = 2, 5, . . .

in (1).

To complete the process description, it is necessary to

specify the boundary conditions, i.e. the state initial vector

on each pass and the initial pass profile. Without loss of

generality we can assume that xl+1 (0) = dl+1 , l 0 and

y0 (p) = f (p) where the vector dl+1 Rn has known

constant entries and the vector f (p) Rm has entries which

are known functions of p. We make no further reference to

boundary conditions in this paper

In the model of (6) the process undergoes more than one

switch, whereas in previous work [6] only one switch was

considered. This fact makes problem much more difficult and

the results developed in [6] are not applicable. Also it turns

out that results developed for two switches generalizes easily

to more than this number, i.e. the significant new challenge

lies in going from one to two switches. Hence we focus here

on the case of two switches.

One obvious approach to the analysis of the process model

given above is to attempt to transform it into an equivalent

model of the form (1) and then directly apply the existing

results. Introduce, therefore, the following new state, pass

profile and input vectors

x3k+1 (p)

u3k+1 (p)

Xk+1 (p) = x3k+2 (p) , Uk+1 (p) = u3k+2 (p) ,

x3k+3 (p)

u3k+3 (p)

Yk (p) = y3k (p),

Yk+1 (p) = y3k+3 (p)

b = D03 D02 C1 D03 C2 C3 ,

C

b = D03 D02 D1 D03 D2 D3 ,

D

B01

b0 = B02 D01 , D

b 0 = D03 D02 D01 .

B

B03 D02 D01

the pass of processes described by (6). Of the numerous sets

of conditions which have been developed, the most relevant

here is the following on [6] which we give here in its final

LMI based form. This sufficient condition then leads easily

to implementable control law design (as shown below). As a

preliminary step, it is convenient to introduce the following

notation

"

#

#

"

b

b B

b0

B

A

b

b=

(8)

b .

b D

b0 , = D

C

b and

b are termed the augmented process and

The matrix

the augmented input matrices, respectively.

Theorem 2: A discrete linear repetitive process described

by (7) is stable along the pass if there exist matrices W1 > 0

and W2 > 0 such that

bT W

b W

< 0

(9)

Proof: Follows immediately on interpreting the condition of

Theorem 1 in terms of (7).

To control these processes we consider a switched control

law of the form

1

K1 xl+1 (p) + K21 yl (p) for l = 0, 3, . . .

K 2 xl+1 (p) + K22 yl (p) for l = 1, 4, . . .(10)

ul+1 (p) =

13

K1 xl+1 (p) + K23 yl (p) for l = 2, 5, . . .

or, equivalently,

where

for k = 0, 1, . . . Note that the variable l is not equal to k.

The variable l is used to denote the pass number and k to

indicate each of three successive (i.e. {3k+1, 3k+2, 3k+3})

pass numbers.

Then the equivalent model of the form (1) for processes

described by (6) is

(

b k+1 (p) + BU

b k+1 (p) + B

b0 Yk (p)

Xk+1 (p + 1) = AX

b

b

b 0 Yk (p)

Yk+1 (p) = CXk+1 (p) + DUk+1 (p) + D

A1

0

0

b = B02 C1

A2

0 ,

A

B03 D02 C1 B03 C2 A3

B1

0

0

b = B02 D1

B2

0 ,

B

B03 D02 D1 B03 D2 B3

(7)

702

b 1 Xk+1 (p) +

Uk+1 (p) = K

b1 =

K

b 2 Yk (p)

K

K11

+ D1 K11 )

3

K2 (D02 + D2 K22 )(C1 + D1 K11 )

0

0

K12

0 ,

3

2

K2 (C2 + D2 K1 ) K13

K22 (C1

K21

b2 =

.

K22 (D01 + D1 K21 )

K

K23 (D02 + D2 K22 )(D01 + D1 K21 )

(11)

TuB02.4

u 3k+1(t)

the resulting process state-space model is given by

(

bnew Xk+1 (p) + B

b0new Yk (p)

Xk+1 (p + 1) = A

(12)

b

b

Yk+1 (p) = Cnew Xk+1 (p) + D0new Yk (p)

u 3k+2(t)

spring

11

A12 =

"

0

B02

0

0

A22 =

"

C1

0

0

0

A13 =

A23 =

"

"

0

A2

0

0

0

0

A3

C3

0

0

B03

D03

0

C2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B03

D03

0

D02

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B01

0

0

0

0

B02

0

0

0

0

0

D01

0

0

0

0

0

D02

0

0

=

,B

#

"

12

21 =

,B

22 =

,B

"

31 =

, B

"

"

32 =

,B

"

0

B2

0

0

0

0

B3

D3

0

D2

0

0

D1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

D2

0

0

0

0

B3

D3

0

0

B3

D3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1 = diag K 1 , K 2 , K 3 , K 1 ,

K

1

1

1

2

2 = diag K22 , K23 , K22 , K22 .

K

B1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B2

0

0

0

0

0

D1

0

0

0

0

0

D2

0

0

spring

zero compression

separation

y 3k+1(t)

Fig. 1.

y 3k+2(t)

y 3k+3(t)

where

L,

1N

12 Z = A12 Z + B

1 V = AV + B

2 ,

2

2

2

1

1

2 L,

31 N,

2 V = A2 V + B

3 Z = A3 Z + B

2N

23 Z = A23 Z + B

3

(16)

and

X = diag (X1 , X2 ) ,

V = diag (V1 , V2 , V3 , V4 ) , Z = diag (Z1 , Z2 , Z1 , Z1 ) ,

= diag (L1 , L2 , L3 , L4 ) , N

= diag (N1 , N2 , N1 , N1 ) .

L

If this condition holds, the control law matrices are given by

1 = L

V 1 = diag K 1 , K 2 , K 3 , K 1

K

1

1

1

2

(17)

2 = N

Z 1 = diag K22 , K23 , K22 , K22

K

Proof: This follows immediately from interpreting Theorem 2 in terms of the controlled process state-space model

in this particular case and use of Lemma 1. The details are

omitted here due to space limitations.

,

#

M3

13

(14)

0

B2

0

0

B1

0

0

0

z3k+3(t)

zero compression

separation

metal strip

where

22 K

1,

K

1 , 12 = A12 + B

21 K

2 , 22 = A22 + B

1 = A + B

1

1

1

2

2

2

3 = A3 + B3 K2 , 3 = A3 + B3 K2 ,

A1

0

0

0

M2

spring

y 3k(t)

"

zero compression

separation

A =

M3

z3k+2(t)

M1

b0new = B

b0 + B

bK

b 2,

B

b 0new = D

b0 + D

bK

b2

D

#

"

b0new

bnew B

A

b

new =

b

bnew D

C

# " 0new

"

#

(13)

i

b h

b B

b0

B

A

b

b

b

b

b

+

=

K

=

K1 K2

b

b D

b0

D

C

with

M2

z3k+1(t)

where

bnew = A

b+B

bK

b1,

A

bnew = C

b+D

bK

b1,

C

u 3k+3(t)

M1

Theorem 3: Suppose that a control law of the form (11)

is applied to a discrete LRP which can be written in the

form (7). Then the resulting controlled process is stable along

the pass if there exists a matrix X > 0, nonsingular matrices

and rectangular matrices L,

N

such that

V and Z,

1 V

12 Z

X

13 Z

Z T 1T

0

Z Z T

23 Z

3

T 1T

T

2T

T

2

Z 2

Z 3

Z Z

2 V

V T

V T T1

0

V T 2T

X

V

2

< 0 (15)

The first results on metal rolling process have been developed in [9], [10] and the results here follow on these

previous works, but in the case of switched process and for

the minimal realization of the state-space representation.

Consider a multi-roll roll system (Fig. 1) consists of three

separate pairs of rolls which are controlled by separate input

signals, i.e. different rolling forces. The deformation of the

workpiece takes place between these pairs of rolls with

parallel axes revolving in opposite directions. The metal

strip to be rolled to a pre-specified thickness (also termed

the gauge or shape) through a series of rolls for successive

reductions.

In practice, a number of models of this process can be

developed depending on the assumptions made about the

underlying dynamics and the particular mode of operation

under consideration. The particular task is to develop a

simplified (but practically feasible) model relating the gauge

on the passes through the rolls. The current pass is denoted

by y3k+3 (t), the previous passes by y3k+2 (t), y3k+1 (t) and

y3k (t). The other process variables and physical constants are

defined as follows: u3k+1 (t), u3k+2 (t) and u3k+3 (t) are the

forces developed by the motors, M1 , M2 and M3 are the

lumped masses of the roll-gap adjusting mechanisms, 11 ,

12 and 13 are the stiffnesses of the adjustment mechanism

springs, 2 is the hardness of the metal strip.

703

TuB02.4

We can written the model of the multi-roll rolling machine

with three pairs of rolls in the form of three differentialdifference equations

= c01 u3k+1 (t)

(18)

+ b02 y3k+1 (t) = c02 u3k+2 (t)

a0i =

1i 2

,

Mi (1i + 2 )

b2i =

2

,

1i + 2

b0i =

1i 2

,

Mi (1i + 2 )

c0i =

1i

.

Mi (1i + 2 )

Applying approximation to (18) by backward Euler discretization method with sampling period T yields the

discrete(-discrete) state-space model (6), where for i =

1, 2, 3,

1

T

T

c0i T

1

, Bi = 1+a0i T 2

,

Ai = 1+a0i T 2

a0i T 1

1

B0i =

Di =

1+a0i T 2

c0i T 2

1+a0i T 2 ,

T

1

D0i =

Ci =

1

1+a0i T 2

b2i b0i T 2

1+a0i T 2 ,

1 T

with

y3k+1 (p) + b21 y3k (p),

3k+2 (p) =

3k+3 (p) =

y3k+3 (p) + b23 y3k+2 (p).

give the control law matrices

K11 = 410.5212 349.9161 , K22 = 64.9264 ,

K12 = 610.7370 533.3123 , K21 = 52.6197 ,

K13 = 888.5518 674.4851 , K23 = 107.2939 .

V. C ONCLUSIONS

x3k+1 (0) = d3k+1 , x3k+2 (0) = d3k+2 ,

x3k+3 (0) = d3k+3 and y0 (p) = f (p).

Numerical Example

Consider the multi-roll metal rolling process with following parameters

11 = 40N/m, 12 = 60N/m, 13 = 80N/m,

2 = 100N/m, M1 = 10kg, M2 = 20kg, M3 = 30kg.

of Theorem 3 we can find the control law matrices. The

condition number of matrix variables V and Z are

cond V = 6.5557, cond Z = 1.1202

oscillations, as shown in Fig. 2.

Without control action, the process here is unstable along

the pass. Suppose also that the task is to reduce the thickness

of the workpiece by one unit. Then, since the process dynamics are assumed to be linear, we can take the initial pass

profile y0 (p) = 1 over p = 0, 1, . . . , 100 and zero initial state

vectors x3k+1 (0), x3k+2 (0), x3k+3 (0) over k = 0, 1, . . . , 6.

Hence as k increases the sequence of pass profiles should

approach zero. This is confirmed by the plot of Fig. 2.

3k+1 (p 1)

x3k+1 (p) =

,

1

T {3k+1 (p 1) 3k+1 (p 2)}

3k+2 (p 1)

x3k+2 (p) =

,

1

T

{

(p 1) 3k+2 (p 2)}

3k+2

3k+3 (p 1)

x3k+3 (p) =

,

T 1 {3k+3 (p 1) 3k+3 (p 2)}

3k+1 (p) =

sampling period T = 0.1 used for backward Euler method

discretization of this process are given by

A1 B01 B1

C1 D01 D1

A2 B02 B2

C2 D02 D2

A3 B03 B3

C3 D03

D3

972.222 97.222

7.936 0.278

277.778 972.222 79.365 2.778

981.595 98.159

6.902 0.184

= 103

184.049 981.595 69.018 1.840 .

981.595 98.159 631.902 0.184

985.401 98.540

6.488 0.146

985.401 98.540 562.044 0.146

law design for discrete linear repetitive processes in the

presence of switching in the pass-to-pass direction (to complement existing results see for example [6]) which can

be computed in a numerically reliable and efficient manner

using LMIs. Future work includes removing the restrictions

on the switching mechanism, including the effects of uncertainties in control law design and many others. When mature,

this approach could well play a major role in the analysis

of so-called bidirectional repetitive processes [1] (successive

passes are completed in opposite directions) which have

many practical applications but for which no analysis tools

currently exist.

704

TuB02.4

l = 0,...,21;

repetitive process control theory applied to a physical example,

International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science,

vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 8799, 2003.

[10] W. Paszke, K. Galkowski, E. Rogers, and D.H. Owens, Robust

stabilization of discrete linear repetitive processes with application

to a physical example, in In Proceedings of 11th Mediterranean

Conference on Control and Automation, Rhodes, Greece, 1820 June

2003, CD-ROM.

p = 0,...,100

PASS

PROFILE

5

0

5

10

15

20

100

80

0

60

5

40

10

15

20

20

pass number

PASS

PROFILE

l = 0,...,21;

p = 0,...,100

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

100

80

0

60

5

40

10

15

20

20

pass number

Fig. 2.

R EFERENCES

[1] E. Rogers and D.H. Owens, Stability Analysis for Linear Repetitive

Processes, ser. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences.

Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1992, vol. 175.

[2] K.L. Moore, Y. Chen, and V. Bahl, Monotonically convergent iterative

learning control for linear discrete-time systems, Automatica, vol. 41,

no. 9, pp. 15291537, 2005.

[3] P.D. Roberts, Two-dimensional analysis of an iterative nonlinear optimal control algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I:

Fundamental Theory and Applications, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 872878,

2002.

[4] D.H. Owens, N. Amann, E. Rogers, and M. French, Analysis of linear

iterative learning control schemes a 2D systems/repetitive processes

approach, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 11,

no. 1-2, pp. 125177, 2000.

[5] R. DAndrea and G.E. Dullerud, Distributed control design for

spatially interconnected systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic

Control, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 14781495, 2003.

[6] J. Bochniak, K. Galkowski, E. Rogers, D. Mehdi, O. Bachelier, and

A. Kummert, Stabilization of discrete linear repetitive processes with

switched dynamics, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing,

vol. 17, no. 2-3, pp. 271293, 2006.

[7] C. Du and L. Xie, H Control and Filtering of Two-dimensional

Systems, ser. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences.

Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2002, vol. 278.

[8] K. Galkowski, E. Rogers, S. Xu, J. Lam, and D.H. Owens, LMIs

a fundamental tool in analysis and controller design for discrete linear

repetitive processes, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I:

Fundamental Theory and Applications, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 768778,

2002.

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