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Electronic News Gathering

Course Description
The College of the Bahamas

GOALS & DESCRIPTION


A production course in how to use the hand-held video camera/recorder for Electronic News
Gathering (E.N.G.). Also, how to edit video tape, especially for use in broadcast journalism. Brief
overview and history of electronic journalism and some issues of controversy.

OBJECTIVES
General
To develop in the student the skills, techniques and art of capturing visual news through sight
sound and motion. It is a "hands-on" course teaching the use of the hand held camera and the edit-
ing equipment used to create the short inserts used in
normal studio news programs.

SPECIFIC
At the end of the semester the students should know;
A) the difference and similarities between print and broadcast journalism
B) Electronic News Gathering (E.N.G.); know it's definition and contribution
to the televised news program
C) know how to use remote equipment, especially the Camcorder
D) know the technique of one-camera shooting, in-camera-editing
E) know the techniques of video tape editing (video & audio),
especially for use in television news.

COURSE OUTLINE
I - General overview of broadcast news
A) the early days: radio & filmed news
B) the impact of video tape, cable, satellites

I I - Controversies & problems in broadcast news


A) how corporate ownership affects news
B) what kind of content "fits" visual news
- "if it moves, shoot it"
- the bias of the visual media
C) is it news or entertainment ?
D) censorship problems in the news Does it exist? Who are the "Gatekeepers"?
1. Government controls (direct/indirect)
2. Publisher bias
3. Self-bias (the reporter and the other gatekeepers)
4. The law and censorship

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Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991
Electronic News Gathering
Course Description
The College of the Bahamas

I I I Electronic News Gathering -- The Equipment


A) The camera: it's functions, parts; optical theory

1. Setting up
2. White & black balance
3. Registration
4. Camera features:
a. - automatic versus manual controls
b. - built in filters
c. - the viewfinder

B) The zoom lens

1. zoom lens and it's comparison to other kinds; characteristics


2. F-stops and lighting
3. focusing (automatic or manual)
4. the zoom control

C) The tape recorder (video & audio)

1. two piece units (camera & tape deck)


2. one piece units (Camcorder)
3. video controls
4. audio controls
5. built in microphone

I V - Going on the Shoot


A) Pre-planning -- before you go out you shoot....
The checklist (mental or written out)

1. full equipment tests, how & what to do


2. battery charging, testing
3. remote lighting kit
4. blank tape -- logging, identification, handling

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Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991
Electronic News Gathering
Course Description
The College of the Bahamas
B) The video portion

1. on site checklist (balancing, filters, etc.)


2. test recordings
3. shooting for the tape editor (in camera editing, cut-a-ways, shot variation
4. kinds of shots (establishing, cover, re-asks, close-ups medium shots,
long shots, head & shoulder shots, etc.)

C) The audio portion

1. microphone selection & use, pick-up patterns, placement


2. the sound bite
3. wild sound
4. the use of the two audio channels

V Editing the Tape


-- the equipment and methods
A)The editing station
1. monitors or receivers, their set-up, adjustment and use
2. source VCR, controls, adjustment and use
3. record VCR, controls, adjustment and use
4. the editing control unit, it's operation

B) Editing techniques

1. the assemble mode


2. the insert mode
3. "in" and "outs"
4. preview and review modes
5. manual/automatic edit and abort modes
6. logging and timing
7. editing audio

V I Putting it all together


A) the broadcast news reporter
B) the news producer
C) the remote team
D) the studio team

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Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991
Electronic News Gathering
Course Description
The College of the Bahamas

PRE-REQUISITES - Com 150 (for majors) Permission of Department/Instructor

EVALUATION
A) A written final exam or -
B) A News Video Portfolio (videotape) to be turned in at the end of the semester containing what
the student thinks is the best of this work. This video should contain examples of course video
news principles and camera/editing techniques. Tapes will be limited to 10 minutes in length.
GRADING
Project # 1 -Shoot & edit a 1-minute news segment with "voice over" audio only...10 %
Project # 2 -Shoot & Edit a 2-minute news segment with "voice over" and location sound...10 %
Project # 3 -Shoot and edit a 5-minute news show with at least 3 news "bites". Show requires an
on-camera news anchor, opening & closing graphics. Segments must use V/O, location sound &
wild sound and at least one of them must a "stand-up"...15 %
Hands on test # 1 - Camcorder: Student demonstrates privately to instructor a professional knowl-
edge of the unit and its accessories and resolves problems set up by instructor...15 %
Hands on test # 2 - The editing system: Student demonstrates professional knowledge of editing
(audio & video) and resolves problems set up by the instructor...15 %
Quiz # 1 -Written quiz based mostly on text, especially vocabulary and videotape editing concepts
... 5 %
Quiz # 2 -Written quiz based on text/vocabulary ... 5 %
Final tape -Students edits the best of their three projects into a 8-10 minute "demonstration" (demo)
tape (that the student can take and use for employment/resume possibilities). The tape may contain
2-3 minutes of new footage shot specifically for this tape. Tape should clearly show such talents as
good camera work (framing, composition), news value, focus, lighting, "flow" & pacing: plus good
editing practices (insert & assemble modes, clean edits, good audio & audio balance...20 %
Professional grade -(absences, lateness, visual news sense, equipment appreciation (care, mainte-
nance, security) ... 5 %
TOTAL.......100 %

VIDEO TAPES TO BE SCREENED FOR THE COURSE


THE TV REVOLUTION- 60 mins VHS - ABC - THE KOPPEL REPORT
THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NEWS - 60 mins VHS - PBS - ANNENBERG CPB PROJECT
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF DAN RATHER - 30 mins VHS - PBS - POV
INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING - 30mins VHS-PBS-ADAM SMITH'S MONEY WORLD
IMAGE & REALITY IN AMERICA - 60 mins VHS PBS-BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND
LEADING QUESTIONS-THE POLLSTERS - 60mins VHS-PBS-BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND
THE ILLUSION OF NEWS - 60mins VHS PBS - BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND
THE TRUTH ABOUT LIES - 60mins VHS - PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND
1989 DUPONT NEWS AWARDS - 90mins VHS - PBS

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Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991
Electronic News Gathering
Course Description
The College of the Bahamas
NATIONAL PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER AWARDS (NPPA) 1981, NPPA 1982, NPPA 1983, NPPA 1984,
NPPA 1985 - 60mins -OZARKS PUBLIC TV
THE WORLD IS WATCHING - 90mins VHS - CBC TV
EDWARD R. MORROW - 120mins - VHS - PBS American Masters
SUPPLEMENTARY READING:
Shook, Frederick - The Process of Electronic News Gathering - ISBN 0-89582-082-X Morton
Publishers
Anderson, Gary - Video Editing & Production: A Professional Guide - ISBN 0-86729-114-1
Knowledge Industries, 1984
Bensinger, Charles, - The Video Guide, 3rd edition - ISBN 0672-22051-2, Sams Publisher, 1982
- Video As a Second Language: How To Make A Video Documentary - ISBN 0-915146-06-1 VTR
Publishers, 1979
Millerson, Gerald, - Video Camera Techniques - ISBN 0-240-51225-1, Focal Press, 1983
Wood, William - Electronic Journalism - ISBN 0-231-02857-X, Columbia U. Press
Feinberg, Milton - Techniques of Photojournalism paper - ISBN 0-317-1070-1/201 3630, Books
Demand UMI
Eden, Clifton C. - Photojournalism: Principles & Practices, 2ed ed., ISBN 0-697-04333-9
Wm.C.Brown 1980
Hicks, Wilson - Words & Pictures: An Introduction to Photojournalism, - ISBN 0-685-32645-4 Ayer
Co. Pub.
Roy, Frank P. - Photojournalism: The Visual Approach (Illus) - ISBN 0-13-665548-3, PH.
REQUIRED TEXTS :
THE BROADCAST NEWS PROCESS (THIRD EDITION) - BY FREDERICK SHOOK/DAN LATIMORE,
MORTON PUBLISHING - ISBN 0-89582-164-8
- Broadcast News, Reporting & Production - by White, Ted & Meppen - ISBN 0-02-427010-5,
Macmillan Press, 1984

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Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991