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FIRE

Back - to - Basics
Fire Alarm Seminar

FIRE

Agenda
n

What is a Fire Alarm System?

FA Circuits (Classes & Styles)

Peripherals in Brief

How to Wire a Building

Voltage Drop Considerations

Old & Obsolete FA Panels and


Concepts
z
z
z

AC Systems
Series Signals
Obsolete Panels

FIRE

What is a Fire Alarm

FIRE

What is a Fire Alarm System?


n

The main purpose of a fire alarm system is to protect life


and property by giving early warning of a fire, so that the
occupants can evacuate and/or the Fire Department can
respond.

A system must be able to detect the initiation of a fire


condition, but also notify someone such as emergency
personnel, the ocupants of the facility, or both.

FIRE

Fire Alarm System Components


n

Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP)

Initiating Devices

Notification Appliances

Emergency Control

Supplementary Equipment

FIRE
Logic/Control

Fire Alarm Control Panel


IDCs
Power
Supply
BATT

120 VAC

User Interface
Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

NACs
AUX
Relays

City
Ckt

FIRE

Fire Alarm Control Panel Components


n

Control Unit

Initiating Device Circuits (IDCs)

Notification Appliance Circuits (NACs)

Auxiliary Circuits

Power Supply

FIRE

Logic/Control

Fire Alarm Control Panel

Primary

Secondary

120 VAC

IDC
SLC
Power
Supply
BATT

User Interface
Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

NACs
AUX
Relays

City
Ckt

FIRE

Initiating Devices

FIRE

NFPA Fire Alarm Circuits


n

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


classifies circuit Types and dictate their Performance

FIRE

NFPA Circuit Types


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

A circuit to which automatic or manual initiating


devices are connected where the signal received does
not identify the individual device operated

Zone

FIRE

Inputs

Outputs

Initiating Devices

Notification Appliances
and Emergency Controls

Logic/Control

Bells/Horns

SMK DET

Fire Alarm Control Panel


Manual Station

IDCs

NACs

User Interface

Strobe

PULL

AUX

Simplex

Waterflow

WF

Power
Supply
BATT

Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

F
I
R
E

Relays

City
Ckt

Sprinkler
Tamper

Smoke Control

Door Holders

Simplex

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

120 VAC

Fire Department
Printer

CRT/KBD or
PC Interface

Annunciators

FIRE

Initiating Devices
n

Manual Stations

PULL

Simplex

Automatic Fire Detectors


z
z
z
z

Heat Detectors
Smoke Detectors
Flame (UV/IR) Detectors
Gas Detectors

Water Flow

Supervisory Switches
z
z

WF

Sprinkler Valve Tamper


Tank Water Level

FIRE

How They Work - Contact Devices

Normal State

FIRE

How They Work - Contact Devices

Normal State

Alarm State

FIRE

How They Work - Current Limited Devices

Normal State

Electronics

FIRE

How They Work - Current Limited Devices

Normal State

Electronics

Alarm State

Electronics

FIRE

NFPA Fire Alarm Circuits


n

Two basic circuit Classes existed prior to 1993


z

Class B - Non-redundant

Class A - Redundant

In 1993 NFPA introduced circuit Styles in order to clarify


the difference in circuit operation made available by new
hardware and software

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

Class B (Style B)

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

BREAK GLASS

BREAK GLASS

BREAK GLASS

PULL

PULL

PULL

DOWN

Simplex

DOWN

Simplex

DOWN

Simplex

FIRE

CLASS B (Style B)
Normal Operation
IDC Module

+
_

Typical Normally Open


Device

2ND FLOOR NORTH HALLWAY


NORMAL
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

Class B (Style B)
Alarm (SHORT) Operation
IDC Module

+
_

1ST FLOOR
2ND FLOOR
ELECTRICAL
NORTH
CLOSET
HALLWAY
ROOM 102
SMOKE DETECTOR
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

ALARM
SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

Class B (Style B)
Trouble (OPEN) Condition
IDC Module

+
_

Class B (Style B)
Trouble (OPEN) Condition
IDC Module

+
_

This device can not operate

1ST FLOOR
2ND FLOOR
ELECTRICAL
NORTH
CLOSET
HALLWAY
ROOM 102
SMOKE DETECTOR
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

TROUBLE
ALARM
SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

Class A (Style D)

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

FIRE

BREAK GLASS

BREAK GLASS

BREAK GLASS

PULL

PULL

PULL

DOWN

Simplex

DOWN

Simplex

DOWN

Simplex

FIRE

Class A (Style D)
Normal Operation
IDC Module

+
_

Class A (Style D)
Alarm (SHORT) Operation
IDC Module

+
_

Class A (Style D)
Trouble (OPEN) Condition
IDC Module
*

+
_
*

* Contacts Close on
Trouble Condition

Class A (Style D)
Trouble & Alarm Condition
IDC Module
*

+
_
*

* Contacts Close on
Trouble Condition

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

Class B (Style B)

Smoke Detectors - 4 wire


Relay Base

Class B (Style B)
Normal Operation
Resetable

+
R
E
L
A
Y

Power Circuit

_
IDC Zone

+
Zone Circuit

Form C Aux Contacts

Class B (Style B)
Trouble Condition
Resetable

+
_

IDC Zone

+
_

R
E
L
A
Y

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

Class B (Style B)

Smoke Detectors - 2 wire (Current Limited)

Class B (Style B)
Normal Operation

IDC Module

+
_
MicroRelay

Form A Aux Contacts

Class B (Style B)
Alarm Condition

IDC Module

+
_

FIRE

Current Limited (2-wire) Limitations


n

Fire alarm panels are designed to work with specific


types of 2-wire Detectors

There is a limitation to the Quantity of detectors


which can be placed on a single circuit

Only auxiliary output function can be guaranteed on


a single circuit
Smoke Detectors - 2 wire (Current Limited)

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Initiating Device Circuits (IDC)


z

Class B (Style B)

Sprinkler
Tamper

Combination Circuits

WF

FIRE

This would cause a trouble signal


Old School
Not Allowed

Must be a Supervisory signal

+
_

WF

Class B (Style B)
Normal Condition

WF
IDC Module

+
_

Class B (Style B)
Valve Tamper Condition

WF
IDC Module

+
_

MAIN
1STRISER
FLOOR
- EAST
ELECTRICAL
ENTRANCE
CLOSET ROOM 102
SMOKE DETECTOR
TAMPER
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

ALARM
SUPERV
SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

Class B (Style B)
Waterflow Condition

WF
IDC Module

+
_

MAIN
1STRISER
FLOOR
- EAST
ELECTRICAL
ENTRANCE
CLOSET ROOM 102
SMOKE DETECTOR
WATERFLOW
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

ALARM
ALARM
SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

FIRE

Tamper Supervisory

+
Waterflow Alarm

WF

FIRE

Notification Appliances

FIRE

NFPA Circuit Types


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

A circuit or path directly connected to a notification


appliance(s)

FIRE

Inputs

Outputs

Initiating Devices

Notification Appliances
and Emergency Controls

Logic/Control

Bells/Horns

SMK DET

Fire Alarm Control Panel


Manual Station

IDCs

NACs

User Interface

Strobe

PULL

AUX

Simplex

Waterflow

WF

Power
Supply
BATT

Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

F
I
R
E

Relays

City
Ckt

Sprinkler
Tamper

Smoke Control

Door Holders

Simplex

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

120 VAC

Fire Department
Printer

CRT/KBD or
PC Interface

Annunciators

FIRE

Notification Appliances
n

Audibles
z
z
z

Horns
Bells/Chimes
Speakers

Visuals
z

Xenon Strobes
y
y

Non-synchronized
Synchronized

Combination Devices

Firefighters Telephones

FIRE

How They Work - DC Devices


(Horns, Bells, Strobes, etc.)

Normal State

Cathode

Anode

FIRE

How They Work - DC Devices (Horns,


Bells, Strobes, etc.)

Normal State

Supervisory Mode

Activated State

Alarm Mode

Monitor Mode

FIRE

How They Work - AC Devices (Speakers)

Normal State

Current

Cathode

0.00

24 VDC

24 VDC

Anode

EOL
Value

0.00
Resistance

Cathode

24 VDC

Anode

+
Alarm Mode = Remove DC monitoring and Output Signal (AC)

24 VDC

Audio Signal

FIRE

How They Work - AC Devices (Speakers)

Normal State

FIRE

How They Work - AC Devices (Speakers)

Normal State

Activated State

AC

AC

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

Class B (Style Y)

FIRE

Class B (Style Y)
Normal Operation

NAC Module

2ND FLOOR NORTH HALLWAY


SIGNALS
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

NORMAL

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

Class B (Style Y)
Alarm Condition

NAC Module

+
_

Class B (Style Y)
Trouble Condition

NAC Module

+
This device can not operate

1ST FLOOR
2ND FLOOR
ELECTRICAL
NORTH
CLOSET
HALLWAY
ROOM 102
SMOKE
SIGNALS
DETECTOR
FIRE

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

PRIORITY 2

ALARM

ALARM
ACK

SYSTEM

SUPERVISORY

SUPV
ACK

ACKNOWLEDGE

TROUBLE
ALARM
SYSTEM

TROUBLE

TBL
ACK

ALARM

SILENCED

ALARM
SILENCE

POWER

ON

SYSTEM
RESET

Class B (Style Y)
Alarm Condition

NAC Module

+
_

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

Class A (Style Z)

FIRE

Class A (Style Z)
Normal Operation

NAC Module

Class A (Style Z)
Alarm Condition

NAC Module
*

+
_
*
* Contacts Close on
Alarm Condition

Class A (Style Z)
Trouble Condition

NAC Module

Class A (Style Z)
Trouble & Alarm Condition

NAC Module
*

+
_
*
* Contacts Close on
Alarm Condition

FIRE

Phone Circuit
Phone Jack

5k EOL

_
300

5k EOL = Normal
300 = Phone plugged in
Open = Trouble
Short = Trouble
GF = Trouble

FIRE

Signaling Lines

FIRE

NFPA Circuit Types


n

Signaling Line Circuits (SLC)


z

A circuit or path between any combination of circuit


interfaces, control units, or transmitters over which
multiple system input signals or output signals, or
both are carried

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Signaling Line Circuits (SLC)


z

Class B (Style 4)

FIRE

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation
Control Panel Interrogation

101 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation

101

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

102

101 Status: Normal

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation
Control Panel Interrogation

102 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

102 Status: Alarm

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation
Control Panel Interrogation

103 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103 Status: Trouble

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation
Control Panel Interrogation

104 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Normal
Operation

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Normal

101

102

103

104 Status: Normal

Device Response

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition
Control Panel Interrogation

101 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition

101

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

102

101 Status: Normal

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition
Control Panel Interrogation

102 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

102 Status: Alarm

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition
Control Panel Interrogation

103 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition

FACP Memory

101

102

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 No Answer
104 Trouble

Device Response

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition
Control Panel Interrogation

104 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 No Answer
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class B (Style 4)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble
Condition

FACP Memory

101

102

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 No Answer
104 No Answer

Device Response

103

104

FIRE

NFPA Wiring Styles


n

Signaling Line Circuits (SLC)


z

Class A (Style 6)

FIRE

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN
Control Panel Interrogation

101 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN

101

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

102

101 Status: Normal

Device Response

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN
Control Panel Interrogation

102 What is your status?

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN

FACP Memory
101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble

101

102

102 Status: Alarm

Device Response

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN
Control Panel Interrogation

FACP Memory

101

102

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble
103 What is your status?

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN

FACP Memory

101

102

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble
103 Status: Trouble

Device Response

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN
Control Panel Interrogation

FACP Memory

101

102

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Trouble
104 What is your status?

103

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- OPEN

FACP Memory

101

102

103

101 Normal
102 Alarm
103 Trouble
104 Normal
104 Status: Normal

Device Response

104

Class A (Style 6)
Addressable
Systems
Trouble Condition
- SHORT

FACP Memory
101 No Answer
102 No Answer
103 No Answer
104 No Answer

101

102

103

SLC Failure
Catastrophic Failure

104

FIRE

FIRE

Style 7 (Class A) Network


Signalling Line Circuit, Normal Operation

FIRE

Token

Style 7 (Class A) Network


Signalling Line Circuit, Normal Operation

FIRE

Token

Style 7 (Class A) Network


Signalling Line Circuit, Operation With a Single Short or
Open

FIRE

Token

Token

Style 7 (Class A) Network


Signalling Line Circuit, Operation with Multiple Shorts
or Opens

MODULES
n

MONITOR

RELAY

SIGNAL

MONITOR

Relay Module,
z

Control Module, Control ZAM

Signal
Module

Signal

FIRE

MONITOR

FIRE

MONITOR

MONITOR

FIRE

Addressable Devices - IAM


n

Individual Addressable Module


z

Addressable Station

Addressable Base
Photo
y Ionization
y Heat
y

Supervised IAM
y

Monitors a single conventional contact device

IAM Relay (ID Net only)

Obtains operating power from SLC

Supervised IAM
SLC

+
_

Typical Normally Open


Device

FIRE

Addressable Devices - ZAM


n

Zone Addressable Module


z

Interfaces with a Zone of Conventional Devices

Monitoring Devices
Class B Monitor ZAM
y Class A Monitor ZAM
y 4-Wire Monitor ZAM
y

Control Devices
Unsupervised Control ZAM
y Supervised Signal ZAM
y

Obtains operating power from a separate source

Class B Monitor ZAM


+
Operating
Power

_
SLC

+
_

Class A Monitor ZAM


+
Operating
Power

_
SLC

+
_

4-Wire Monitor ZAM


+
Operating
Power

Resetable
Power

SLC

+
_

R
E
L
A
Y

Control ZAM
+
Operating
Power

Normally
Open
Normally
Closed

SLC

1 Relay
Normally
Open
Normally
Closed

Signal ZAM
+
Operating
Power

_
SLC

SIGNAL
Power

INTELLIGENT DEVICES

MODULES
n

MONITOR

RELAY

SIGNAL

Single Input Contact Module


SIGA-CT1
n

Four Assignable Personalities


z

Alarm, Supervisory, Waterflow


(delayed latching retard),
Monitor

1-gang Mount

Dual Input Contact Module


SIGA-CT2
n

Four Separate Assignable


Personalities to Each Input
z

Alarm, Supervisory, Waterflow


(delayed latching retard),
Monitor

1-gang Mount

Monitor Module
SIGA-MM1
n

Factory Pre-loaded Monitor


Function
z

Saves installation time

1-gang Mount

Waterflow/Tamper Module
SIGA-WTM
n

Factory Pre-loaded Waterflow


(16 second delayed latching
retard) and Supervisory Input
z

Saves installation time

1-gang Mount

Single Circuit Control Module


SIGA-CC1
n
n

Single Riser Select


Two Assignable
Personalities
Switch Telphone Riser
z

Built-in RING TONE


generator for fire
phones

2-gang Mount

Switch Signal Riser


z

2 amps @ 24 Vdc

50 watts @ 25 Vaudio

35 watts @ 70Vaudio

Dual Circuit Control Module


SIGA-CC2
n

Dual Riser Select

Select Signal Riser

2 amps @ 24 Vdc

50 watts @ 25 Vaudio

35 watts @ 70Vaudio

2-gang Mount

Control Relay
SIGA-CR
n

Form C NO or NC Contact
z

0.5 amps @ 220 Vac (non UL)

0.5 amps @ 120 Vac

2 amps (pilot duty) @ 24 Vdc

50 watts @ 25 Vaudio

35 watts @ 70 Vaudio

1-gang Mount

Universal Class A/B Module


15 Assignable Personalities
z

Two Class B or one Class A


Initiating Device Circuits

One Class A or B Indicating


Appliance Circuit

One Class A or B Smoke


Detector Circuit (2-wire verified
or non-verified)

One Form C Dry Contact Relay

SIGA-UM

FIRE

Emergency Controls

FIRE

Inputs

Outputs

Initiating Devices

Notification Appliances
and Emergency Controls

Logic/Control

Bells/Horns

SMK DET

Fire Alarm Control Panel


Manual Station

IDCs

NACs

User Interface

Strobe

PULL

AUX

Simplex

Waterflow

WF

Power
Supply
BATT

Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

F
I
R
E

Relays

City
Ckt

Sprinkler
Tamper

Smoke Control

Door Holders

Simplex

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

120 VAC

Fire Department
Printer

CRT/KBD or
PC Interface

Annunciators

FIRE

Emergency Controls (Outputs)


n

Supervised
z

City Connection

UUKL Smoke Control

Unsupervised
z

Door Control (Holders & Locks)

Smoke (Fan & Damper) Control

Elevator Recall

Emergency Lighting Control

FIRE

City Connections
Contact DACT

FIRE

Conventional
Contact
Monitoring
DACT

FIRE

Conventional
Contact
Monitoring
DACT

FIRE

Conventional
Contact
Monitoring
DACT

FIRE

Conventional
Contact
Monitoring
DACT

FIRE

ABC CORPORATION ALARM

Conventional
Contact
Monitoring
DACT

FIRE

City Connections
Serial DACT

FIRE

SERIAL
DACT

FIRE

SERIAL
DACT

FIRE

SERIAL
DACT

FIRE

SERIAL
DACT

FIRE

ABC CORPORATION
SMOKE DETECTOR ALARM
THIRD FLOOR EAST STORAGE CLOSET

SERIAL
DACT

FIRE

Supplementary
Equipment

FIRE

Inputs

Outputs

Initiating Devices

Notification Appliances
and Emergency Controls

Logic/Control

Bells/Horns

SMK DET

Fire Alarm Control Panel


Manual Station

IDCs

NACs

User Interface

Strobe

PULL

AUX

Simplex

Waterflow

WF

Power
Supply
BATT

Program
Distribution
Hardware /
Software

F
I
R
E

Relays

City
Ckt

Sprinkler
Tamper

Smoke Control

Door Holders

Simplex

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

120 VAC

Fire Department
Printer

CRT/KBD or
PC Interface

Annunciators

FIRE

Supplementary Equipment - Annunciators


n

Graphic or Directory Lamp Annunciators

Computer Based Graphic Systems

Text-based CRTs

Text-based Printers

Simplex

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

FIRE

Basic Annunciators
n

Hardwired
z

One Wire and Common per Point


Simplex

FIRE ALARM CONTROL

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

FIRE

Basic Annunciators
n

Serial Annunciator
z

Twisted/Sheilded Wiring (Communications)

Power
120 VAC
y 24 VDC
y

Simplex

FIRE ALARM CONTROL

ZONE 1

ZONE 5

ZONE 9

ZONE 2

ZONE 6

ZONE 10

ZONE 3

ZONE 7

ZONE 11

ZONE 4

ZONE 8

ZONE 12

FIRE

Basic Annunciators
n

CRTs, Printers, PC Based Graphics


z

Twisted/Sheilded Wiring (Communications)

Power
120 VAC
y 24 VDC
y

Simplex

120 VAC

FIRE ALARM CONTROL

FIRE

Basic
Peripherials

FIRE

Peripherals - Manual Devices


n

Manual Stations
z

Conventional & Addressable

Single or Double Action

Standard material - Lexan (Plastic)


y

Limited choice of Metal models available

Valve Tamper
z

Typically Supplied by Others

FIRE

Peripherals - Automatic Devices


n

Smoke Detectors
z
z
z
z
z

Photoelectric
Ionization
Beam
Air Aspiration (VESDA)
Duct

Heat
z
z
z
z

Fixed
Rate-of-Rise
Combination
Rate Compensated

FIRE

Peripherals - Automatic Devices


n

Waterflow
z

Typically supplied by others

Flame Detectors

FIRE

Peripherals - Audible Appliances


n

Horns

Bells

Chimes

Speakers
z

25 VRMS

70 VRMS

FIRE

Peripherals - Visual Appliances


n

XENON
15 cd
y 30 cd
y 110 cd
y

Combined with Audible (AV)

Synchronized Option
z

Requires a Sync Cube

FIRE

Miscellaneous Devices
n

Door Holders
z

Watch Voltage Requirements


y

24 volt units require Power Supplies

Relays

Firefighter Phones
z

Jacks

Emergency Phones in Cabinet

FIRE

How to Wire a
Building

IDC Module

+
_

Right
IDC Module

+
_

Wrong
IDC Module

+
_

Right
IDC Module

+
_

Right
NAC Module

+
_

FIRE

PROPER WIRING TERMINATIONS


FOR HARDWIRED CIRCUITS
Conductors must be broken at each
device termination (Incoming &
Outgoing conductors must not be
twisted together or left as a continuous
wire)
No T-Taps

FIRE

Pg. 72-99

Annex G

FIRE

FIRE

Shielding
Most digital communication ckts require a twisted
shielded pair (TSP) of wires. Shielding usually
consist of a foil shield and a drain wire which is in
continuous contact with the foil. Shielding prevents
cross-talk between other circuits run next to the cable,
shields against EMI or RFI noise or interference that
could be induced from the surroundings and helps to
prevent the shielded circuit from emitting noise that
could interfere with other circuits.

FIRE

Shielding
1.

When joints or connections are made, as little of the


cable as possible should be stripped back so that only a
small amount of the wiring will be unshielded.

2.

The shield must be continuous throughout the ckt. In


other words, the drain (shield) wires must be tied together
with a good mechanical bond at every cable joint or
splice.

FIRE

Shielding
1.

The shield MUST be isolated from ground throughout


the ckt. Usually this is done with electrical tape but it may
be done with heat shrink. The shield is only tied to a
signal ground at one point (usually at the control panel).
This signal ground is sometimes earth ground and
sometimes 0V or system common.
. Grounds at more than one point on the shield
can cause ground loops. This may create more
noise than having no shield at all.

FIRE

National Electrical Code (NEC)


n

1993 Edition

Article 760 Fire Protective Signaling Circuits


z

Scope & General

760-1 to 760-7

Nonpower-Limited

760-11 to 760-18

Power Limited

760-21 to 760-53

FIRE

Power Limited Circuits


n

Operate between 20 VDC and 250 VDC


z

Circuits are limited to 100 Volt-Amperes (VA)

Power limiting is accomplished by use of proper power


source

A power limited source can be:


z

A circuit breaker or fuse if:


The overcurrent device is not interchangeable with higher
rated device
y The overcurrent device is located where the conductor to be
protected receives its supply
y

An inherently limited power supply


y

No output power is provided if the output is shorted

FIRE

Power Limited Control Panels


n

Circuit Marking (NEC 760-22):


z

The equipment shall be durably marked where plainly


visible to indicate each circuit that is a power-limited circuit.

If the circuits are not marked Power Limited, the system


must be considered Non-Power Limited.

FIRE

Power Limited vs. Non-Power Limited


(Exposed Wiring)
Power Limited

Non-Power Limited

Single conductors are allowed


(Table 760-51)

2 conductors minimum
(760-17(c)(2)

Minimum conductor size in


cable

Minimum conductor size in


cable:

z
n

#26 AWG (Table 760-51)

FPLP Cable Installation


z

Plenums

DUCTs

Other spaces used for


environmental air

Cable substitutions are allowed


(Table 760-53)

z
n

NPLFP Cable Installation


z

#18AWG

Other spaces used for


environmental air

No cable substitutions are


allowed

FIRE

Fire Protective Signaling Cables


n

Non-power limited cables


z

NEC 760 - 17(c) (4, 5, & 6)

Power limited cables


z

NEC 760 - 51(d, e, & f)


Power

Non-Power

Limited

Limited

FPL

NPLF

Riser (Vertical Runs)

FPLR

NPLFR

Plenum or DUCT [NEC 300-22(b)]

FPLP

Use conduit

Other spaces used to transport Environmental air [NEC 300-22(c)]

FPLP

NPLFP

Application
General Use

FIRE

Wiring Considerations
Voltage Drop & Distances

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n Initiating
Circuits:
#14
= 3.07Device
/ 1000
Feet
z 8 Zone
Monitor modules - Class B (Style B)
50 / 3.07
= 16.3
y 10,000
or 50 ohms, whichever comes first
16.3 x 1000
= feet
16300
smoke detector circuits: 50 ohms max. line resistance
16300 /y 22-wire
= 8150
Ckt Length
y

Dry contact only circuits: 800 ohms max. line resistance

8 Zone Monitor Modules - Class A (Style D)


y

10,000 feet from module and back to the module or 50 ohms,


whichever comes first (5,000 feet to furthest device)

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

Monitor Zone Addressable Module (ZAM)


z

Class B (Style B)
y

2,000 feet or 10 ohms, whichever comes first

Class A (Style D)
2,000 feet or 10 ohms, whichever comes first, from ZAM
terminals and back to the ZAM terminals
y 2000 feet from module and back to the module or 10 ohms,
whichever comes first (1,000 feet to furthest device)
y

Wire Guage
z

18 AWG minimum

12 AWG maximum

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

MAPNET & IDNet


z

Class B (Style 4)
10,000 feet maximum of all wire runs including:
y All T-taps
y Parallel runs
y For each continuous run:
y 2,500 feet for up to 250 IDNet devices
y 2,500 feet for up to 128 MAPNET devices
y 3,000 feet for up to 96 MAPNET devices
y 4,000 feet for up to 64 MAPNET devices
y When run exceeds 2,500 feet twisted shielded wiring is
required.
y

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

MAPNET
z

Class A (Style 6)
No T-tapping is allowed
y For each continuous run from FACP and back:
y 2,500 feet for up to 128 MAPNET devices
y 1250 feet to furthest device
y 3,000 feet for up to 96 MAPNET devices
y 1500 feet to furthest device
y 4,000 feet for up to 64 MAPNET devices
y 2000 feet to furthest device
y When run exceeds 2,500 feet twisted shielded wiring is
required.
y

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

Audibles & Visuals


Maximum
Circuit
Line
Current Resistance
(amps)

()

0.250
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.250
1.500
1.750
2.000

10.8
5.4
3.6
2.7
2.16
1.8
1.54
1.35

Maximum distance (feet)


(2 conductor cable)
18AWG 16AWG 14AWG 12AWG
845
1340
2138
3400
420
670
1065
1700
280
445
710
1130
210
335
530
850
165
265
425
680
140
220
350
565
120
190
300
480
105
165
265
425

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

Speakers

25 VRMS
Maximum Distance (feet)
25VRMS POWER
(Twisted Pair Wire)
APPLIED
18AWG 16AWG 14AWG 12AWG
50W
400
680
1021
1624
40W
505
804
1279
2033
30W
673
1070
1704
2707
20W
1011
1608
2558
4067
10W
2024
3219
5120
8140

FIRE

Wire Distance Limitations


n

Notification Appliance Circuits (NAC)


z

Speakers

70 VRMS
70VRMS POW ER
APPLIED
100W
80W
70W
60W
50W
40W
30W
20W
10W

Maximum Distance (feet)


(Twisted Pair W ire)
18AW G
16AW G
14AW G
12AW G
1620
2577
4098
6500
2020
3212
5108
8121
2317
3685
5860
9318
2700
4276
6800
10860
3241
5154
8197
13000
4040
6424
10216
16243
5379
8553
13602
21721
8065
12823
20394
32424
16000
25000
40000
64800

FIRE

FIRE

Old Stuff

FIRE

Series Notification Circuits (AC)


n

Works like inexpensive Christmas lights


One fails, they all fail
z

120 VAC
y

300+ Volt Audio


y

Horns, Bells, Chimes


Speakers

All devices must be replaced when


upgrading system

FIRE

Series Notification Circuits (AC)


(Normal Condition)
120
VAC

NEUT
Trouble Monitor
Circuit

FIRE

Series Notification Circuits (AC)


(Normal Condition)
120
VAC

NEUT
Trouble Monitor
Circuit

Series AC
NAC Module

Right
NAC Module

+
_

Need Additional Wiring

FIRE

4246/4247 AC FACP

FIRE

4246/4247 AC FACP
n

Introduced ??????

All Peripherals operate on 120 VAC


z

No Standby Batteries

ONE IDC

2- Series Wired NACs


z

Built in groups of 2

Boxes not compatible with and current


panels

FIRE

4208 Hardwired FACP


n

Introduced in early 1970s

First Multi-zone FACP

Not Programmable

MOST features duplicated in 4XXX series panels


z

Watch for AC Series NACs

Boxes not compatible with and current panels

FIRE

4207 Hardwired FACP


n

Introduced in 1974

Transistor based replacment for the 4208

Not Programmable

MOST features duplicated in 4XXX series panels


z

Watch for AC Series NACs

Boxes not compatible with and current panels

FIRE

2001 Hardwired FACP

FIRE

2001 Hardwired FACP


n

Introduced in late 1978


z

Workhorse FACP for 15 yrs!

Modular-based replacement of 4207

Sometimes packaged with 2100 & 2120 Multiplex


Systems

Not Programmable

MOST features duplicated in 4XXX series panels


z

Watch for AC Series NACs

2, 4, & 6 unit Boxes not compatible with 4XXX series


panels