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1.

INTRODUCTION
Usually ordinary solar panel is always faces only in one direction. Because of this
reason the solar panel may not get sufficient sun rays to work. In this work SOLAR
PANEL CONTROLLER AND POWER OPTIMIZATION is done in order to
overcome this defect. Here the panel will rotate according to the readings read by the
LDR. So it will utilize the full sun light to work & power optimization is also done by
using the LDR. This work mainly designed to control the solar panel automatically,
maintains face of the solar panel towards the sun. This is done by controlling the
mechanical movement of the solar panel. Usually sun rises at east and sets at west. In
ordinary system, if it faces towards east then it cannot change the direction towards
sun during sunset. Because of this reasons solar panel may not get sufficient sun rays
to work. These problems are overcome by using this work. In this work we also build
a very good micro controller based solar charger.

Figure 1.1

The coin-based mobile battery charger developed in this work providing a unique
service to the rural public where grid power is not available for partial/full daytime
and a source of revenue for site providers. The coin-based mobile battery charger can
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be quickly and easily installed outside any business premises.We have studied the
research paper and found that there is a problem in collecting sun energy from all the
sides so in our project we have tried to make a rotator solar panel so that it can move
according to the intensity of solar energy. So by our innovation work done on the
previous project can be improved.
Sunlight has two components, the "direct beam" that carries about 90% of the solar
energy, and the "diffuse sunlight" that carries the remainder - the diffuse portion is the
blue sky on a clear day and increases proportionately on cloudy days. As the majority
of the energy is in the direct beam, maximizing collection requires the sun to be
visible to the panels as long as possible.

Direct power lost (%) due to misalignment (angle i )

Lost = 1 cost (i)

hours

Lost

0%

15

3.4%

0.015%

30

13.4%

0.14%

45

30%

1%

60

>50%

23.4

8.3%

75

>75%

Table 1.1

1.1 Different types of solar collector and their location (latitude)

require different types of tracking mechanism. Solar collectors may


be:

non-concentrating flat-panels, usually photovoltaic or hot-water,

Concentrating systems, of a variety of types.

1.2 Solar collector mounting systems may be fixed (manually aligned)

or tracking. Tracking systems may be configured as:

Fixed collector / moving mirror - i.e. Heliostat

Moving collector

1.3 Floating ground mount


Solar trackers can be built using a floating foundation, which sits on top of the
ground without the need for invasive concrete foundations. Instead of placing the
tracker on concrete foundations, the tracker is placed on a gravel pan that can be filled
with a variety of materials, such as sand or gravel, to secure the tracker to the ground.
These floating trackers can sustain the same wind load as a traditional fixed
mounted tracker. The use of floating trackers increases the number of potential sites
for commercial solar projects since they can be placed on top of capped landfills or in
areas where excavated foundations are not feasible.

1.4 Trackers

Figure 1.2

Even though a fixed flat-panel can be set to collect a high proportion of available
noon-time energy, significant power is also available in the early mornings and late
afternoons[13]when the misalignment with a fixed panel becomes excessive to collect a
reasonable proportion of the available energy. For example, even when the Sun is only
10 above the horizon the available energy can be around half the noon-time energy
levels (or even greater depending on latitude, season, and atmospheric conditions).
Thus the primary benefit of a tracking system is to collect solar energy for the longest
period of the day, and with the most accurate alignment as the Sun's position shifts
with the seasons.
In addition, the greater the level of concentration employed, the more important
accurate tracking becomes, because the proportion of energy derived from direct
radiation is higher, and the region where that concentrated energy is focused becomes
smaller.

1.5 Fixed collector / moving mirror


Many collectors cannot be moved, for example high-temperature collectors where the
energy is recovered as hot liquid or gas (e.g. steam). Other examples include direct
heating and lighting of buildings and fixed in-built solar cookers, such as Scheffler
reflectors. In such cases it is necessary to employ a moving mirror so that, regardless
of where the Sun is positioned in the sky, the Sun's rays are redirected onto the
collector.
Due to the complicated motion of the Sun across the sky, and the level of precision
required to correctly aim the Sun's rays onto the target, a heliostat mirror generally
employs a dual axis tracking system, with at least one axis mechanized. In different
applications, mirrors may be flat or concave.

1.6 Moving collector

Figure 1.3

Trackers can be grouped into classes by the number and orientation of the tracker's
axes. Compared to a fixed mount, a single axis tracker increases annual output by
approximately 30%, and a dual axis tracker an additional 6%.[14][15]
Photovoltaic trackers can be classified into two types: standard photovoltaic (PV)
trackers and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) trackers. Each of these tracker types
can be further categorized by the number and orientation of their axes, their actuation
architecture and drive type, their intended applications, their vertical supports and
foundation

Figure 1.4

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Reference Paper 1 (IOSRJEN)


In this paper, the design and development of a coin based universal
mobile battery charger based on main power and solar power is discussed
and this is primarily for rural areas where the mobiles are basic needs for
communication and the main power is not available all the time.

2.2 Reference Paper-2


International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering
and Technology
From this research paper we have studied and found these advantages :

Effectively receive maximum energy from sun towards earth rotation


More useful to save energy from sun and intelligent tracking solar

energy
Simple and hand efficient
Less expensive
Reduced man power
Low power consumption

2.3 Reference paper 3


Solar battery charger for NIMH batteries
(North-eastern University; Boston, MA)
2.3.1 New Voltage based algorithm
Voltage based detection is that it gets easily fooled by changing current. The main
cause of these changes is due to clouds or shade on the solar panel. These changes
create large voltage drops accompanied by slow voltage decrease. The two effects
combined are hard to predict. However, they can be detected by the sudden drop in
current or battery voltage so that end of charge detection will be inhibited.
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2.3.2 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)


MPPT is realized using a Perturb & Observe algorithm .Classical Perturb & Observe
algorithms measure the output current and voltage of the solar panel to calculate the
output power. The variable controlled is the voltage of the solar panel (input voltage
of the DC/DC converter) through the duty cycle of the DC/DC converter .In our
design, the power delivered to the battery is proportional to the amount of charging
current. Therefore, by making sure that maximum current is delivered to the battery,
we make sure that maximum power is delivered as well. This is only true when the
battery is not connected to any load.

2.4 Reference paper -4


(AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL
RESEARCH)
RECOMMENDATIONS:
In other to remove the constraints on the use of solar PV for power source in India,
the following recommendations will be useful.
(1) Government should subsidize the cost of importation of Renewable Energy
Technologies (RET) most especially solar PV to bring down the high cost .
(2) Government should encourage private individuals to invest in the setting up of
solar panels and other components of solar PV .
(3) Government should adequately fund our universities, polytechnics and research
institutes to develop a solar PV that will be adaptable to our environment so as to
increase the efficiency of the solar panels which is currently 40% for the imported
solar panels.
(4) Government should create more awareness on the advantages derivable from
Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) like solar so as to discourage people from
generators. Government can also consider banning or placing restrictions on the
importation of generators because of its adverse effects on the environment

3. PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION


Components used are :
3.1 Solar panel

Figure 3.1

Solar panel refers either to a photovoltaic module, a solar thermal energy panel, or to
a set of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules electrically connected and mounted on a
supporting structure. A PV module is a packaged, connected assembly of solar cells.
Solar panels can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate
and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is
rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically
ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a module determines the area of a
module given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice
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the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. There are a few solar panels available
that are exceeding 19% efficiency. A single solar module can produce only a limited
amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system
typically includes a panel or an array of solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes
a battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.

3.2 LCD display

Figure 3.2

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display,


or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid
crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as
in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images which can be displayed or
hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7-segment displays as in a digital clock.
They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a
large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs are
used in a wide range of applications including ,televisions, instrument panels, aircraft
cockpit displays, and signage. They are common in consumer devices such as DVD
players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have
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replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are available in a
wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not use
phosphors, they do not suffer image burn-in. LCDs are, however, susceptible to image
persistence

3.3 Microcontroller

Figure 3.3

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with


4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The
on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer
which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded
control applications.

3.4 LDR

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Figure3. 4

A light-dependent

resistor,

alternatively called

an LDR, photoresistor, photoconductor, or photocell, is a variable resistor whose


value decreases with increasing incident light intensity. An LDR is made of a highresistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency,
photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump
into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct
electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

3.5 Sensor

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Figure 3.5

A sensor is a device that detects events or changes in quantities and provides a


corresponding output, generally as an electrical or optical signal; for example,
a thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage. But a mercury-in-glass
thermometer is also a sensor; it converts the measured temperature into expansion and
contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube.

3.6 Relay

Figure 3.6

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A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to


mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such
as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a
low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled
circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays
were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal
coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used
extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical
operations.

3.7PCB board

Figure 3.7

A printed

circuit

connects electronic

board

(PCB) mechanically

supports

components using conductive tracks,

and

pads

electrically
and

other

features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs
can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multilayer. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-through holes
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called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain components - capacitors, resistors or active
devices - embedded in the substrate.

3.8 Battery Box

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Figure 3.8

A battery box stores or houses a battery, typically a leadacid battery. Battery boxes
are typically constructed in two parts, a base and a lid. The base serves as a
containment reservoir to prevent the batteries from shifting during transportation and
to collect spilled electrolyte from wet cell lead-acid batteries. The lid allows for
access to the batteries for performing battery maintenance (i.e. cleaning battery
terminals) or altering the battery cable configuration, and protects batteries from
environmental elements such as sunlight (UV),rain, salt water, dirt, oil, and gasoline.
Battery boxes are commonly used in applications where batteries need to left in an
outside environment or where the batteries could be subject to water or other
elements. The most common application for battery boxes is on cars, boats and RVs.
3.9 Voltage Regulator

Figure 3.9

A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A


voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative
feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic
components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or
more AC or DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as
computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor
and other elements. In automobile alternators and central power station generator
plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power
distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along

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distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how
much power is drawn from the line.

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4. APPROACH TO DESIGN

4.1 Methodology followed by us to carry out the project

Figure 4.1

We have researched about the topic and studied several research paper.

Studied various advantages and disadvantages of the project.


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Studied about components and their specifications needed in the project .

Estimated the price and found it as feasible.

Collected various components which are required for the project.

Figure 4.2

4.2 Constraints
Photovoltaic systems produce electricity from sunlight through semiconducting cells
utilising the photo-electric effects to generate electrical energy. Photovoltaic panels
come in modular panels, which can be fitted to the top of roofs, but other buildingintegrated panels are also available. A typical PV panel can generate around
100kWe/m2/yr. To put this into context, a typical 72m2 house consumes around
9000kWh/year of energy, comprising of around 3478kWhe/year and 5580kWht /yr.
Therefore, using a typical 3m2 panel would generate 300kWhe/yr or 9% of the
domestic electrical requirement. Similarly to SHW, solar PV depends on:

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Available roof space to install the system


Orientation and exposure of the roof to be able to capture enough solar
radiation

The figure below provides an indication of the areas with roof orientation and size
considered to be suitable for PVs and SHW within Redbridge. It should be noted that
the areas specified as suitable for PVs are based on existing buildings, areal maps,
GIS maps and images on Google Street view; areas not specified as suitable for PVs
or SHW on the map should not be excluded from consideration as PVs will likely be
suitable over majority of RedbridgeSolar PV systems are equally suitable for
domestic and non-domestic buildings with greater emphasis on domestic. Domestic
buildings tend to have pitched roofs and therefore orientation is a strong factor, unlike
commercial and industrial buildings, which often have flat roofs. The capacity
assessment explores the entire regional building stock. Feasibility of solar
technologies is site-specific, depending on the constraints of individual households
and buildings such as orientation, roof structures, roof areas, surrounding obstacles as
well as individual financial considerations.

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5. DISCUSSION OF RESULT

As we have studied the research paper and found that there is a problem in collecting
sun energy from all the sides so in our project we have tried to make a rotator solar
panel so that it can move according to the intensity of solar energy. So by our
innovation work done on the previous project can be improved. We have researched
about the topic and studied several research paper. Studied various advantages and
disadvantages of the project. Studied about components and their specifications
needed in the project .Collected various components which are required for the
project. And assembled all the components on the PCB board. The programming of
Atmel microcontroller will be carried out in major project.
With more than 70% of population living in rural areas and no access to grid-supplied
electricity, the high cost of grid extension to such areas and the widespread nature of
rural communities, all these combine to make rural electrification by means of solar
energy attractive. The development of solar energy is of interest as it
reduces the high cost of oil imports, reducing environmental impact of conventional
electricity supply by means of large scale fossils fuels and the attendant climate
change phenomenon. The high cost of implementation of renewable energy
technologies, particularly solar, is the major impediment militating against their
widespread use . The high cost is not unconnected to the fact that nearly all the parts
are imported overseas at a very high cost. Also most of the personnel and technologies
are sourced abroad.
Apart from the issue of cost, another obstacle is the low awareness of the usefulness,
efficiency or reliability of the technologies. There is a lot of fear of the unknown; a lot
of industrial entrepreneurs would rather stick to the known conventional modes of
power generation rather than taking the risk of investing in new solar scheme. There is
also lack of adequate and well-trained technical expertise to provide sustainable
systems performance over their advertised life-time. Government policies in the

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power sector are oftentimes in favour of the conventional energy technology at the
expense of the renewable energy technologies. This is making the renewable energy
technologies less competitive on cost basis . In many cases, government further
subsidizes already popular conventional energy to give it an added advantage over the
renewable energy technologies like solar.

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6. PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND THEIR ANALYSIS

6.1 Basic assumptions


The design of coin based universal mobile battery charger is based on the following
assumptions:

Maximum solar energy is used for charging the lead acid battery inside the
mobile battery charger to keep it charged fully all the time

The charging current is upto 4.5AH @ 6vDC and this takes care of the
mobiles manufactured by Nokia, Sony-erricson, Blackberry, HTC and others
of first and second generation mobiles.

A single solar panel of size 635x550x38 mm, 37WP capable of supplying upto
2.0 amp is used.

Provision to charge maximum 10 different types of mobiles is provided.

Insertion of a fixed coin size for charging


.

6.2 Various specifications needed for the projects are:

Input
a. Coin

If the size of the coin doesnt match, the coin


will be rejected.

b .Voltage

110-240vAC,50-60 Hz

Max.Output Voltage

6v

Max.Output current
Dimension

4.5Ah
Small size

Ambient Temperature

(0-50).c

Coin Insertion

Rs2 coin of Indian currency

Operating Environment

Indoor/Outdoor
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Net weight
Humidity

700-900gms
<80%
Table 6.1

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7. CONCLUSION
In this project work we have studied the various research paper on coin based solar
mobile battery charger. We have studied and learnt about functioning and working of
various types of components related to our project. We have tried to improve the
previous researches done on the project .The overall aim of this project was to
develop a small scale battery charging system, which include power management func
tions and a user interface. It required research into various solar cell technologies and
the understanding of the various characteristics of photovoltaic panels to ensure an opt
imum solution for the project.
The necessary policy measures should be put in place to make solar energy the hub of
power generation

RECOMMENDATIONS:
In other to remove the constraints on the use of solar PV for power source in India,
the following recommendations will be useful.
(1) Government should subsidize the cost of importation of Renewable Energy
Technologies (RET) most especially solar PV to bring down the high cost .
(2) Government should encourage private individuals to invest in the setting up of
solar panels and other components of solar PV .
(3) Government should adequately fund our universities, polytechnics and research
institutes to develop a solar PV that will be adaptable to our environment so as to
increase the efficiency of the solar panels which is currently 40% for the imported
solar panels.
(4) Government should create more awareness on the advantages derivable from
Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) like solar so as to discourage people from
generators. Government can also consider banning or placing restrictions on the
importation of generators because of its adverse effects on the environment.
The development of solar energy systems are been encouraged because of its clean
and environment-friendly nature and the reduction of the climate change
phenomenon.
26

Though solar PV is costlier than generators in the beginning, but on the long run, it is
obvious that investing on the solar PV is a worthwhile venture.

27

8. FUTURE ASPECT
This novel method of charging mobile batteries of different manufacturers using solar
power has been designed and developed for rural and remote areas where the grid
power is not available all the time. The mobile communication has become a
necessity even in rural areas and this device is useful for charging mobile batteries as
these mobile battery chargers can be installed in kiosks at various places for the
convenience of mobile users. It can be also used in hospital, train. It can be revenue
generating source in future.

8.1 Usefulness of our project in future

As we all know there is a shortage of electricity supply in rural areas


and there is no proper means of supply so solar battery charger can

solve this limitation.


As cost of units in electricity bill is increasing at an alarming rate so

solar energy is better alternative.


Commercial sources of energy like fossil fuels have hazardous effect
on environment and also there consumption rate is higher than
production rate in India whereas solar energy is free of cost and
available everywhere.

8.2 Future of solar energy


In the 21st century, solar power has already become part of daily life. From solar
heated swimming pools to sun powered homes, there are many examples that
demonstrate the useful application of the clean, safe, sustainable power of the sun. As
concern grows about the effects of burning fossil fuels, and the possibility of
exhausting non-renewable energy sources, the future of solar energy looks bright. As
of 2013, the technology is not without its problems, and so far, applications have
mostly been relatively small scale, but a great deal of research is going on in this area,
and there have been a number of very promising developments.
Harnessing Solar Energy

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The Sun is potentially a huge source of renewable, clean energy. Some estimate that
sunlight could produce 10,000 times as much power as the Earth used at the turn of
the 21st century. There are, however, major technological challenges to be met in
harnessing that energy effectively. There are a number of different technologies
available, and under development, that use sunlight to provide power. Sunlight can be
used simply to heat water which is then used to provide central heating for homes.
Alternatively, it can be used to generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) cells
arranged on solar panels. A third method is to concentrate sunlight on a target to
generate heat, which may be used directly for industrial purposes, or to provide
electricity.

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A. Appendices
New Differential Temperature Algorithm
To improve the robustness of the charge control algorithm inchanging environments,
we propose to use differential measurement of temperature. This involves separating
thebatteries into two (or more) groups.The method, illustrated in principle, relies on
thefact that changes in ambient conditions affect both legs thesame. Thus, the
difference in temperature between the twoegs stays close to zero unless one leg
reaches full SOC.When that happens, both temperature difference and thederivative of
temperature difference rise sharply. This wayfull SOC can be detected in one leg. Of
course, this assumes that the two legs are not reaching full SOC or overcharging at the
same time. This can be ensured if one leg is open circuited.

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REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] M.S.Varadarajan.,Coin based Universal Mobile Battery Charger, ISSN: 22503021 Volume 2, Issue 6 (June 2012), PP 1433- 1438.
[2] Pulvirenti, F. Milazzo, P. Ursino, R, Charger power switch for mobile phones,
Analog and Mixed IC Design, 1997. Proceedings 1997 2nd IEEE-CAS Region 8
Workshop, 12-13 Sep 1997, Pg 97 - 100.
[3] 3rd International Conference on PV Module Recycling PV CYCLE. Retrieved
October 2012.
[4] G. Danese, F. Leporati, R. Lombardi, M. Nucita, G. Pedrazzini and G.
Ricotti, An instrument for the characterization of voltage and temperature
profile in NiCd and NiMH batteries, Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro
Conference, 1997, pp. 178 - 183.
[5] M. Gonzalez, M.A. Perez, J.C. Campo and F.J. Ferrero, Accurate
detection algorithm of battery full-capacity under fast-charge, Proceedings
of Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 1998, vol 2 ,
pp. 755 759.
[6] C.B. Falcon, Temperature termination and the thermal characteristics of
NiCd and NiMH batteries, WESCON/94. 'Idea/ Microelectronics'.
Conference Record, 1994, pp. 309 315.

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