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Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

TOXIC SUBSTANCE
trans por t in the atm os pher e
p ho tolysis

drift

spray application
of pestici des

v olatili zation fro m


p lant s ta nds

fo lia r a p plicatio n

so il a pp lica tio n

post appli cative


vo latiliza tio n

interc eption i n
p lant s ta nds

wa sh off

v olatiliz ati on from


s oil s urface s

soil con tam ination


so rp ti on to
soil m atrix
run o f f

s urfac e water
c onta m inati on

leachin g
pl ant
upta ke
ch em ical/

g round w ate r
co nta mi na tio n

micro b ial
d eg ra da tio n

formation of m etab olites


min eral ization

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Pengelolaan B3
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Amanat UUD 1945:


Pasal 28 H: setiap orang berhak mendapatkan lingkungan hidup yang baik dan
sehat
Amanat UU No. 32/2009
Pasal 58 : Pengelolaan B3
Pasal 14: Pencegahan Pencemaran/ Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup
instrumen : (k) analisa resiko lingkungan hidup
Ratifikasi Konvensi Internasional
Konvensi Stockholm (UU RI 19/2009 tentang Ratifikasi Konvensi Stockholm);
Konvensi Rotterdam (UU RI 10/2013 tentang Ratifikasi Konvensi Rotterdam);
Protokol Montreal (Per Pres RI 33/2005 tentang Pengesahan Beijing Amendment
To The Montreal Protocol On Substances That Deplete The Ozone Layer
(Amendemen Beijing Atas Protokol Montreal tentang Bahan-bahan yang Merusak
Lapisan Ozon);
Konvensi Minamata
SAICM (Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management)

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

KLASIFIKASI B3 (PP NO. 74/2001 PASAL 5)


1. Mudah meledak (explosive)
2. Pengoksidasi (oxidizing)
3. Sangat mudah sekali menyala (extremely flammable)
4. Sangat mudah menyala (highly flammable)
5. Mudah menyala (flammable)
6. Amat sangat beracun (extremely toxic)
7. Sangat beracun (moderately toxic)
8. Berbahaya (harmful)
9. Korosif (corrosive)
10.Bersifat iritasi (irritant)
11.Berbahaya bagi lingkungan (dangerous to the environment)
12.Karsinogenik (carcinogenic)
13.Teratogenik (teratogenic)
14.Mutagenik (mutagenic)

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

KLASIFIKASI B3 (PP NO. 74/2001 PASAL 5)


1. Mudah meledak (explosive)
2. Pengoksidasi (oxidizing)
3. Sangat mudah sekali menyala (extremely flammable)
4. Sangat mudah menyala (highly flammable)
5. Mudah menyala (flammable)
6. Amat sangat beracun (extremely toxic)
7. Sangat beracun (moderately toxic)
8. Berbahaya (harmful)
9. Korosif (corrosive)
10.Bersifat iritasi (irritant)
11.Berbahaya bagi lingkungan (dangerous to the environment)
12.Karsinogenik (carcinogenic)
13.Teratogenik (teratogenic)
14.Mutagenik (mutagenic)

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

WHAT IS A TOXIC SUBSTANCE???


A Toxic substance means any chemical or mixture that
may be harmful to the environment and to human
health if inhalled, swallowed, or absorbed through the
skin (EPA, 2012).
Beracun (Toxic) adalah B3 yang akan menyebabkan kematian atau
sakit yang serius apabila masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui pernafasan,
kulit atau mulut (PP NO. 74/2001).

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

TOXIC SUBSTANCE???
Alamiah : singkong (mengandung HCN/asam sianida),

cendawan (muskarin), biji bengkuang (pakirizida), jengkol


(asam jengkolat), ikan buntal, sebagian kerang dan udang
Senyawa beracun dari mikroba seperti botulinin yang
diproduksi Clostridium botulinum, toksoflavin dan asam
bonkrek yang diproduksi Psedomonas cocovenenans,
enterotoksin yang diproduksi Staphylococcus aureus,
mikotoksin yang dproduksi kapang (mold) atau jamur
Senyawa beracun oleh residu dan pencemaran seperti
pestisida, kontaminasi radioaktif.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Nitric Oxide (NO), Nitrogen Dioxide (N2O),


Phosphine, dll.
Gas ini sangat beracun maka harus disimpan
ditempat yang berpagar dan dikunci, juga harus
diberi tanda peringatan bahaya, karena
pemaparan sedikit saja akan mematikan.
Suhu cylinder juga harus dibawah 52o C.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Clostridium botulinum Sal.Cerna


Cyanobacteria Makanan
Escherichia coliKerusakan Ginjal
Clostridium tetani Tetanus

Puccinia graminis rumput-rumputan


Ustilago maydis buah jagung.
Xylaria tabacina,petai cina
Claviceps purpureagraminiae
Aspergillus flavus, menghasilkan racun aflatoksin

TOXIC Bacteria

Toxic
Mushroom

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Tanda Jamur Beracun


Warna Mencolok
Bau Menusuk
Bercincin
Tumbuh di tempat
Kotor

Noda Hitam Pada Perak


Perubahan Warnanya
Cepat
Memberi Warna Gelap
pd Nasi

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

WHAT KIND OF SUBSTANCES/MATERIALS CALLED AS


A TOXIC SUBTANCE???

Drain cleaners
Oven cleaners
Laundry detergents
Floor or furniture polish
Paints
Pesticides

PLEASE Check
Labels!!

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

WHAT KIND OF SUBSTANCES/MATERIALS CALLED AS


A TOXIC SUBTANCE???

Drain cleaners
Oven cleaners
Laundry detergents
Floor or furniture polish
Paints
Pesticides

PLEASE Check
Labels!!
CAUTION
WARNING
DANGER

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

LABELLING
Danger : is the strongest signal word. When it is used on wrong way, you could get
very sick, be hurt for a long time, go blind or even die. Danger is also used on
products that could explode if the get hot.
Warning : is less string than Danger, but it still means that you could get really sick
or become seriously hurt. Warning is also used on products that can easily catch on
fire.
Caution : shows that the product could hurt you, but it is less harmful than products
with danger or warning signal words. Caution is used on products that could bother
your skin, make you sick if you breathed the fumes, or really hurt if the product got
in your eyes.
(EPA, 2012)

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

MSDS (MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET)


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Product & Company Identification


Composition and Information on Ingredients
Hazards Information
First Aid Measures
Fire Fighting
Accidental release measures
Handling & Storage
Exposure controls / Personal protection
Physical and Chemical properties
Stability and Reactivity
Toxicological Information
Ecological Information
Disposal
Transport Information
Regulatory Information
Others.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

MSDS (MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET)

MENURUT KEPUTUSAN MENAKER No. 187/Men/1999


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IDENTITAS BAHAN DAN PERUSAHAAN


KOMPOSISI BAHAN
IDENTIFIKASI BAHAYA
TINDAKAN P3K
TINDAKAN PENANGGULANGAN KEBAKARAN
TINDAKAN THD TUMPAHAN DAN KEBOCORAN
PENYIMPANAN DAN PENANGANAN BAHAN
PENGENDALIAN PEMAJANAN DAN APD
SIFAT2 FISIKA DAN KIMIA
REAKTIFITAS DAN STABILITAS
INFORMASI TOKSIKOLOGI
INFORMASI EKOLOGI
PEMBUANGAN LIMBAH
PENGANGKUTAN
PERATURAN PERUNDANG2AN
INFORMASI LAIN YANG DIPERLUKAN

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

WHAT KIND OF SUBSTANCES/MATERIALS CALLED AS


A TOXIC SUBTANCE???

Drain cleaners
Oven cleaners
Laundry detergents
Floor or furniture polish
Paints
Pesticides

PLEASE Check
Labels!!
CAUTION
WARNING
DANGER

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Pesticide
A pesticide is a chemical used to prevent, destroy,
or repel pests.
Pests can be insects, mice and other animals,
weeds, fungi or microorganisms such as bacteria
and viruses.

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

There are some common types of pesticides, and their purposes, used in our homes
Type

Usage

Algicides

Control algae in swimming pools anda water tanks

Antimicrobials

Kill microorganisms (such as bacteria and viruses)

Attractants

Attractans are traps containing a pesticide and food to lure insects


or redents inside. However, food is not a pesticide even though it
certainly attracts pests.. Like ants at a picnic.

Disinfectants
and sanitizers

Kill disease-producing microorganisms in the kitchen and bathroom

Fumigants

Produce gas or vapor intended to destroy pests in the house or in


the ground

Fungicides

Kill fungi (including blights, mildews, molds, and rusts)

Herbicides

Kill weeds

Insecticides

Kill insects and other anthropods

Miticides

Kill mites that feed on plants and animals

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

There are some common types of pesticides, and their purposes, used in our homes
Type

Usage

Microbial
pesticides

Microorganisms that kill or inhibit pests, including insects or other


microorganisms. Sometimes microorganisms get rid of pests
simply by growing larger in number, using up the pestss food
supply, and invading the pests environment

Molluscicides

Kill snails and slugs

Nematocides

Kill nematodes (microscopic, worm-like organisms that feed on


plant roots)

Pheromones

Biochemicals used to disrupt the mating behavior of insect

Repellents

Repel pests, including insects (such as mosquitoes) and birds

Rodenticides

Control mice and other rodents

(EPA, 2012)

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Routes of Entry
Ingestion:- This means taking a material into the body by mouth (swallowing).
Ingestion of toxic materials may occur as a result of eating in a contaminated work
area.
Absorption- Substances that contact the eye and the skin may be either absorbed
into the body or cause local effects. For the majority of organic compounds, the
contribution from skin absorption to the total exposure should not be neglected.
Inhalation- This means taking a material into the body by breathing it in. In the
lungs, very tiny blood vessels are in constant contact with the air we breath in. As a
result, airborne contaminants can be easily absorbed through this tissue. In the
occupational environment, this is generally the most important route of entry.
http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/whmis/whmis6.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Health Effects - Chronic vs Acute


Once a toxic substance has contacted the body it
may have either acute (immediate) or chronic (long
term) effects.
Example: Spilling acid on your hand will
cause immediate harm, i.e. a burn to the skin.
Exposure to asbestos or tobacco smoke may result
in lung cancer after as much as twenty years (this is
a long term effect).
http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/whmis/whmis6.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Exposure - Chronic vs Acute


In chronic exposures, the dose is delivered at some
frequency (daily or weekly usually) over a period of
time.
In acute exposures, the dose is delivered in a single
event and absorption is rapid. Usually, a chronic
exposure occurs at low concentration and acute
exposure at high concentration
http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/whmis/whmis6.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

KLASIFIKASI B3 (PP NO. 74/2001 PASAL 5)


Beracun (Toxic)
adalah B3 yang akan menyebabkan kematian atau sakit yang serius
apabila masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui pernafasan, kulit atau mulut.
Urutan

Kelompok

Amat sangat beracun


(extremmely toxic)

Sangat beracun (highly toxic)

Beracun (toxic)

Agak beracun (slighlty toxic)

Praktis tidak beracun (practically


non-toxic)

Relatif tidak berbahaya


(relatively harmless)

LD50 (mg/kg)
1
1-50
51-500
501-5000
5001-15000
> 15000

Tiga (3) Konvensi yang Terkait dalam


Pengelolaan B3 dan Limbah B3
BCRC-SEA

Konvensi Basel

Konvensi Rotterdam
PIC Procedure
Pengawasan
Ekspor-impor limbah B3
PP No. 74/2001

Pengawasan
Ekspor-impor limbah B3
PP No18 jo 85/1999

Konvensi Stockholm
Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POPs) mengatur tentang bahan
pencemar organik yang persisten

Merupakan suatu kesatuan yang dititikberatkan pada life cycle management


23

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

LATAR BELAKANG
Bahan kimia sintetis

Sifat POPs:
Beracun;
Persisten (Sulit terurai);
Bioakumulasi , berpindah melalui
rantai makanan

POPs

Dampak POPs terhadap kesehatan:


Kanker, cacat lahir, disfungsi sistem reproduksi
dan imun, penurunan kecerdasan
Dampak POPs terhadap lingkungan Penurunan
populasi, rata-rata reproduksi burung elang,
penipisan sel kulit telur burung

Berpindah melintasi batas


internasional. terangkut melalui
udara, air, dan migratory species;

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Konvensi Stockholm
Merupakan
kesepakatan lingkungan
global
UNEP
23 Mei 2001

Pemerintah Indonesia
Telah meratifikasi yaitu
Undang-Undang Nomor 19 Tahun
2009
Tentang Pengesahan Stockhlom
Convention Persisten
Organic Pollutants (Konvensi
Stockholm Tentang
Bahan Pencemar Organik Yang
Persisten)

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.


23 BAHAN POPS

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aldrin
Chlordane
Dieldrin
Endrin
Heptachlor
Hexachlorobenzene
Mirex
Toxaphene
Polychlorinated biphenyl
(PCBs)
10. DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis (4chlorophenyl)ethane)
11. Polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins and
12. dibenzofurans
(PCDD/PCDF)

2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane
Beta hexachlorocylcohexane
Chlordecone
Hexabromobiphenyl
Hexabromodiphenyl ether and
heptabromodiphenyl ether
(commercial octabromodiphenyl
ether)
Lindane
Pentachlorobenzene
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its
salt and perfluorooctane sulfonyl
fluoride
Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and
pentabromodiphenyl ether
(commercial
pentabromodiphenyl ether)

2011
Endosulfan
(COP-5)
Entry into force 27
October 2012

2013
HBCD

(Hexa Bromo
Cyclo Dodecane)

(COP-6)

Entry into force 26


Agustus 2010

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

POPs (PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANT)

Synthetic organic Chemicals


Persistent in environment
Liphophylic
Accumulate in food chain
Accumulate in fish and marine mammals

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Substance properties
Volatility
Polarity
Degradability
Mobility
Toxicity
Resitance formation

Benzo[a]pyrene

HCB

PCB-153

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Substance properties

PCB-153

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Substance properties - DDT


1873
1939
1948
1972

Synthesis of DDT
Research by Muller
Nobel price of Medicine received by Muller
DDT completely banned in USA

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Fate of chemicals in the environment


Release
wastewater

Production and application patterns: Emissions, waste,

Transport

Air ---- water ----soil


Water ----- air
Soil ------air
Soil ------ water

Uptake
Accumulation
Ecotoxicity

oral, dermal, inhalative


BCF = f(lipi amount); Pow = cn-octanol / cwater
LD50, LC50, EC50

Sinks

: deposition
: volatilization
: volatilization
: leaching, runoff (Kd, Koc)

Transformation : DT50, DT90; metabolites, CO2 + H2O


Sequestration : sorption, formation of non-extractable residues

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Application of pesticides following a benefit/risk analysis


Benefit :

- Protection of yield, crop quality, farmers incomes


- Health prophylaxis
- worldwide business markets

Risk :

- user toxicity
- entry into the foodchain
- conamination of eco-system : air, water, sediment, soil
- ecotoxicoligical effetc and formation of resistance

Acceptance :

- effective regulatpry procedure


- intregated pest manageent
- optimization of pesticides

- post-regulatory monitoring
- regulatory re-evaluation

: high efficiency
: low persistence
: low volatility
: low mammal toxicity

Environmental fate of pesticides after spray application


trans por t in the atm os phere
p h o tolysis

dr ift

spra y app lication


of p esticides

v olatili zation fro m


p lant s ta nds

fo lia r a p plicatio n

so il a pp lica tio n

post appli cative


vo latiliza tio n

interc eption i n
p lant s ta nds

wa sh of f

v olatiliz ati on from


s oil s urface s

soil c on tam ination


so rp ti on to
soil m atrix
run o f f

s urfac e water
c onta m inati on

lea chin g
pl ant
upta ke
ch em ical/

g round w ate r
co nta mi na tio n

micro b ial
d eg ra da tio n

for mation of m e tab olite s

(Kreuzig, 1994)

min eral ization