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Long Answers Based On Marketing Theories:

Q1. What is the current situation of organised retail sector in

India? Explain with the help of porter's five forces

Porters Five Forces:


Threat of new entrants

Retailing has played a major role all over the world in increasing
productivity across a wide range of consumer goods and services. In the
developed countries, the organised retail industry accounts for almost
80% of the total retail trade. In contrast, in India organised retail trade
accounts for merely 5% of the total retail trade. This highlights
tremendous potential for retail sector growth in India. Seeing this potential
major international players in retail like Tesco and Walmart are looking
forward to enter Indian market which poses threat of new entrants to the
existing players in the Indian retail market i.e., Future Group, Reliance,
Aditya Birla.

Threat of substitute products or services

Historically, Indians have been conservative spenders. Transition from

traditional retail to organized retailing is taking place due to changing
consumer expectations, demographic mix, etc. With the revival in
consumer spending, expansion plans of retailers are back in full swing.
The convenience of shopping with multiplicity of choice under one roof
(Shop- in Shop), and the increase of mall culture etc. are factors
appreciated by the new generation. This changing trend has done a great
loss to unorganized sector players. But, to overcome the loss due to the
organized retail outlets, the unorganized outlets are also shifting towards
a modern retail format, offering self-selection shop layout, selective
discounting, membership offers, online orders, free home delivery. In any
event, it is impossible for organized retailers to replicate the convenience
of neighbourhood presence of unorganized retailers.

Bargaining power of customers (buyers)

Organized retailers cater mainly to individual consumers, and also to an

extent to unorganized retailers. Since the policy of FDI-in-multi-brand
retail has been a non-starter (due to a variety of reasons), and due to high
rentals, both domestic and FDI-driven organized retail has failed to grow
anywhere close to potential. Hence, the bargaining power of customers,
which was high to begin with due to proliferation of unorganized retail,
hasnt changed and is unlikely to do so in the next 5-7 years.


Bargaining power of suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers varies depending upon the target

segment, the format followed, and products on offer. The unorganised
sector has a dominant position, still contributing 95% of the total retail
market. There are few players who have a slight edge over others on
account of being established players and enjoying brand distinction. Since
it is a capital intensive industry, access to capital also plays an important
part for expansion in the space.

Intensity of competitive rivalry

High competition is characterised by many factors, including assortment,

products, price, quality, service, location, reputation, credit and
availability of retail space etc. Had the multi-brand retail FDI policy been
conducive and enjoyed bi-partisan support of most of the political parties,
India would have seen several new entrants (domestic business houses
and international players) which would have in turn resulted in
competition rivalry. The Future group is trying to set up a neighbourhood
located franchisee home-delivery model, and Reliance Retail has plans to
stop retailing and instead convert itself to a wholesaler catering to
unorganized retailers. Such moves will benefit consumers by way of
greater choice and cheaper prices.

Q2. Define BCG Matrix and Ansoffs Matrix. Link both the matrix.
BCG matrix is a framework created by Boston Consulting Group to
evaluate the strategic position of the business brand portfolio and its
potential. It classifies business portfolio into four categories based on
industry attractiveness (growth rate of that industry) and competitive
position (relative market share). These two dimensions reveal likely
profitability of the business portfolio in terms of cash needed to support
that unit and cash generated by it. The general purpose of the analysis is
to help understand, which brands the firm should invest in and which ones
should be divested.
Relative market share.
One of the dimensions used to evaluate business portfolio is relative
market share. Higher corporates market share results in higher cash
returns. This is because a firm that produces more, benefits from higher
economies of scale and experience curve, which results in higher profits.
Nonetheless, it is worth to note that some firms may experience the same
benefits with lower production outputs and lower market share.
Market growth rate.
High market growth rate means higher earnings and sometimes profits
but it also consumes lots of cash, which is used as investment to stimulate

further growth. Therefore, business units that operate in rapid growth

industries are cash users and are worth investing in only when they are
expected to grow or maintain market share in the future.
There are four quadrants into which firms brands are classified:
Dogs hold low market share compared to competitors and operate in a
slowly growing market. In general, they are not worth investing in because
they generate low or negative cash returns. But this is not always the
truth. Some dogs may be profitable for long period of time, they may
provide synergies for other brands or SBUs or simple act as a defence to
counter competitors moves. Therefore, it is always important to perform
deeper analysis of each brand or SBU to make sure they are not worth
investing in or have to be divested.
Strategic choices: Retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation
Cash cows.
Cash cows are the most profitable brands and should be milked to
provide as much cash as possible. The cash gained from cows should be
invested into stars to support their further growth. According to growthshare matrix, corporates should not invest into cash cows to induce
growth but only to support them so they can maintain their current market
share. Again, this is not always the truth. Cash cows are usually large
corporations or SBUs that are capable of innovating new products or
processes, which may become new stars. If there would be no support for
cash cows, they would not be capable of such innovations.
Strategic choices: Product development, diversification, divestiture,
Stars operate in high growth industries and maintain high market share.
Stars are both cash generators and cash users. They are the primary units
in which the company should invest its money, because stars are
expected to become cash cows and generate positive cash flows. Yet, not
all stars become cash flows. This is especially true in rapidly changing
industries, where new innovative products can soon be outcompeted by
new technological advancements, so a star instead of becoming a cash
cow, becomes a dog.
Strategic choices: Vertical integration, horizontal integration, market
penetration, market development, product development
Question marks.
Question marks are the brands that require much closer consideration.
They hold low market share in fast growing markets consuming large

amount of cash and incurring losses. It has potential to gain market share
and become a star, which would later become cash cow. Question marks
do not always succeed and even after large amount of investments they
struggle to gain market share and eventually become dogs. Therefore,
they require very close consideration to decide if they are worth investing
in or not.
Strategic choices: Market penetration, market development, product
development, divestiture
The BCG matrix is a prioritization tool. In this, the product lines of a firms
product portfolio are classified into four categories on the basis of the
market share and market growth rate.
Ansoffs Matrix

Market penetration

This involves increasing market share within existing market segments.

This can be achieved by selling more products/services to established
customers or by finding new customers within existing markets.

Product development

This involves developing new products for existing markets. Product

development involves thinking about how new products can meet
customer needs more closely and outperform the products of competitors.

Market development

This strategy entails finding new markets for existing products. Market
research and further segmentation of markets helps to identify new
groups of customers.


This involves moving new products into new markets at the same time. It
is the most risky strategy. The more an organisation moves away from
what it has done in the past the more uncertainties are created. However,
if existing activities are threatened, diversification helps to spread risk.
BCG Matrix gives a direction to brand managers about which product lines
should be prioritised and which product lines needs to be divested. Once a
BCG Matrix has been constructed of different product lines, the Ansoffs
Matrix framework is used to strategize as to what further needs to be
done with the product lines classified as Question-marks or Dogs.

Q3. Definition: Product life cycle (PLC) :

The cycle through which every product goes through from introduction to
withdrawal or eventual demise. These stages are:


When the product is brought into the market, there is heavy marketing
activity, product promotion and the product is put into limited outlets in a
few channels for distribution. Sales take off slowly in this stage. The need
is to create awareness, not profits, and to showcase the product to smaller
outlets and online channels.


The second stage is growth. In this stage, product sales takes off,
distribution expands, multi-channel retailing is done, market awareness
grows, profits begin to come in, market shares stabilizes, and more
competition is attracted.


The third stage is maturity, where sales grow at slowing rates and finally
stabilize. In this stage, products get differentiated, price wars and sales
promotion become common and a few weaker players exit.


The fourth stage is decline. Here, sales drop, as consumers may have
switched to alternate brands/ products, the product is no longer relevant
or useful. Price wars continue, several products are withdrawn and cost
control becomes the way out for most products in this stage.
Significance of PLC:

If properly done, PLC analysis can alert a company as to the health

of the product in relation to the market it serves. PLC also forces a
continuous scan of the market and allows the company to take corrective
action faster. But the process is rarely easy.

Q4. How to generate business in rural market?

Rural markets, as part of any economy, have untapped potential. There
are several difficulties confronting the effort to fully explore rural markets.
The concept of rural markets in India is still in evolving shape, and the
sector poses a variety of challenges. Distribution costs and nonavailability of retail outlets are major problems faced by the marketers.
Many brands, which should have been successful, have failed miserably.
This is because most firms try to extend marketing plans that they use in
urban areas to the rural markets. The unique consumption patterns,
tastes, and needs of the rural consumers should be analysed at the
product planning stage so that they match the needs of the rural people.
Therefore, marketers need to understand the social dynamics and attitude
variations within each village though nationally it follows a consistent
pattern. The main problems in rural marketing are: -

Understanding the Rural Consumer Behaviour

Poor Infrastructure

Physical Distribution

Channel Management

Promotion and Marketing Communication

Dynamics of rural markets differ from other market types, and similarly,
rural marketing strategies are also significantly different from the
marketing strategies aimed at an urban or industrial consumer.
Strategies to be followed:

Marketing Strategy

Marketers need to understand the psyche of the rural consumers and then
act accordingly. Rural marketing involves more intensive personal selling
efforts compared to urban marketing. Firms should refrain from designing
goods for the urban markets and subsequently pushing them in the rural
areas. To effectively tap the rural market, a brand must associate it with
the same things the rural folks do. This can be done by utilizing the
various rural folk media to reach them in their own language and in large
numbers so that the brand can be associated with the myriad rituals,
celebrations, festivals, "melas", and other activities where they assemble.

Distribution Strategy

One of the ways could be using company delivery van which can serve
two purposes - it can distribute the products to the rural retailers, and it
also enables the firm to establish direct contact with them, and thereby
facilitate sales promotion. However, only the big brands can adopt this
channel. Companies with relatively fewer resources can go in for either
exclusive rural distributors that is serviced by either a dedicated or
common company sales-force, or companies can adopt syndicated
distribution where a tie-up between non-competitive marketers can be
established to facilitate distribution. Annual "melas" organized are quite
popular and provide a very good platform for distribution because people
visit them to make several purchases. According to the Indian Market
Research Bureau, around 8000 such melas are held in rural India every
year. Rural markets have the practice of fixing specific days in a week as
Market Days (often called "Haats') when exchange of goods and services
are carried out. This is another potential low cost distribution channel
available to the marketers. Also, every region consisting of several
villages is generally served by one satellite town (termed as "Mandis" or
Agri-markets) where people prefer to go to buy their durable commodities.

If marketing managers use these feeder towns, they will easily be able to
cover a large section of the rural population.

Promotional Strategy

Firms must be very careful in choosing the vehicle to be used for

communication. Only 16% of the rural population has access to a
vernacular newspaper. Instead one has to rely upon influencing opinionleaders and retailers in mandi-towns; also, audio-visual media and product
demos can be planned to convey a right message to the rural folk. The
rich, traditional media forms like folk dances, puppet shows, etc., with
which the rural consumers are familiar and comfortable, can be used for
high impact product campaigns.

Some Live Examples

One very fine example can be quoted of Escorts where they focused on
deeper penetration. They did not rely on TV or press advertisements, but
rather concentrated on focused approach depending on geographical and
market parameters like fairs/melas, mobile nautanki/ comedian shows,
etc. Looking at the 'kuchha' roads of village, they positioned their bike as
tough vehicle. Their advertisements showed Dharmendra riding Escort
with the punch line 'Jaandar Sawari, Shandar Sawari'. It helped them
achieve whopping sales of 95000 vehicles annually.
HLL started 'Operation Bharat' to tap the rural markets. Under this
operation, it passed out low-priced sample packets of its toothpaste,
fairness cream, Clinic-Plus shampoo, and Ponds cream to twenty million
ITC is setting up e-Choupals, which offers the farmers all the information,
products and services they need to enhance farm productivity, improve
farm-gate price realization and cut transaction costs. Farmers can access
latest local and global information on weather, scientific farming practices
as well as market prices at the village itself through this web portal - all in
Hindi. It also facilitates supply of high quality farm inputs as well as
purchase of commodities at their doorstep.

BPCL introduced Rural Marketing Vehicle (RMV) as their strategy for rural
marketing. It moves from village to village and fills cylinders on the spot
for the rural customers. BPCL considered low-income of rural population,
and therefore introduced a smaller size cylinder to reduce both the initial
deposit cost as well as the recurring refill cost.

Q5. Relate Networking with marketing, with examples.

Network- marketing is a business model that relies on a network of

distributors to grow a business. Network marketing typically involves
using three basic types of systematic strategies to make money:

Lead Generation: To locate new prospects;

Recruiting: Adding customers and/or business partners to your
network; and
Building and Management: Methods you use to train, motivate, and
manage your recruits.
There are many types of network marketing including two-tier programs
and multi-level marketing, but many of the more solid marketing
companies, like Avon, are single-tier

Single-Tier Network Marketing:

You sign up with an affiliate program to sell their product or service.

You do not need to recruit other distributors and are only paid if you make
a direct sale. Avon, is a company that uses single-tier networking

In some online affiliate programs you are only paid for traffic you
have referred to the affiliate's website. Pay-per-click (PPC) and pay-perlead (PPL) affiliate programs are other examples of single-tier networking.

Two-Tier Network Marketing:

This term applies to network marketing that pays you for direct sales (or
traffic you refer to a website) and for direct sales or referred traffic made
by affiliates or distributors you recruit to work under you. An example of a
two-tier program is Ken Envoy's Site Sell.

Multi-Level Marketing (MLM):

Is a distribution-based marketing network that is two or more tiers "deep?"

Some MLM programs allow you to make money five or more tiers deep.
Examples of MLM businesses include The Trump Network, Magnetic
Sponsoring, and Amway.

Q6. Name and explain a branding model.

The Aaker Model, created by David A. Aaker, a marketing professor at the
University of California-Berkeley and a management consultant at
Prophet, is a marketing model which views brand equity as a combination
of brand awareness, brand loyalty and brand associations, which add up
to give the value provided by a product or service. For Aaker, brand
management starts with developing a brand identity, which is a unique
set of brand associations representing what the brand stands for and
offers to customers an aspiring brand image.

Aaker primarily sees brand identity as consisting of 8-12 elements which

fall under four perspectives:
a) Brand as Product - consists of product scope, product attributes, quality
or value of the product, uses, users and country of origin.
b) Brand as Organisation - consists of organizational attributes, local
workings versus global activities.
c) Brand as Person - consists of brand personality and customer-brand
d) Brand as Symbol - consists of audio and visual imagery, metaphorical
symbols and brand heritage.
The purpose of the Aaker Model is to help in creating a brand strategy
consisting of different brand elements or patterns, so as to clarify, enrich
and differentiate a brand from its competitors. An organization carefully
employs several of these elements to communicate to the consumers
what their brand stands for.

Q7. What are B2B sales? What is the most critical part of B2B?
Which is more difficult B2B or B2C? Difference between B2B and
B2C? How would you connect the FMCG to B2B?
B2B is short for business to business. It indicates sales made to other
businesses, rather than sales to individuals. The latter is referred to as
business to consumer sales.B2B sales often take the form of one
company selling supplies or components to another. For example, a tyre
manufacturer sells to a car manufacturer. Wholesalers often sell their
products to retailers, who then turn around and sell them to consumers.
Supermarkets are a classic example: they buy food from wholesalers and
then sell it at a slightly higher price to individuals. Business-to-business
sales can also include services. Attorneys who take cases for business
clients, accountant firms that help companies do their taxes, and technical
consultants who set up networks and email are all examples of B2B
service providers.
A key part of B2B Marketing is associated with managing the
relationships that can develop between organizations and the people who
represent them. Managing customers is vitally important, and one task is
to identify and manage those customers that are important to the success
of the organization. This is referred to as Key Account Management.

B2B Marketing is more difficult as compared to B2C because the

customers of B2B are difficult to convert as they are experienced and do a
lot of information processing and evaluation.
B2B Marketing is fundamentally different from consumer goods or services
marketing because organizational buyers do not consume the products
and services themselves organizations, not individual people, undertake
the act of purchase.
Connecting FMCG to B2B: the business to business (B2B) side of FMCG
sales is probably the most important. People who focus on this area tend
to arrange and attend meetings with the buying department of retail
companies, showcase their products and try to convince clients to order
their products in bulk.

Q8. Why SWOT analysis is used?

Uses of SWOT analysis
A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis
looks at internal and external factors that can affect business. Internal
factors are the strengths and weaknesses. External factors are the threats
and opportunities
Strategic planning, brainstorming and decision making
A SWOT analysis is a useful tool for brainstorming and strategic planning.
SWOT analysis gives more value if conducted it with a specific objective or
question in mind. For example SWOT analysis helps to decide how one
take advantage of a new business opportunity
respond to new trends
implement new technology
deal with changes to competitors' operations.
building on strengths
A SWOT analysis helps to identify areas of business that are performing
well. Identifying these strengths can help make sure one maintains them
so as not to lose the competitive advantage. Growing the business
involves finding ways of using and building on these strengths.
Minimising weaknesses
Weaknesses are the characteristics that put business at a disadvantage to
others. Conducting a SWOT analysis can help identify these characteristics
and minimise or improve them before they become a problem. When

conducting a SWOT analysis, it is important to be realistic about the

weaknesses in business so as to deal with them adequately.
Seizing opportunities
A SWOT analysis can help to identify opportunities that a business could
take advantage of to make greater profits. Opportunities are created by
external factors, such as new consumer trends and changes in the market.
Conducting a SWOT analysis will helps understand the internal factors
(businesss strengths and weaknesses) that will influence the ability to
take advantage of a new opportunity. If business doesn't have the
capability to seize an opportunity but decides to anyway, it could be
damaging. Similarly, if it has the capability to seize an opportunity and
don't, it could also be damaging.
Counteracting threats
Threats are external factors that could cause problems for business, such
as changes to the market, a competitor's new advertising campaign, or
new government policy. A SWOT analysis can help identify threats and
ways to counteract them, depending on the strengths and weaknesses.
Addressing individual issues: SWOT analysis can be done to address
individual issues, such as:
staffing issues
business culture and image
organisational structure
financial resources
operational efficiency.
When conducting an individual SWOT analysis, it should be kept in mind
that a strength for one issue might be a weakness for another.

Q9: How should a new product be launched in the market?

Step 1: Conduct market research. Learn who is using the product, who will
buy it and to whom is it beneficial?
Step 2: Conduct competitive analysis. Evaluate how your product differs or
compares to current product offerings and determine the ways in which
your product/company excels. Identify the reasons customers purchase
elsewhere and the ways that you can entice them to purchase your new
product instead.

Step 3: Determine your marketing strategy and test it with focus groups to
determine their response to your promotions. Most successful product
launches involve marketing of many types. Online promotions,
radio/television spots, and email solicitations can all lead a visitor to your
website to learn more about the new product and other product offerings.
Step 4: Create a public relations program. Ideas include allowing the press
to review your product, writing articles to send to public media, giving
interviews, and holding a launch event. The more opportunities you have
to present your product to the target market, the more people will know
the product and become interested in purchasing it.
Step 5: Evaluate the readiness of the launch to make sure the overall
timing is coordinated and the product is absolutely ready when it is
Step 6: Create a timeline in the marketing plan and follow up regularly to
ensure that everyone involved is on schedule.
Step 7: Train your customer service department fully so that employees
can effectively sell the product. The minute the product is available for
purchase, your sales staff should be fully knowledgeable about the
product and ready to sell it.

Q10. What is the difference between fashion and fad?

Fashion and Fad are interestingly intertwined. Usually a fashion and a
fad are considered the same thing but they have some differences. The
differences between a fashion and a fad can be understood by the
following information.
Most importantly, fashion is something which is always present. It keeps
changing, it keeps transforming, it keeps adapting itself to the changing
society, changing times, and changing industries. Whereas a fad is a
short-term trend; it does not change, it just vanishes after a time or fades
away. Once a fad fades, another one might become popular.
The word fashionable is used for people who keep up with whatever
the present fashion is and adapt it to suit their personal style. A fad,
however, is a special type of fashion in a particular span of time. It might
stay only for a very short period of time, but everybody wants to follow it.
Most of the general population of a particular society follows a particular
kind of fashion which is short lived. This is a fad.
Fashion and fad are both seen in many aspects of life; clothing,
accessories, music, dance, etc. Fashion, in general, is basically linked to
clothes and accessories and shoes or footwear, but fads are linked to
many things like a particular behaviour, a particular fashion of clothing,

music, dance moves, food. Fads usually arise and are driven by a desire to
be a part of something, to be a part of a group. It is followed collectively.
Fashion and fads have been seen to have an impact on society. The
society impacts them and they impact the society. For example, the
hippies started as a fad. People wanted to follow the movement to rebel
against the general norms and to belong to a particular group of people
who were rebelling against it. It affected the society for many years;
changed the outlook of people; changed the way people dressed and
thought and behaved. But being a fad it did fade away. Fashion, however,
evolves. For example, gowns for ladies, cocktail dresses for ladies, buttondown shirts for men, these will always exist while humanity exists, but
they will keep evolving. They will keep adapting to the changing times
depending upon comfort, industry, and textiles that are being developed.
1. Fashion is ever present. It might evolve or adapt, but it is always there.
A fad, on the other hand, fades away quickly.
2. Fashion is followed by many selected people in the society. It might be
shown by people related to movies or television or the fashion world. A fad
is followed by a huge portion of the society. Everybody and anybody
follows a fad.
3. Fashion is mainly used in reference to clothes, accessories, footwear,
makeup, and hairstyles; whereas a fad can be of clothes, music,
behaviour, food, and dance movements, and many others.
4. Fashion depends upon the society, how the society has evolved, which
industries have developed in the past years and developing in the future,
what the changing lifestyle of people are demanding, comfort, and
weather. A fad is just a type of fashion for a very short time.

Q 11. What is the difference between product and brand?

Product is a generic descriptor of a physical item, whereas, a brand is
the specific name of the product that is used for marketing
communication by brand owners or their authorized channel partners. An
individual product may have multiple manufacturers and multiple brands.

Companies Make Products and Consumers Make Brands

A product is made by a company and can be purchased by a consumer in
exchange for money while brands are built through consumer perceptions,
expectations, and experiences with all products or services under a brand
umbrella. For example, Toyotas product is a car. Its umbrella brand is
Toyota and each product has its own more specific sub-brand name that

distinguisheseach product lines from one another. Without a product,

there wont be a brand.

Products Can Be Copied and Replaced but Brands Are Unique

A product can be copied by competitors at any time. When Amazon
launched the Kindle e-reader device, it didnt take long for competitors to
come out with their own branded versions of an e-reader product.
However, the brand associated with each e-reader device offers unique
value based on the perceptions, expectations, and emotions that
consumers develop for those brands through previous experiences with
them. Similarly, a product can be replaced with a competitors product if
consumers believe the two products offer the same features and benefits.
Products with low emotional involvement are typically easily replaced. For
example, do you really care what brand of milk you buy or do you
primarily just care that the milk you buy is fresh and includes the fat
percentage that you want?

Products Can Become Obsolete but Brands Can Be Timeless

Remember VHS players? With the introduction of DVD players and more
recently DVR devices and streaming video services, VHS players have
become obsolete. The same thing happened to 8-track tapes, vinyl
records, cassettes, and CDs. Today, most people buy their music in digital
format and listen to it on their portable digital music-players. The Elvis
Presley brand is timeless, but no one buys Elvis music on cassettes

Products Are Instantly Meaningful but Brands Become Meaningful over

When you launch a new product, its easy to make that product instantly
meaningful and useful to consumers because it serves a specific function
for them. However, a brand is meaningless until consumers have a chance
to experience it, build trust with it, and believe in it. Thats why the 3
steps to brand building include consistency, persistence, and restraint. It
takes time and effort to convince consumers to believe in your brand.
Consider Google as an example. When Google first hit the Internet scene
it offered a simple product a search engine. That product was instantly
meaningful to consumers because it helped them find information online
quickly. However, the Google brand didnt become meaningful to
consumers until people had a chance to use the Google search engine
product and see for themselves that it really was a better search engine.
Through those experiences, consumers began to trust that the Google

brand could deliver faster and better information online. Today, when
Google launches a new product (like Google+ recently), people are quick
to try those products because they trust the Google brand.

Q12. What are the advantages of Internet Marketing?

a) Convenience
Internet marketing enables you to be open for business around the clock
without worrying about store opening hours or overtime payments for
staff. Offering your products on the Internet is also convenient for
customers. They can browse your online store at any time and place
orders when it is convenient for them.
b) Reach
By marketing on the Internet,one can overcome barriers of distance. You
can sell goods in any part of the country without setting up local outlets,
widening your target market. You can also build an export business
without opening a network of distributors in different countries. However,
if you want to sell internationally, you should use localization services to
ensure that your products are suitable for local markets and comply with
local business regulations. Localization services include translation and
product modification to reflect local market differences.

c) Lower Cost
Marketing products on the Internet costs less than traditional marketing
and selling through brick-and-mortar retailers. You do not have the
recurring costs of property rental and maintenance. You do not have to
purchase stock for display in a store. You can order stock in line with
demand, keeping your inventory costs low.
d) Personalization
Internet marketing enables you to personalize offers to customers by
building a profile of their purchasing history and preferences. By tracking
the web pages and product information that prospects visit, you can make
targeted offers that reflect their interests. The information available from
tracking website visits also provides data for planning cross-selling
campaigns so that you can increase the value of sales by customer.
e) Relationships
The Internet provides an important platform for building relationships with
customers and increasing customer retention levels. When a customer has
purchased a product from your online store, you can begin the relationship
by sending a follow-up email to confirm the transaction and thank the

customer. Emailing customers regularly with special, personalized offers

helps to maintain the relationship. You can also invite customers to submit
product reviews on your website, helping to build a sense of community.
f) Social
Internet marketing enables you to take advantage of the growing
importance of social media. An article on the Harvard Business School
Executive Education website highlighted the link between social
networking and online revenue growth. According to the article, a group of
consumers that responded most strongly to the influence of social
networks generated increased sales of around 5 percent. You can take
advantage of this type of influence by incorporating social networking
tools in your Internet marketing campaigns.

Q13. What are the key factors which affect the length of the
distribution channel?
Factors Pertaining to the Product
Keeping in view the nature, qualities and peculiarities of the
product, could only the channel for distribution be properly made.
The following factors concerning the product, affect the selection of
the channel of distribution:
(1) Price of the Product.
The products of a lower price have a long chain of distributors.
As against it, the products having higher price have a smaller
chain. Very often, the producer himself has to sell the products
to the consumers directly.
(2) Perishability
The products which are of a perishable nature need lesser
number of the intermediaries or agents for their sale. Under this
very rule, most of the eatables (food items), and the bakery
items are distributed only by the retail sellers.
(3) Size and Weight.
The size and weight of the products too affect the selection of
the middlemen. Generally, heavy industrial goods are distributed
by the producers themselves to the industrial consumers.
(4) Technical Nature.
Some products are of the nature that prior to their selling, the
consumer is required to be given proper instructions with regard
to its consumption. In such a case less of the middlemen arc)
required to be used.
(5) Goods Made to Order.
The products that are manufactured as per the orders of the
customers could be sold directly and the standardized items
could be sold off only by the middlemen.
(6) After-Sales Service.

The products regarding which the after-sales service is to be

provided could be sold off either personally or through the
authorized agents.
Factors Pertaining to the Consumer or Market
The following are the main elements concerned with the consumer
or the market:
(1) Number of Customers.
If the number of customers is large, definitely the services of the
middlemen will have to be sought for. As against it, the products
whose customers are less in number are distributed by the
manufacturer himself.
(2) Expansion of the Consumers. The span over which are the
customers of any commodity spread over, also affects the
selection of the channel of distribution. When the consumers are
spread through a small or limited sphere, the product is
distributed by the producer himself or his agent. As against it,
the goods whose distributors are spread throughout the whole
country, for such distributors, services of wholesaler and the
retailer are sought.
(3) Size of the Order. When bulk supply orders are received from
the consumers, the producer himself takes up the responsibility
for the supply of these goods. If the orders are received piecemeal or in smaller quantities, for it the services of the wholesaler
could be sought. In this way, the size of the order also influences
the selection of the channel of the distribution.
(4) Objective of Purchase. If the product is being purchased for the
industrial use; its direct sale is proper or justified. As against it, if
the products are being purchased for the general consumption,
the products reach the consumers after passing innumerable
(5) Need of the Credit Facilities. If, for the sale of any product, it
becomes necessary to grant credit to any customer, it shall he
helpful for the producer that for its distribution, the services of
the wholesaler and retailer businessmen be sought. In this way,
the need of the credit facilities too influences the selection of the
channel of distribution.

Short Answers Based On Marketing Facts:

Q14. What is primary and secondary research?
Market research can be either primary or secondary. Primary research is
new research, carried out to answer specific issues or questions. It can
involve questionnaires, surveys or interviews with individuals or small
groups. Secondary research makes use of information previously
researched for other purposes and publicly available. This is also known as
'desk research'. Secondary research includes published research reports in
a library, surveys or the Internet.

Q15. Difference between marketing and selling?

Marketing activities include consumer research (to identify the needs of
the customers), product development (designing innovative products to
meet existing or latent needs), advertising the products to raise
awareness and build the brand. The typical goal of marketing is to
generate interest in the product and create leads or prospects. On the
other hand, sales activities are focused on converting prospects to actual
paying customers. Sales involves directly interacting with the prospects to
persuade them to purchase the product. Marketing thus tends to focus on
the general population (or, in any case, a large set of people) whereas
sales tends to focus on individuals or a small group of prospects.

Q16. What does the FMCG sector contribute to the GDP of the
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) goods are popularly named as
consumer packaged goods. Items in this category include all consumables
(other than groceries/pulses) people buy at regular intervals. The most
common in the list are toilet soaps, detergents, shampoos, toothpaste,
shaving products, shoe polish, packaged foodstuff, and household
accessories and extends to certain electronic goods. These items are
meant for daily of frequent consumption and have a high return.
Contribution of retail sector to the GDP of India: Retail industry is one of
the pillars of Indian economy and accounts for 1415% of its GDP- ("The
Uneasy Compromise Indian Retail". The Wall Street Journal, Anand
Dikshit (12 August 2011).)

Q17. While plotting BCG Matrix, what do we take on X&Y axis and
X-Axis: Relative market share
Y-Axis: Market growth rate (over previous year for the company)
Calculating the Market growth rate comprises of both industry growth and
product growth rate thereby giving a fair knowledge of where the
product / SBU (strategic business unit) stands in comparison to the
Industry. Market share, on the other hand, is determined as the ratio
between own and cumulative market size of all brands in the market. Thus
when we consider growth rate and market share together, it automatically
gives us an overview of the competition and the industry standards as
well as an idea of what the future might bring for the product.

Q18. Is it always necessary that 'growth stage' will come after

'introductory stage'?
Yes, the growth stage always comes after introductory stage but, the
duration of each stage of the PLC varies by product category type. For
some products the introductory stage may last for a longer duration and
for some products it may be shorter.

Q19. Can time be used as a segmentation tool?

Yes, time can be used as a segmentation tool. For example Kelloggs
introduced its cornflakes in Japan using the slogan that it is best suited for
breakfast time.

Q20. How does the branding exercise help reduce a high

involvement product to a low involvement product?
For high involvement products customers do an extensive search and
evaluation for alternatives. But, if any brand has established itself as the
market leader providing the best quality at a reasonable price the need for
searching for alternatives will be low. Therefore, we can say that branding
exercise can help reduce a high involvement product to a low
involvement product.

Q21. Aquaguard fulfils which need in the Maslows need

hierarchy? Safety Needs.

Q22. What starts first selling or marketing?

Marketing starts first, as marketing includes designing the product,
determining the price, finding the place and promoting the product.
Selling starts after these Ps of the marketing are finalised.

Q23. Why cant a consumer durable company have as long a

channel network as FMCG companies?
The FMCG products need to be available in all the markets, local grocery
shops, supermarkets and every small shops where the competitors
products are available. Moreover the FMCG products availability should be
very convenient to the customers as these are low involvement products
and customers purchase them as per their reach and convenience, for this
purpose the marketers should ensure wide availability of their products
through agents, wholesalers, retailers and distributors. Whereas consumer
durable company needs to make their presence in high streets and malls

as these are high involvement products and customers prefer buying

these items from big showrooms, from retailers who will take the trouble
of explaining the pros and cons of options, and they do not look for
convenient location of the shop. For this reason, consumer durable
products does not need to have as long a distribution channel as FMCG
Q24. Normally FMCG companies offer lesser intermediary margins
as compared to durables. Why?
The FMCG companies have longer distribution channel than the consumer
durables company and at each level of the distribution channel the
commissions need to be paid. This is the reason that in case of the FMCG
the intermediaries are more in number and the intermediary margin gets
divided among them and in the consumer durable company lesser
intermediaries are involved so the intermediary margin paid is high.
Q25. Advertising is different from publicity? Are both of them
different from promotion?
Yes, advertising and publicity are two different promotional mix out of the
seven promotional mix any company has.
An advertisement is a communications tool which is used to make people
patronize a product while publicity is a communications tool which
manages peoples impressions about a subject.
An advertisement is a paid promotion while publicity is free; an individual
or company only has to spend funds on the materials needed.
In an advertisement, the company can dictate how the information about
it is presented including the content while in publicity, the company has
no control over how it is shown if at all.
Since it comes from a third party, publicity is viewed as more credible by
most consumers in contrast to an advertisement which comes directly
from the company.
Q26. When a consumer buys a Monalisa Painting, how does
he/she consume it?
Consumer is the person who is the end-user of any product. So, if a person
buys a Monalisa painting it is supposed to be consumed (used) when the
customer decorates the walls with that painting.

Q27. If all brands become homogeneous, would marketing be

Yes, it marketing would be required as marketing is not only about
branding it is about designing a proper product, price, and place and
promotion strategy.

Q28. Which environmental variables shows effect on marketing

All the macro- environmental or the uncontrollable environmental factors
show effect on marketing plan. These are: demographic, cultural,
technological, economical, competitors, Geographical, political and legal
environmental factors.
Q29. What is sampling? Why is it done?
Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined
number of observations will be taken from a larger population. The
methodology used to sample from a larger population will depend on the
type of analysis being performed, but will include simple random
sampling, systematic sampling and observational sampling.
The sample should be a representation of the general population.
Sampling is done because it is not possible to take observations from the
whole population.
Q30. What is segmentation? How does it help? Do all companies
need to do it? Even when they have large resources?
Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a
broad target market into sub-sets of consumers who have common needs,
and then designing and implementing strategies to target their needs and
desires using media channels and other touch-points that best allow
reaching them.
It is recommended that all companies do segmentation, even if they have
larger resources as it helps them understand their customers needs and
wants and serve them with the customised products and services.
Moreover a segmentation based approach helps the marketers to have a
focussed approach in formulating all of their strategies.
Q31. What is positioning? How is it done? Does it really help in
real life?
Product positioning" is a marketing technique intended to present
products in the best possible light to different target audiences. The
method is related to "market segmentation" in that an early step in major
marketing campaigns is to discover the core market most likely to buy a
productor the bulk of the product. Once segmentation has defined this
group the positioning of the product consists of creating the message
likely to reach this group. Positioning involves symbol and message
manipulation, including displays and packaging.
Positioning is not what you do to a product. Positioning is what you do to
the mind of the prospect. That is, you position the product in the mind of
the prospect.
Generally, the product positioning process involves:-

Defining the market in which the product or brand will

compete (who the relevant buyers are)
Identifying the attributes (or dimensions) that define the
product 'space'
Collecting information from a sample of customers about their
perceptions of each product on the relevant attributes
Determine each product's share of mind
Determine each product's current location in the product
Determine the target market's preferred combination of
attributes (referred to as an ideal vector)
Examine the fit between the product and the market.
Positioning helps in real life as, if the marketer has
successfully positioned its product then the product gets a
unique and distinctive image among its competitors and the
customers can easily correlate that a particular product will
fulfil their which type of need.

Q32. Which is more effective: Advertising or Personal Selling?

Personal selling is more effective because it involves a face-to-face
interaction with the customer which enables the sales-person to better
explain about the product and better understand the customer. It is a
focussed and targeted approach whereas, advertising gives message to
mass market.
Q33. When we sell insurance, is it a product or a service?
Insurance comes in the service industry.
Q34. What is essential in selling?
o Searching for prospects
o Deciding how to allocate their time between prospects and
o Communicating information about the companys products and
o Servicing
o Information gathering
Q35. Sales force strategy in the introduction, growth, maturity
and decline stages of PLC.
Introduction: Create awareness and generate quick product uptake.
Growth: Penetrate deeper into existing segments and develop new

Maturity: Focus on efficiently serving and retaining existing

Decline: Emphasize efficiency, protect critical customer

Questions based On Important Marketing Definitions

Q36. What is comparative analysis?
The item-by-item comparison of two or more comparable alternatives,
processes, products, qualifications, sets of data, systems, or the like.
Example: Analysis done by realtors to assess a property's value by
examining similar properties that have sold within the past year. A
comparative market analysis may be done for both buyers and sellers.
Buyers will want to know how much other homes sold for to ensure that
the price is fair and sellers want to make sure that they set their selling
price at the right level.

Q37. What is Brand Management & Brand Recall?

Brand management
Is a marketing function that includes analysis and planning on how that
brand is positioned in the market, which target public the brand is
targeted at, and maintaining a desired reputation of the brand.
Developing a good relationship with target public is essential for brand
management. Tangible elements of brand management include the
product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are
the experience that the consumer takes away from the brand, and also
the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand manager would
oversee all of these things. The KRAs of Brand managers are market
share, volume/ value growth, profitability.
Brand Recall
A marketing research test conducted by a company to understand How
many people recall the companys product brand name, when placed
among various other companies products?

Q38. Define market and market-place?

Economists describe a market as a collection of buyers and sellers who
transact over a particular product or product class (such as the housing
market or the grain market). Whereas, a marketplace is physical, such as
a store you shop in.

Q39. What is Brand Equity?

Brand equity is a phrase used in the marketing industry which describes
the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the idea that the
owner of a well-known brand name can generate more money from
products with that brand name than from products with a less well-known
name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-known name is
better than products with less well-known names.

Q40. What do you understand by societal-marketing concept?

A marketing idea that emphasizes social responsibility and aims to provide
value to customers while sustaining and even benefiting both their and
society's well-being. Using the societal concept of marketing often helps a
business ethically improve their image with customers, shareholders and
the general public.

Q41. What is the difference between customer and consumer?

Customer is the person who buys any product (for either re-sale or enduse), while a Consumer is the person who actually uses the product. In
some cases the customer and the consumer may be the same person and
if any person buys something for somebody else then the person who is
buying will be the customer and the person who uses the product will be
the consumer.
Q42. What is customer lifetime value?
Recognition by the company of the potential sales, profits and
endorsements that come from a repeat customer who stays with the
company for several years
Q43. What is e-marketing?
E-marketing means using digital technologies to help sell your goods or
services. These technologies are a valuable complement to traditional
marketing methods whatever the size of your company or your business
The basics of marketing remain the same creating a strategy to deliver
the right messages to the right people. What has changed is the number
of options you have. Though businesses will continue to make use of
traditional marketing methods, such as advertising, direct mail and PR, emarketing adds a whole new element to the marketing mix. Many
businesses are producing great results with e-marketing and its flexible
and cost-effective nature makes it particularly suitable for small

Q44. What is Product category?

It is the specific generic to which a good or service belongs; for example,
while Fanta is a brand name, the product category to which it belongs is
soft drinks.
Q45. What is Product mix?
It is the variety of distinct product lines and items manufactured or
distributed by an organisation or company.
Q46. What is Promotion mix?
It is the range of means available to an organisation for communication
with its target market. These may be advertising, sales promotion,
personal selling, publicity, sponsorship and public relations.
Q47. What is marketing mix?
Marketing Mix are the major controllable variables i.e. product, price,
promotion and place (distribution) - that the firm blends to produce the
desired market response they are also called the Four Ps of marketing.
Q48. What is Targeting?
Targeting is selection of potential customers to whom a business wishes to
sell products or services. The targeting strategy involves segmenting the
market, choosing which segments of the market are appropriate, and
determining the products that will be offered in each segment. A business
offering multiple products can determine if the various segments should
receive one generic product (such as in mass marketing), or if each
segment should receive a customized product (multi-segment), based
upon the market's diversity, maturity, the level of competition and the
volume of sales expected.
Q49. What is Predatory Pricing?
Predatory Pricing is a pricing practice by which a company hopes to inhibit
or eliminate competition by charging lower than normal prices for its
products in certain geographic regions.
Q50. What is market skimming?
Market Skimming is a pricing approach in which the producer sets a high
introductory price to attract buyers with a strong desire for the product
and the resources to buy it, and then gradually reduces the price to
attract the next and subsequent layers of the market.

Q51. What is PR?

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information
between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations
may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their
audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not
require direct payment. The aim of public relations by a company often is
to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees, and other
stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about it, its leadership,
products, or of political decisions. Common activities include speaking at
conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press, and
employee communication.
Q52. What is CSR?
Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate conscience,
corporate citizenship, social performance, or sustainable responsible
business/ Responsible Business) is a form of corporate self-regulation
integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, selfregulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active
compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international
norms. In some models, a firm's implementation of CSR goes beyond
compliance and engages in "actions that appear to further some social
good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law."
CSR is a process with the aim to embrace responsibility for the company's
actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the
environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all
other members of the public sphere who may also be considered as
Q53. What is direct marketing?
Also known as desk-to-desk marketing direct Marketing is a form of
business-to business selling in which firms purchase and use computer
databases to locate potential customers; typically, the databases are
compiled by list brokers and are organised according to business type,
sales revenue, number of employees, location and telephone area code.
Q54. What is STP?
STP stands for segmenting, targeting and positioning. Explained in the
above answers.
Q55. What is viral marketing?
Viral marketing, viral advertising, or marketing buzz are buzzwords
referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking
services and other technologies to produce increases in brand awareness
or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through
self-replicating viral processes. It can be delivered by word of mouth or

enhanced by the network effects of the Internet and mobile networks. The
ultimate goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral
marketing programs is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals
with high social networking potential (SNP) and that have a high
probability of being presented and spread by these individuals and their
competitors in their communications with others in a short period of time.
Q56. What is guerrilla marketing?
Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy in which low-cost
unconventional means (graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs) are used,
often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey
or promote a product or an idea. The term guerrilla marketing is easily
traced to guerrilla warfare which utilizes atypical tactics to achieve a goal
in a competitive and unforgiving environment.
Q57. What do you understand by market research?
Market research is the systematic gathering of information about a market
by means of survey, observation or experimentation.
Q58. What is sales forecasting?
Sales Forecast is an estimation of the likely volume of sales, measured in
dollars and units, for a future planning period; typically, sales forecasting
is done on the basis of past trends, sales force estimations, survey of
consumer buying intentions, managerial judgement, or quantitative
Q59. What is difference between need and want?
Need is innate feelings of deprivation in a person and the need turns into
want when it becomes product specific.
Q60. What is PEST analysis?
PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social and Technological analysis)
describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the
environmental scanning component of strategic management.
Q61. What is Sales Plan?
Sales plan is the assessment of the current situation in a sales region, the
setting of objectives, the formulation of strategies and tactics, and the
establishment of control and evaluation procedures.
Q62. What is Sales Budget?
A sales budget is a detailed schedule showing the expected sales for the
budget period; typically, it is expressed in both monetary terms and units

of production. An accurate sales budget is the key to the entire budgeting

in some way. The sales budget will help determine how many units will
have to be produced. Thus, the production budget is prepared after the
sales budget.
Q63. What is Quota?
Quota is the sales target assigned to a sales-person for their allocated
territory, generally for a period of one year.
Q64. What is Sales Promotion?
Sales Promotion is a form of promotion which encourages customers to
buy products by offering incentives, such as contests, coupons,
sweepstakes, samples, free gifts and so on.
It is one of the major elements of the promotion mix.
Q65. Differentiate between: personal selling and experiential
Personal Selling is a form of promotion utilising the services of a sales
team; one of the major controllable variables (with advertising, sales
promotion and publicity) of the promotion mix.
Experiential marketing is based on the entire experience a consumer has
with a product or service. While traditional marketing sells by pointing out
benefits and features, experiential marketing focuses on allowing the
consumer to try the service or product for himself. Experiential marketers
control the environment in which this happens to some degree, but they
want the consumer to make his own judgments about the product or
Q66. Difference between guarantee and warranty?
Guarantee is a written assurance by the manufacturer that a product will
be replaced or repaired to the customer's satisfaction if it is found to be
defective or does not perform as intended.
Warranty is a guarantee by a manufacturer that a product will be repaired
or replaced or the purchase price refunded if it is found to be defective
within a specified period, if it does not perform the task for which it was
intended or if it does not meet the purchaser's reasonable expectations.
Q67. What is product-line, length of product line, depth of
product line and width of product line?
Product line is a group of products that are closely related in terms of their
functions and benefits they provide. The depth of the product line is
number of variants offered within the product line. Product Line Length is

the number of different products in a product line. The width of product

line is the number of product lines in an organisation.
Q68. Cluster Analysis in Market Research?
Clustering of similar brands or products according to theircharacteristics
allow one to identify competitors, potentialmarket opportunities and
available niches.