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University of Malaya

KEEE 2142
Introduction to Communication System
Dr.Harikrishnan
Department of Electrical Engineering
e-mail: hrkhari@um.edu.my

Angle Modulation


Considering the carrier voltage:

x C ( t ) = V ( t ) cos ( t )

where

V(t)

= Peak carrier amplitude

(t)

= Instantaneous phase deviation (radians)

(1)

Angle modulation is said to occur when the angle (t) is caused to vary by an amount
determined by the instantaneous amplitudes of the modulating signal m(t).
The commonly encountered forms of angle modulation are phase modulation and frequency
modulation.
Phase modulation (PM) is said to occur when the deviation of the angle (t) from its
unmodulated value is caused to vary by an amount that is determined by the instantaneous
amplitudes of the modulating signal m(t) and the amplitude V(t) of the carrier remains constant.
Frequency modulation (FM) is said to occur when the deviation of the carrier frequency from its
unmodulated value fC is caused to vary by an amount that is determined by the instantaneous
amplitudes of the modulating signal m(t) and the amplitude of the carrier V(t) remains constant.

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Phase Modulation


The carrier voltage in phase modulation is represented by:

x C ( t ) = A C cos ( t ) = A C cos C t + ( t )

(2)

where (t)= instantaneous phase in radians:

( t ) = C t + ( t ) = instantaneous angle ( radians )




In PM, the instantaneous phase deviation of the carrier from its unmodulated phase (t), is
directly proportional to the instantaneous amplitudes of the modulating signal m(t). Thus,

( t ) = ( 0) + k Pm ( t )

(3)

where kP is a phase deviation constant in radians per unit amplitude of m(t) and its value is
determined by the design of the phase modulator used. If m(t) is represented by its various
spectral components, then

m ( t ) = A1m n1 ( t ) + A 2 m n 2 ( t ) + = A k m nk ( t )
k

(4)

where the values of Ak are those amplitudes required to normalize each spectral component
and the mnk(t) are the normalized spectral components. Then,

( t ) = ( 0 ) + k P A1m n1 ( t ) + k P A 2 m n 2 ( t ) + ...
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(5)
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Phase Modulation (contd)


( t ) = ( 0 ) + 1m n1 ( t ) + 2 m n 2 ( t ) + ...
where 1=kPA1 and 2=kPA2, are the individual maximum phase deviations in radians
produced in the PM modulator by the components of m(t). It is usual to select a time scale that
(0)=0


Assuming that the normalized components of m(t) are given by:

m n1 ( t ) = sin 1t

m n 2 ( t ) = sin 2 t
:
:


:
:

Then, with (0)=0,

( t ) = C t + 1 sin 1 t + 2 sin 2 t + ...




When this expression is substituted in the carrier voltage and expanded, the spectrum of the
phase modulated signal is obtained. The accompanying change in the carrier frequency is
obtained as:

( t ) =
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d ( t )
= C + 11 cos 1t + 2 2 cos 2 t + ...
dt
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(6)
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Phase Modulation (contd)




Dividing the equation by 2:

f ( t ) = f C + f11 cos 1 t + f 2 2 cos 2 t + ...


= f C + f1 cos 1 t + f 2 cos 2 t + ...

(7)

where f1=f11, f2=f22, represent the individual maximum frequency deviation in hertz
produced in the PM modulator by the individual components m(t). Notice that each frequency
deviation varies directly with both the frequency and the amplitude of a modulating component

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Phase Modulation (contd)




Thus, the phase modulated signal can be expressed as:

x PM ( t ) = A cos C t + k P m ( t )

(8)

Example 1
The sinusoidal output from a 100 kHz crystal oscillator is phase modulated. The modulating signal is:

m ( t ) = 2sin1000t + sin 5000t V


The phase deviation constant of the phase modulator is kP=0.05 radian per volt of m(t). Calculate (a) the
individual maximum phase deviations in degrees produced by the phase modulator, (b) the individual
maximum frequency deviations in hertz produced by the components of m(t), (c) the total maximum
frequency deviation f produced by both modulating components together.
Example 2
A phase modulated signal is described by:

x PM ( t ) = 10 cos 2 (10 6 ) t + 0.1sin (10 3 ) t


Considering xPM(t) as a PM signal with kP=10, find m(t)
Example 3
Consider a phase modulated signal

x PM ( t ) = 10 cos (108 ) t + 5sin 2 (10 3 ) t


Find the maximum phase deviation.
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Frequency Modulation


In frequency modulation (FM), the instantaneous frequency deviation of the carrier from its
unmodulated value fC is directly proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating
signal m(t). Thus:

f ( t ) = fC + k f m ( t )

(9)

where kf is a frequency deviation constant in hertz per unit amplitude of m(t) and its value is
determined by the design of the frequency modulator used. If m(t) is represented by its spectral
components, then:

f ( t ) = f C + k f A1m n1 ( t ) + k f A 2 m n 2 ( t ) + ...

or, multiplying by 2

( t ) = C + 2f1m n1 ( t ) + 2f 2 m n 2 ( t ) + ...

where f1=kfA1, f2=kfA2, represent the maximum frequency deviations product produced in the
FM modulator by the individual components of m(t).


If the normalized components of m(t) for FM can be given by:

m n1 ( t ) = cos 1 ( t ) , m n 2 ( t ) = cos 2 ( t ) ,...

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Frequency Modulation (contd)


or,

( t ) = C + 1 cos 1 t + 2 cos 2 t + ...

Even though this is frequency modulation, there is an accompanying change in the carrier
phase that is obtained from:

( t ) = ( t ) dt

where the constant of integration has been chosen equal to zero for simplicity. Thus:

( t ) = 2f C + 2f1m n1 ( t ) + 2f 2 m n 2 ( t ) + ...dt
= 2f C t + 2f1 m n1 ( t ) dt + 2f 2 m n1 ( t ) dt + ... (10)
which for mn1(t) =cos 1t and mn2(t) = cos 2t , becomes

2f1
2f 2
sin 1t +
sin 2 t +
1
2
f1
f 2
= C t +
sin 1t +
sin 2 t +
f1
f2
= C t + 1 sin 1t + 2 sin 2 t +

( t ) = 2f C t +

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Frequency Modulation (contd)


where 1=f1/f1, 2=f2/f2, represent the maximum phase deviations produced in the FM
modulator by the individual components of m(t).


Thus, the frequency modulated signal can be expressed as:


t

x FM ( t ) = A cos C t + 2k f m ( t ) dt

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(11)

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Frequency Modulation (contd)


Example 4
The sinusoidal output of an 88.5 MHz oscillator is frequency modulated. The modulating voltage is:

m ( t ) = 2 cos1000t + cos 5000t V


the frequency deviation constant of the frequency modulator is 25 kHz per volt of m(t). Calculate.
a.

The individual maximum frequency deviations in kHz produced by the frequency modulator.

b.

The total maximum frequency deviation fmax in kHz produced by both modulating components
together

c.

The individual maximum phase deviations produced by the components of m(t).

d.

The total maximum phase deviation produced by both modulating components together.

Example 5
A frequency modulated signal is described by:

x FM ( t ) = 10 cos 2 (10 6 ) t + 0.1sin (103 ) t

Considering xFM(t) as a FM signal with kf=10, find m(t)


Example 6
Consider a frequency modulated signal

x FM ( t ) = 10 cos (108 ) t + 5sin 2 (10 3 ) t


Find the maximum frequency deviation.
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