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EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

FLUID MECHANICS II

COURSE CODE

MEC442/KJM492

EXAMINATION

APRIL 2009

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1

This question paper consists of six (6) questions

Answer any five (5) questions in the Answer Booklet Start each answer on a new page

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator

Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of


i)
n)
in)

the Question Paper


an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
a one - page Appendix 1

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
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EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 1
a)

For a flow in the x-y plane, the y component of velocity(u,v) is given by v = y2 -2x + 2y.
i)

Determine a possible x-component for steady incompressible flow,

ii)

Show that the answer is also valid for unsteady, incompressible flow.
(10 marks)

b)

Consider the velocity field


V = 0.25(x2 + 2xy) - 0.25fexy + y2)j

in the xy plane where x and y are in meters.

i)

Show that this is an incompressible flow field

ii)

Calculate the acceleration of a fluid particle at the location (x,y)=(2,1)


(10 marks)

QUESTION 2
a)

Determine the stream function for the velocity field

V = {x + 2y)i + (x2-y)j
(8 marks)
b)

A steady, two-dimensional, incompressible flow field in the x-y plane has the following
stream function:
y/ =ax2 + bxy + cy2

where a, b & c are constants.

i)

Obtain expressions for velocity components u and v.

ii)

Verify that the flow field satisfies the incompressibility continuity equation.

iii)

If a=b=c, locate the stagnation points, if any.


(12 marks)

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EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 3
The velocity profile in a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate may be modeled by a cubic
equation

-jj- = b0+bly + b2y2+b3y3


where u is the local velocity at perpendicular distance y from the wall and Us is the free stream
velocity.
a)

Explain why b0 and b2 equal zero and evaluate the constants bi and b3 in terms of the
boundary layer thickness, 8.
(6 marks)

b)

Show that the momentum thickness 9 =398/280


(6 marks)

c)

Evaluate the constant A in the expression

x V(RO
where x is the distance from the leading edge of the plate. You may assume without proof
that the friction factor is given by Cf=2(d6 / dx).
(8 marks)

QUESTION 4
a)

Show that in isentropic flow of a perfect gas the temperature and pressure are related to the
stagnation temperature and pressure by

Tn

(PA r
o

T ~

( r _-i)

= 1 + - M 2 where M is the Mach number and y is the ratio of specific


2

heats.
(8 marks)
b)

Air with a stagnation temperature of 450 K and a stagnation pressure of 1.6 bar enters a
convergent-divergent duct having exit area of 0.0028 m2 and throat area of 0.0025 m2. Find
the mass flow rate if the exit pressure is
i)

1.5 bar

ii) 0.9 bar


(Assume for air, y=1.4 and R=287 J/kgK)
(12 marks)
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EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

QUESTION 5
a)

For a radial flow turbine, based on angular momentum considerations and using the velocity
triangles, show how the energy transfer is related to absolute, relative and blade velocity
changes.
(8 marks)

b)

An inward radial flow reaction turbine is supplied with 0.8 m3/s of water under an effective
head of 15m. The runner is rotating at 320 rpm and its inner and outer diameters are 0.4 m
and 0.8 m respectively. The runner blade width at inlet is 0.1m and the blade inlet angle is
108 to the tangent to the runner. The flow is discharged radially from the runner to
atmospheric pressure. Given that the thickness of the blades at inlet to the runner is
negligible and the flow component of velocity is constant through the runner, calculate;
i)

the inlet guide vane angle for no shock loss in the runner,

ii)

the runner blade outlet angle and

iii)

the output shaft power available from the turbine if the mechanical efficiency is 90%.
(12 marks)

QUESTION 6
A layer of rain water of thickness h flows at a steady rate down a flat windscreen inclined at an
angle 8 to the horizontal. The air in contact with the free surface of the water layer is at
atmospheric pressure and the water flow rate is such that the air exerts a negligible drag force on
it.
a)

Show that for laminar flow of the layer of water the governing equation is:
d u

ju -
= -pg sin 0 where
2
dy

y is the perpendicular distance from the flat screen across the water layer thickness,
u is the water velocity at distance y,
\x. is the coefficient of absolute viscosity of water and
g is the acceleration due to gravity.
(6 marks)
Hence show that the velocity distribution in the layer of rain water is

u=^(2hy-y2)sin0
2/u
(6 marks)

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b)

EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

For water with absolute viscosity 10"3 kg/ms and density 1000 kg/m3 calculate;
i)

the flow rate of water required per unit width of wind screen to maintain a water layer
of thickness 5 mm when the plane of inclination is 45 degrees.
(6 marks)

ii)

the maximum velocity of the water in the layer under these conditions.
(2 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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EM/APR 2009/MEC442/KJM492

APPENDIX 1
FORMULA LIST

Equations of Motion in Cartesian Coordinate System.


/ dw
p

\lTt

du
+ M

\df

T"

du
+ V

du \
M

'T

-.2.

dp

I d'u

^ ~T

-.2.

d~u <f~u

P^ + M 7 ^ + T^ + 7T

dx

dv

dc/

rfJC

\djr

! y direction)
/r)f
dv
\5/
fix

dv
rh

dv\
dz)

dp
iiy

d~V
\dx~

2..

dv

rls ,

ctU
dy2

-,2.

d~V\
dz2 J

(z direction)
(dw

dw

dw

dw \

dp

( d2\v

d2w

d2w

\rlf

(a-

a,v

Sz/

dz

\dx2

By2

dz2/

Equations of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinate System.


Continuity:
r dr

r dv

az

Convective time derivative:


d . i
a ,
a
V V = v r ++ -y6V6
++ vvz

Tr ~r Te

*Tz

Laplacian operator:
_2
v

a /

d\ , l

a2

~7a7 a7 j + SW

, a2
+

a?

The r-momentum equation:

The ^-momentum equation:

The z-momentum equation:

Hak Cipta Universiti Tekonologi MARA

+(

y.VK-^*+

fc+^

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