Anda di halaman 1dari 36

Date: ______________

LAB 1 ORIENTATION TO MEASUREMENT IN EXCERCISE PHYSIOLOGY


A.

TERMINOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC UNIT OF MEASURE

1. Define
a. Exercise
Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured, and
repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the body.
Exercise is used to improve health, maintain fitness and is
important as a means of physical rehabilitation.
b. Exercise physiology
Exercise physiology is the study of how the body reacts to physical
exercise, in both the long and short term, and how the body adapts
to ongoing exercise and any changes to a routine.
c. Physical activity
Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by
skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.
d. Anaerobic
Exercise in which oxygen is used up more quickly than the body is
able to replenish it inside the working muscle.
e. Aerobic
Constant moderate intensity work that uses up oxygen at a rate in
which the cardio respiratory system can replenish oxygen in the
working muscles.
f.

Flexibility
A person's flexibility refers to the ability of your joints to move
through a full range of motion

g. Body composition
Body composition is the bodys relative amount of fat to fat-free
mass. Those with optimal body composition are typically healthier,
move more easily and efficiently, and in general, feel better than
those with less-than-ideal body composition.
h. Length & height
Length refer to measurement in one dimension (as in the length of a
line segment or a piece of string) and height when it used in
conjunction with base.
i.

Work and its equation


Activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve
a result

j.

Power and its equation


The ability or capacity to do something or act in a particular way

k. Energy
1

Date: ______________
The strength and vitality required for physical or mental activity or
power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources,
especially to provide light and heat or to work machines
2. What are the 3 energy systems?
(1) aerobic system
(2) anaerobic system
(3) glycolysis
3. What are the 3 scales that can be used to express temperature?
(1) Fahrenheit
(2) Celsius
(3) Kelvin
4. What is the difference between a laboratory test and a field test?
Field test research where need to go out and do by talking and listening to
individual to prove the disapprove theory or hypothesis while lab
experiment happens in the lab with animals and sometimes humans in a
controlled environment.
5. Calculate :
a. Mass/ weight:
97.2 kg = _________ lb
0.45kg = 1lb
97.2kg 0.45kg = 2.16 lb
b. Length/height:
8.2 km= _______ mile
1 km = 0.6213712 mile
8.2 km x 0.6213712 mile = 5.0952438 mile
c.

Force:
532 N=_________ lb
1 N = 0.224808942443 lb
532 N x 0.224808942443 lb = 119.598357379676 lb

d. Energy:
1982 J =_________ kcal
1 J = 0.000239005736 kcal
1987 J x 0.000239005736 kcal = 0.47370936902 kcal

e. Pressure:
659 mbar=_________ torr
1 mbar = 0.750061683 torr
659 mbar x 0.750061683 torr = 494.290649097 torr
f.

Temperature:
312 o F=_________ K
1 o F = 255.928 K
312 o F x 255.928 K = 79849.536 K
2

Date: ______________

g. Volume:
20.6 fl oz=__________ml
1 fl oz = 29.5725 ml
20.6 fl oz x 29.5725 ml = 609.1935 ml
h. Speed:
65 mph=__________ m.s -1
1 mph= 0.44704 m.s -1
65 mph x 0.44704 m.s -1 = 29.0576 m.s
i. Energy :
215 kcal=__________kJ
1 kcal = 4.184 kJ
215 kcal x 4.184 Kj = 899.56 Kj
j.

-1

Force:
51.5 kg=__________N
1 kg = 9.80665002864 N
51.5 kg x 9.80665002864 N = 505.04247647496 N

6. Calculate the power output if the performance of work in 1 min is 150 kpm
(or kgm)
Power = work time
Power = 150 60
Power = 2.5 kpm/s

7. Calculate work to be perform if 3kg mass moved over a 1 meter distance


Work = force x distance
3kg = 29.41995008592 N
Work = 29.41995008592 N x 1 m =29.41995008592 J

Date: ______________

B.

COLLECTION OF BASIC DATA AND SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT

Laboratory Data
Date (mm/dd/yy) ___________________
Room temperature ____________ oC

Time of day _______________


________ K

_________ oF

Yourself:
Age (y) : _________
Participant initials ___________
Race/ethnicity___________
Height (inch) : __________

Height

(cm)

Weight (lb) : ___________

Weight

(kg)

___________
___________
4

Date: ______________
BMI : _________

BMI

classification:

______________

BMI classification:

Source: NIH Publication no. 98-4083. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification,


Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence
Report. NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute); 1998.

C.

EVALUATION OF BODY COMPOSITION

Since obesity is a major health problem in our society, the capability to


monitor the average
individuals body composition is important from a preventive health standpoint.
The two-component model (fat mass and fat-free mass) is still widely used as
represented by the following commonly used techniques for assessing body
composition:
(a) hydrostatic weighing,
(b) skinfold measurement,and
(c) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
Another common method, body mass index (BMI; the ratio of body mass in
kg to height squared), while not technically estimating body composition, is
nevertheless an index of obesity. Each of these methods used to measure body
composition has advantages and disadvantages, with hydrostatic weighing still
generally accepted as the gold standard (Brown et al.,2006)
(i)

Skinfold
5

Date: ______________
Skinfold technique is a traditionally method that uses the callipers to
measure subcutaneous fat in the body. Before measuring, the participant
should wear loose-fitting shirts and shorts. The participant should stands
while all skindfold sites are measured.
Procedures:
1. Measure skinfolds on the persons right side.
2. Instruct the student to relax the arm or leg being measured.
3. Firmly grasp the skinfold between the thumb and forefinger and lift it
away from the other body tissue. The grasp should not be so firm as to
be pain-ful.
4. Place the calliper inch below the pinch site, be sure the calliper is in
the middle of the fold.
5. The recommended procedure is do one measurement at each site
before doing the second measurement at each site and finally the third
set of the measurements.

(a) Calliper
measurement

(b)

sites

for

skinfold

Equation to predict percentage body fat from skinfolds:


Population
Native
Japanese

Age

Variables

Equation

Comments

18-23

Tri +scap

Db=1.08970.00133(2Skf)

%Bf=[(4.76
Db)-4.28]100

18-27

Tri +scap

Women

Men

Db=
1.09130.00116(2Skf)

%Bf=[(4.97
Db)-5.52]100

Date: ______________
White
American

18-55

Women

Tri+iliac+t
high

Db= 1.09949210.0009929 (3skf) +


0.0000023 (3skf)2
0.0001392(age)

Chest+abd
o+ thight

Db=1.1093800.0008267 (3skf) +
0.0000016 (3skf)2
0.0002574 (age)

18-55
Men

%Bf=
[(5.01Db)
4.57]100

%Bf=[(4.95
Db)

4.50]100

Results:
Calculate your percentage of body fat

(ii)

Girth
Girths are circumference measures at standard anatomical sites
around the body, measured with a tape measure. Girth
measurements can be used in determining body size and
composition, and to monitor changes in these parameters

Date: ______________

(a) Myotape

(b) girth measurement

Procedure:
1. Based on your age range and gender determine the required three
measurement sites from the table above
2. Record the measurements in centimetres of these three sites (A, B, C)
Age
(year)

Sex

Site A

Site B

Site C

18-26

M
F

Right upper arm


Abdomen

Abdomen
Right thigh

27-50

M
F

Buttock
Abdomen

Abdomen
Right thigh

Right
forearm
Right
forearm
Right
forearm
Right calf

3. Calculate the fat percentage based on the chart given.


Results:

DISCUSSION:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8

Date: ______________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

D.

EXERCISE RISK ASSESSMENT AND PAR Q FORM

The physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) is a selfscreening tool that can be used by anyone who is planning to start an
exercise program. It is often used by fitness trainers or coaches to determine
the safety or possible risk of exercising for an individual based upon their
answers to specific health history questions. The PAR-Q was created by the
British Columbia Ministry of Health and the Multidisciplinary Board on
Exercise. This form was adopted directly from the ACSM Standards and
Guidelines for Health and Fitness Facilities.
Please complete the EXERCISE RISK ASSESSMENT and PAR Q FORM as
accurately and completely as possible.

LAB 2: STRENGTH TESTING


Strength tests are used for a variety of populations, from professional athletes to
recreational fitness enthusiasts. The main reasons for performing strength tests
are to evaluate initial strength levels and to assess changes in strength. Two
9

Date: ______________
basic types of strength tests have evolved: static and dynamic. In a static (or
isometric) test, a muscle exerts tension against a fixed, non-moving resistance.
In a dynamic (or isotonic) test, one or more body parts moves against a
resistance
A.

DYNAMIC STRENGTH

Dynamic strength is also referred as isotonic exercise. It is exercise that


consists of muscle action that are concentric or eccentric depending on
whether the muscle are shorten or lengthened. One of the most operational
of dynamic strength test is one repetition maximum (1 RM) test. 1 RM is the
maximum load that a person can lift only one time.
ONE MINUTE PUSH UP TEST:
Procedure:
a. Determined the push up position: elbows locked; hands about shoulder
width apart, flat against the ground; body parallel to the floor.
b. Lower yourself to the ground, touching your chest to it. Make sure you
maintain a tight, rigid body. Think of your legs, hips, and torso as if they
formed a cohesive plank or a straight line. Maintain that plank throughout
the exercise.
c. Push yourself back up, squeezing your pectoral muscles and completing
the full range of motion.
d. At the top, continue until your elbows are completely locked and your
shoulder blades are fully protracted.
e. Record the total number of correct push up in one minute as the score.
Recovery time is 5 minutes.
Test score:
Ratings for Men (Full Push ups), based on Age
20-29

30-39

40-49

Excellent

> 54

> 44

Good

45-54

35-44

30-39

25-34

20-29

Average

35-44

24-34

20-29

15-24

10-19

Poor

20-34

15-24

12-19

8-14

5-9

Very Poor

< 20

< 15

< 12

<8

<5

> 39

50-59
> 34

60+
> 29

Ratings for Women (Modified Push ups), based on Age


10

Date: ______________

20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60+

Excellent

>48

>39

>34

>29

>19

Good

34-48

25-39

20-34

15-29

5-19

Average

17-33

12-24

8-19

6-14

3-4

Poor

6-16

4-11

3-7

2-5

1-2

Very Poor

<6

<4

<3

<2

<1

Table: the age-adjusted standards based on guidelines published by the


American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM):
Result: __________ repetitions
Test score: _________________

B.

STATIC STRENGTH

Static strength is also known as isometric strength. Isometric strength testing


measures maximum resistance muscle can hold without any movement
(static) for maximum duration. Isometric means without any change in
muscle length.
HAND GRIP STRENGTH TESTING
The measurement of handgrip strength is one example of an isometric muscle
action of static exercise. The muscle did not change in length except that
caused by elasticity of the muscle and connective tissue. Handgrip test is
mainly a function of the muscle in the forearm in addition to those in hand.
Procedures:
a. The participant be in standing position, and facing straight ahead.
b. The grip size should be adjusted so that the middle fingers midportion is
approximately at a right angle.
c. When ready the subject squeezes the dynamometer with maximum
isometric effort, which is maintained for about 5 seconds. No other body
movement is allowed. The subject should be strongly encouraged to give a
maximum effort.
d. The participant should make 3 trials alternately with each hand, with
atleast 30 seconds or up to 1 minute between trials for the same hand.

11

Date: ______________
Test score:

Results:
1 TRIAL

2 TRIAL

3 TRIAL

BEST RESULT

LEFT
RIGHT

Rating: ____________________________
Discussion:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Questions:
1. Figure 1 is structure of skeletal muscle which consists of muscle fibre,
12

Date: ______________
fascicle and connective tissue (perimysium, epimysium and endomysium)
(a) Identify 3 types of connective tissue that present in skeletal
muscle
(ii)

(i)

(iii)
Figure 1

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

2. Complete the following statements by choosing the correct response


from the key choice and entering the appropriate letter in answer
blank.
a. _______________ is a continuous contraction that shows no
evidence of relaxation.
b. A(n) ___________ is a contraction in which the muscle shortens
and work is done.
c. To accomplish a strong contraction _________ are stimulated at a
rapid rate.
d. When a weak but smooth muscle contraction in desire, _______
are stimulated at a rapid rate.
e. When a muscle is being stimulated but is not able to respond
because of oxygen dept, the condition is called _______.
f. A(n) __________ is a contraction in which the muscle does not
shortened, but tension in the muscle keeps increasing.
A. Fatigue
tone

B. Isotonic contraction

C. Muscle cell

E. isometric contraction F. Whole muscle


motor unit

G. Tetanus

D. Muscle
H. Few

13

Date: ______________
3. The terms in the key refer to the three ways that muscle cells replenish
their ATP supplies. Select the term(s) that best apply to the condition
describe and insert the correct key letter(s) in the answer blanks.
_______ a. Accompanied by lactic acid formation.
_______ b. Supplies the highest ATP yield per glucose molecule
_______ c. Involves the simple transfer of a phosphate group
_______ d. Requires no oxygen
_______ e. The slowest ATP regeneration process
_______ f. Produced carbon dioxide and water
_______ g. The energy mechanism used in the second hour of running in
a marathon
_______ h. Used when the oxygen supply is inadequate over time
_______ i. Good for sprint
A. Coupled reaction of creatinine phosphate
and ADP
B. Anaerobic respiration
C. Aerobic respiration

LAB 3: ANAEROBIC EXERCISE


14

Date: ______________
Anaerobic fitness and its corresponding anaerobic activities are primarily
dependent upon the energy sources already existing within the muscle fibre,
those being adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatinine phosphate (CP).
High intensity exercise relies on the 2 anaerobic systems, the phosphagen
system and the fast glycolitic system. Exercise perform at maximal pace for
about 5-15 s such as 50-100m sprints in track rely on more phosphagen
metabolism. Slightly longer maximal efforts ranging from minimum 15 s to
maximum 60s rely predominantly on fast glycolysis to produce the needed
energy.
A. SPRINTING TEST-HORIZONTAL POWER
Biochemically, the test is highly dependent upon the capacity and rate of
splitting the phosphagen-adenosine triphosphate and creatinine phosphate.
The procedures for administrating the spring test should include adequate
time for participant to warm up prior to the sprint and cool down afterward.
Procedures:
a. Sprint participant perform a warm-up routine
b. The sprinter assumes the starting position by lowering the centre
gravity and lean slightly forward.
c. Time start when the first starting movement of the sprinter, and the
sprinter run fast as possible through the 50m finish line. The timer stop
their watch when the sprinter reach the finish line.
d. The sprinter repeat the trial after a recovery period (2-5 minutes). The
sprinter performs a proper cool-down.
e. Calculate the horizontal power:
Horizontal power (W) = body mass (N) X average speed (m.s -1)
Average speed (m.s-1) = distance (m) / time (s)
Test score:
50 meter sprint (time, s)
Category
Boys
Girls
Well above average <5.9
<6.8
Above average
5.9-6.3
6.8-7.4
Below average
6.4-7.0
8.5-9.5
Well below average >7.9
>9.5
Source: data from AAHPERD (1976)
Results:
Test score for sprinting: ______________
Calculate horizontal power:

Discussion:
15

Date: ______________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Questions:
1. What are the muscles that involved in sprinting?
________________________________________________________________________
2. How do energy systems contribute to sprinting?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3. Discuss type(s)of muscle fibre that involve in sprinting________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

B.

JUMPING- VERTICAL POWER

The vertical jump test, because of the vertical displacement of the


body mass during the jump, provides a true measure power. The power
generated during the jump (W) depends on the force component, taken
16

Date: ______________
from the body mass (N), the vertical displacement (m) accomplished
during the jump, and the time (s) in the air.
Biochemically, the test jump combines hips extension with ankle
plantar flexion. Two types of jump often compared are the counter
movement jump (CMJ) and the static jump.
Procedures:
a. The participant executes a 5-10 minutes.
b. The technician explains and demonstrates the proper position for the
standing reach:
i.
Stand with feet together and dominant side near the
wall/equipment
ii.
Reach as high as possible with the dominant arm but keep flat
on the floor
iii.
Place the palm of the hand against the flat measurement
scale on the wall.
c. The technician explains and demonstrate the vertical jump and
reach
i.
Stand with feet together and dominant side near the wall or
apparatus.
ii.
Make one countermovement of the legs and hip plus one
swing arm immediately prior to the push-off phase of the
jump.
iii.
While in air, reach as high as possible.
iv.
Land with knees bent in order to enhance the absorption of
forces.
d. The participant repeat for three trials with about 20-30s of recovery
between trials.
e. Record the highest jump and calculate the power. (Lewis equation)
Power (W)= 2.21 X body mass (N) X vertical
difference (m)
Test score:
Category
Well above average
Above average
Average
below average
Well below average
Data from Patterson &

Power-Lewis (W)
Men
Women
>1446
>954
1353-1446
861-954
1223-1352
774-860
1119-1222
692-773
<1110
<692
Peterson (2004)

17

Date: ______________

Results:
Calculated mean power (Lewis equation):
Power (W)= 2.21 X body mass (N) X vertical
difference (m)

Test score: __________________

Discussion:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

18

Date: ______________
Questions:
1. The power generated during the vertical jump test depends on what 3
variables?
________________________________________________________________________
2. Name the energy system that involve in the jumping test
________________________________________________________________________

C.

ANAEROBIC STEPPING

The performance of anaerobic step test is primarily dependent upon


the glycolytic pathway (lactic acid system) of metabolism, but also
received ATP contributions from the phoshagen system and the aerobic
system. It has been reported that maximal effort involving large muscle
groups of 1 minute duration require metabolic contribution of 30-35%
aerobic and 65-70% anaerobic.
The stepping technique for the Anaerobic Step Test places a great
emphasis on one leg than another. The initial position of the stepper is
standing alongside the bench NOT in front of it. The preferred leg rests on
top of the step in preparation for the start of the test. The other leg need
not touch the bench when the test leg lifts the body.

19

Date: ______________
Procedures:
1. Weight the participant in stepping attire to the closest 0.1kg. Convert
the body mass to newtons.
2. The time begins when the stepper starts, and the technician count a
aloud the number of correct steps.
3. At the end of 1 minute, the last repetition of a complete step is
recorded. The technician encourages the participant to actively recover
immediately and to stretch the leg muscles periodically throughout the
day.
4. Men complete the test using 0.4m step high while female 0.33m high
5. Calculate:
Power (W)= (body mass (N) X step high (m) X number
steps X 1.33)/60s

Discussion:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Questions:
1. How do energy systems contribute to the anaerobic step test?
20

Date: ______________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the estimated power (W) for a 86 kg person who completes 50
steps (40cm high) in 60 s?

LAB 4: AEROBIC FITNESS


Aerobic metabolism predominates for event that last for about 2 or more
minutes. Oxygen is transported first by the respiratory system to the
cardiovascular system, and from there to the contracting muscles. The muscle
consume the oxygen in order to provide sufficient amounts of adenosine
21

Date: ______________
triphosphate (ATP) for the myosin filaments to pull the actin filaments: the pulling
within the muscle causes muscle action. Thus, runner who can supply the
highest rate of oxygen to the muscle will be able to perform aerobic exercise at a
faster speed. The highest possible rate of oxygen consumption is called the
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max).
A.

AEROBIC JOG TEST (GEORGE JOG TEST)


Procedures:
a. The assistant weights the participant in running attire and
records onto Form.
b.
The participant jog 1 mi at a slow rate to moderate steady
pace (8 min per mi for male: 9 min for female)
c.
Heart rate (HR) is taken by the technician or by the participant
immediately upon crossing the 1 mi mark.
d. The assistant records the participants time onto Form. The time
is also converted into decimal form to the nearest hundredth
minute recorded. For example a jogging time of 10.17 is
converted by dividing 17 sec by 60 (0.28) and adding this to 10
min to yield 10.28 min.
e.
The technician estimate VO2 max according to equation and
determine a fitness category from table 12.5
VO2 max (ml.kg -1.min-1) = 100.5 + (gender x 8.344) (weight (kg) x
0.1636)(jog time (min) x1.438) (HR (bpm) x 0.1928)

B.

Gender ; male =1, female = 0

AEROBIC WALK TEST (ROCKPORT WALK TEST)


Procedures:
a.

The assistant weights the participant in running attire and


records onto Form.
b. The participant walks on level terrain 1 mi at the fastest pace
possible.
c. The heart rate (HR) is taken by the assistant by the participant
immediately upon crossing the 1 mi mark.
d. The assistant record the participants time onto Form. The time
is also converted into decimal form to the nearest hundredth
minute recorded. For example a walking time of 14.25 is
converted by dividing 25 sec by 60 (0.42) and adding this to 14
min to yield 14.42 min.
e. The technician estimate VO2 max according to equation and
determine a fitness category from table 12.6.
VO2 max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = 88.768 + (gender x 8.892) (weight (kg)
x 0.2109)
(walk time (min) x 1.4537) HR (bpm) x
0.1194)

Gender ; male =1, female = 0


22

Date: ______________

C.

THE COOPER 1.5MI RUN TEST


Procedures:
a. The participant run on level terrain for distance of 1.5 mi (2414 m)
b. The assistant records the participants time to the closest second onto
Form. As an optional measurement, the assistant records the heart
rate for 15 s immediately after the participant crosses the finish line.
c. The assistant estimate VO2 max from the 1.5 mi run time table 12.1
and the fitness using table 12.2

D.

THE COOPER (12 MIN) RUN TEST


Procedures:
a. The participant runs on a terrain as far as possible in 12 minutes
b.After 12 minutes, the technician estimate the running distance.
c. Estimate the VO2max using the table 12.3 or calculate using equation
VO2 max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = distance (mi) - 0.3138 / 0.0278
Or
VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = distance (km) 0.505/ 0.0447

E.

MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE (BRUCE PROTOCOL)


Procedures:
a. Exercise is performed on a treadmill.
b. The treadmill is started at 1.7 mph and at a gradient (or incline) of
0%.
c. At three minute intervals the incline and speed of the treadmill
increases as shown in the table below.
Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Time
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

Mph
1.7
1.7
2.5
3.4
4.2
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5

Incline (%)
0
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28

d. The test score is the time taken on the test, in minutes.


e. Calculation :
For Men VO2 max = 14.8 - (1.379 x T) + (0.451 x T) - (0.012 x T)
For Women VO2 max = 4.38 x T - 3.9
T = Total time on the treadmill measured as a fraction of a minute
(ie: A test time of 9 minutes 30 seconds would be written as
T=9.5)
23

Date: ______________
F.

AEROBIC STEPPING (FORESTRY STEP TEST)


Procedures:
a. Record body weight measurement in the clothing to be used in the
test.
b. The metronome is set at 90 beats per minute to indicate the stepping
rate of 22.5 steps per minute.
c. The participant steps up and down the step leading with either leg.
(Male= 0.4m step high, female 0.33 m high).
d. After 5 minutes of stepping, the participant sits down and a heart hate
measurement is taken. Count the number of heart beat starting from
15 seconds after completing the test, and stop counting at 30 seconds
post exercise.
e. The technician estimates a non-adjustable VO2max from recovery
pulse and body weight using table 13.2, adjust the VO2 max based on
the participants age using table 13.3 and determined the fitness
category from table 13.4.

Results:
24

Date: ______________

A.

Aerobic Jog Test (George Jog Test)

Age (y): __________


____________
Gender: (M=1, F=0)
________
HR (bpm): ________

Height (cm): _______________

Weight

(kg):

Walk time: (min:sec) _____:_____ Walk time (min):

VO2 max (ml.kg-1.min-1):


100.5 + (gender x 8.344) (weight (kg) x 0.1636)- (jog time (min) x1.438)
(HR (bpm) x 0.1928)

VO2 max: __________


_______________

B.

Fitness

category

(table

12.5):

Aerobic Walk Test (Rockport Walk Test)

Age (y): __________


____________
Gender: (M=1, F=0)
________
HR (bpm): ________

Height (cm): _______________

Weight

(kg):

Walk time: (min:sec) _____:_____ Walk time (min):

VO2 max (ml.kg-1.min-1):


88.768 + (gender x 8.892) (weight (kg) x 0.2109) (walk time (min) x
1.4537)
HR (bpm) x 0.1194)

VO2 max: __________


_______________

C.

Fitness

category

(table

12.7):

The Cooper 1.5mi Run Test

Age (y): ________


______________

Height (cm): ____________ Weight

(kg):

25

Date: ______________
Run time (min:sec): _____:______
Heart
(optional)
VO2 max (table 12.1): ____________ ml.kg-1.min-1
Fitness category (table 12.2):______________
D.

rate

(bpm):

___________

The Cooper (12 min) Run Test

VO2max (table 12.3) = ______________ml.kg-1.min-1


E.

Maximal oxygen uptake (Bruce protocol)

For Men VO2 max = 14.8 - (1.379 x T) + (0.451 x T) - (0.012 x T)


For Women VO2 max = 4.38 x T - 3.9

F.

Aerobic stepping (Forestry Step Test)

Age (y) : _________


(kg):________

Height (cm): ____________

Participant maintained cadence:


seldom

Weight

always

usually

Pulse count (from 5:15 to 5:30) = ___________ beats


Non-adjusted VO2 max (from table 13.2) = __________________ ml.kg-1.min-1
Age adjusted VO2 max (from table 13.3) = __________________ ml.kg -1.min-1
Fitness category (from table 13.4) = ____________________
Qualified as wilderness firefighter (VO2 max 45 ml.kg-1.min-1)

yes

no

Discussion:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
26

Date: ______________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________
Questions:
1. What is the rationale behind each of the 2 version of the Cooper Run Test?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Which of the test is best for assessing aerobic fitness in sedentary and
older adult? Why?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the effect of age on VO2 max estimated from the Forestry Step
Test?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

27

Date: ______________

LAB 5: CARDIOVASCULAR TEST


Numerous researchers have reported a negative relationship between
physical activity and morbidity, not only from coronary heart disease, but from
all causes. Thus physical activity and fitness are associated with the reduced risk
of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as reduced death from CVD and all
causes. Blood pressure measurement is one of the most common test in clinical
lab. It is recommended that all persons over 3y of age should have their blood
pressure checked annually.
Blood pressure is primarily dependent upon the volume of blood and the
resistance of the arteries. Thus, blood pressure may be defined for laboratory
purposes as the force of blood distending the arterial walls. The determination of
the blood pressure in the typical laboratory is based upon the sound made by the
vibration from the vascular wall. These sounds are referred as Korotkoff sound. In
brief, when there is no blood flow (when tourniquet is applied), there will be no
vibration and thus no sound. When the restricted blood flow is gradually release,
a bolus of blood escape at the peak point if blood pressure coinciding the left
ventricular contraction (systole). This bolus of blood causes vascular vibration
that result in faint sound (systolic pressure). When blood flow is completely
streamlined, there is a disappearance of sound (diastolic pressure).
In addition, 2 other pressure are frequently describe: pulse pressure
(PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pulse pressure is the difference
between systolic pressure. High pulse pressure may indicate increase risk in
myocardial pressure.
Pulse pressure PP (mmHg) = systolic blood pressure (SBP) diastolic blood
pressure (DBP)
Mean arterial blood pressure is based upon the actual pressure that the arteries
would sustain if blood flow was constant and not pulsating.
Mean arterial pressure MAP (mmHg) = DBP + (PP/3)

28

Date: ______________

Figure: Blood pressure measurement

A. RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE


Procedures:
1. Ask the participant to sit quietly in a chair with his arms at his side. To
ensure accurate measurements, it's best if he hasn't had coffee, anything
to eat or engaged in exercise within the previous hour.
2. Lift the participant's arm, supporting it under your arm by pressing it
against the side of your body. Wrap the Velcro cuff around his arm, around
the biceps muscles and above the elbow joint. It's best to wrap the cuff
around the arm without clothing, but thin shirts or blouses are acceptable
as long as they won't interfere with hearing sounds using a stethoscope.
Wrap the cuff tightly enough so that it won't slip down the arm.
3. Place the head of a stethoscope over the brachial artery and the tips in
your ears. The brachial artery is located on the inside of the arm and
crosses the elbow joint. Hold the head of the stethoscope firmly against
the patient's arm using your left hand. Apply light pressure with your
thumb on the head of the stethoscope and the fingers on the bottom of
the elbow.
4. Rapidly inflate the bladder in the cuff, using the rubber bulb with your
right hand, until you completely cut off circulation through the brachial
artery. Referring to the pressure gauge, inflate the cuff to approximately
200mmHg.
5. Deflate the cuff slowly by turning the pressure valve next to the rubber
bulb, counter-clockwise. Continue deflating the cuff, listening for the first
set of sounds. The sounds will make a "whoosing" noise as the blood
begins to circulate through the brachial artery. Note the reading on the
pressure gauge.This is the systolic blood pressure.
6. Continue deflating the pressure cuff until you hear a second set of
whoosing sounds. Note the reading on the pressure gauge. This is the
diastolic blood pressure.
7. Record the systolic and diastolic pressure readings.

Category
Normal
Pre-hypertension
Hypertensionstage 1
Hypertension
stage 2

Systolic
(mmHg)
<120
120-139
140-159
160

Criteria
Diastolic
(mmHg)
<80
80-89
90-99
>100

Follow-up
Recheck in 2 years
Recheck in 1 year
Confirm
within
months
Evaluate
within
month

2
1

29

Date: ______________
Table: Criteria for blood pressure (mmHg) categories. Source: Joint National
Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood
Pressure (2003)
B.

EXERCISE BLOOD PRESSURE AND ACID LACTIC MEASUREMENT

Procedures:
1. Participant rest in supine position before the testing commences. A blood
lactate sample will be drawn from the participant.
2. The participant seat on the cycle ergometer, and let the participant to
exercise for 2 minutes before taking the measurement.
3. Begin the exercise protocol for 3 minutes and start measuring the
participant blood pressure using the same procedural steps as describe in
procedure i (resting blood pressure).
4. Second blood sample will be drawn to measure the post exercise acid
lactic consentration.

Results:
(i)

Resting Blood Pressure

Participants detail:
Age (y): _______
________

Height (cm): _________

First tester:
Name: _____________________

Weight

(kg):

Second tester:
Name: __________________________

Blood pressure measurement:


Trial 1: __________________

Trial 1: _________________________

Trial 2: __________________

Trial 2: _________________________

Blood pressure category: ______________________


Pulse pressure (mmHg):_______________________
Mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg): ________________
(ii)

Exercise Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure (mmHg): _______________


Discussion:
30

Date: ______________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
____________
Questions:
1. Label the elements flow of blood through the heart

A. ______________________________
A
B. ______________________________
C. ______________________________
D. ______________________________
E. ______________________________
F. ______________________________
G. ______________________________

A. ______________________________
2. Label the elements flow of blood through the heart
B. ______________________________
C. ______________________________
D. ______________________________
E. ______________________________
F. ______________________________
G. ______________________________
31
H. ______________________________
I.

_______________________________
____

Date: ______________

3. Match the terms provided with the statements given below.


a. A recording of electrical activity of the heart. __________________
b. The period when the atria are depolarizing. ___________________
c. The period when the ventricles are repolarising. _______________
d. The period during which the ventricles and depolarizing which
preceed their contraction. ___________________
e. An abnormality slow heart beat that is slower than 60 beats per
minutes. __________
f.

A condition in which the heart is uncoordinated and useless as a


pump. _____________

g. An abnormality rapid heartbeat, that is faster than 100 beats per


minutes. _____________
h. Damage to the AV node totally or partially releasing the ventricles
from the ventricles from the control of sinoatrial (SA) node.
_________________________
i.

Chest
pain,
resulting
from
myocardium._______________________
A. Angina pectoris
Electrocardiogram

ischemia

B. Bradycardia

D. Fibrillation

E. Heart block

G. QRS wave

H. T wave

of

the

C.
F. P wave

I. Tachycardia

32

Date: ______________
4. How does systolic blood rate and SBP respond to exercise? Explain
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5. Explain the cardiovascular benefits of ingesting fluid during prolonged
exercise especially in hot or humid climates
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

LAB 6: PULMONARY TESTING


Measurement of lung volume during rest enhances the interpretation of these
volumes during exercise. Physiologically, all 4 lung volumes are non overlapping
divisions of the lungs at potentially different stages of breathing. For example,
the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) is the volume of air that can be
inspired maximally at the end of normal inspiration. The volume of air in normal
breath is the tidal volume (TV). The volume that can be expired maximally
after a normal expiration is the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The
residual volume (RV) is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a
maximal expiration. The capacities are combination of the individual volumes.
The vital capacity (VC) is the sum of 3 volumes (IRV, TV and ERV). The total
lungs capacity (TLC) is the sum of vital capacity and residual volume.
Vital capacity (VC) = Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) + Tidal volume +
Expiratory reserve volume

33

Date: ______________

Figure: the four lungs volume (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV)

A.

VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME

The vital capacity test is one of the oldest and common respiratory test. The
measurement of vital capacity simply requires that an individual blow as large
a breath of air as possible into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels 3 of the
4 components of the total lung volume (IRV, TV and ERV). It provides an
indirect indication of the size of the lung although it is not a complete
measure of the entire lung because it does not include the residual volume. It
is often measured in order to assess the effect of smoking, or disease.
Restrictive lung disease, such as fibrosis and pneumonia will reduce the vital
capacity.
Procedures:
1. The participant should use the nose clips before start the test. Please
assure that the mouthpiece given is new and clean.
2. The participant should then be connected to the spirometer and the
technician select the test menu-FVC to start.
3. The participant will be told to breath normally in approximately 1 minute.
After the minute has elapsed the participant should breath in as deep as
possible for a few breath and breath out as far as possible (followed by
normal breathing).
4. After that, the technician will press the stop button to finish the test.
5. Note the FEV1/FEV % value and interpreted the result.
Classification of lung function:
High (well above predicted)
function
Good (above predicted)

lung

120 %
100-119 %
34

Date: ______________
Normal (within predicted)
Mild restriction (FVC) or obstruction
(FEV)
Severe restriction (FVC) or obstruction
(FEV)
Very severe restriction (FVC) or
obstruction (FEV)

80-99 %
65-79 %
50-64%
<35

Results:
FEV1/FEV % = ______________________
Interpretation of lung function: _____________________________________

Discussion:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________

Questions:
1. Complete the following statements by inserting your answer in the answer
blanks.
a. Smallest
conducting
_________________________

respiratory

passageways.

b. Separates the oral and nasal cavities. ________________________


35

Date: ______________
c. Major nerve, stimulating the diaphragm. _______________________
d. Food passageway posterior to the trachea. ______________________
e. Closes off the larynx during swallowing. ________________________
f.

Windpipe. ______________________

g. Actual size of gas exchange. _______________________


h. Pleural layer covering the thorax wall. _________________
i.

Pleural layer covering the lung.______________________

j.

Lumen of larynx. ________________________

k. Fleshly lobes in the


area._________________
l.

nasal

cavity

which

increase

its

surface

Vibrate with expired air._________________________


Alveoli
esophagus
Glottis

bronchioles

palate
main bronchi

conchae
parietal pleura

epiglottis
phrenic

2. The following sentences concern the respiratory volume measurement.


Using the key choice, select the term by inserting appropriate term in the
answer blank.
a. Respiratory volume
_____________________

inhale

or

exhale

during

normal

breathing.

b. Air in respiratory passages that do not contribute to gas exchange.


________________
c. Total amount of exchangeable air. _______________________
d. Gas volume that allows gas exchange to go on continuously.
____________________
e. Amount of air that can still be exhale (forcibly) after a normal
exhalation. ___________

A. Dead space volume


B. Expiratory reserve
volume (ERV)
C. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
D. Residual volume (RV)
E. Tidal volume (TV)
F. Vital capacity (VC)

36