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Institute for Excellence

in Higher
Education, Bhopal

For partial fulfillment of degree of Bachelor of


Commerce Accounts Honours

IMPACT OF SMART PHONES ON


YOUTH

Research Guide :
Teacher Guide :
Professor S.S. Vijayvargiya
Mrs.Anita Deshbhratar

Head of Departmen

(Commerce Department)
Department)

(Commerce

Submitted By :
Namita Saini
B.Com II year
Roll No. 111015

Acknowledgement
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. PRAMILA
MAINI (Director, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education,
Bhopal), Dr. S.S. Vijayvargiya
(Head of commerce
department) and Mrs. Anita Deshbhratar (Teacher guide)
to have provided me with such a great opportunity to work on
this research project. I am grateful to all the respondents of
the questionnaires for being so much co-operative and patient
to fill in all the required answer in the questionnaires. The
project would not have been such a success without their
contribution.
Last, but not the least, I would like to thank my family, friends
and all those who helped me in some way or the others in the
successful completion of this research project.

Namita Saini

B.com II year
Accounts Honours
Section A
Roll No. 111015

Certificate
This is to certify that Namita Saini is a regular student of
Institute for Excellence in Higher Education. She has
conducted an authentic research on the topic Impact of
smart phones on youth and has completed her research
methodology report successfully under the able guidance of
Mrs. Anita Deshbhratar. The report is being prepared for
her honors papers of B.Com part II (Accounts Honours) for
examination 2013 and is being submitted thereof.

Dr. S.S.Vijayvargiya
Mrs.AnitaDeshbhratar

Head of department
department

Commerce

Commerce department

(Teacher guide)

(Research guide)

Preface
Quite frequently these days people talk of research, both in
academic instruction and outside. Several research studies
undertaken and accomplished year after year. It should be
noted that significance of research lies in the quality.
Therefore it is important for those concerned research to pay
due attention to designing and adhering to appropriate
methodology, throughout for improving the quality of
research.

Keeping in mind all the views, the research report has been
implemented on the basis of survey to study the topic,
Impact Of Smart Phone On Youth . The research has
been completed based on scientific study to check whether
there is any impact of Smartphone on youth or not. The
purpose of conducting research is solved with chi-square test.

Index
CHAPTER
NO.

CONTENTS

PAGE

Introduction of Research
Meaning
Types
Significance
Objective
Research Methodology

1-5

Introduction of Topic

6-8

Literature Survey Related to Topic

9-13

Rational behind Topic


Reason to Choose the Topic

14-15

Objective of Research Work


Area of Research Work
5

Framing of Hypothesis
Meaning of Hypothesis
Characteristics of Hypothesis
Types of Hypothesis
Hypothesis of my Research Work

16-18

Collection of Data
Meaning
Mode of collection
Data collected in my Research Work

19-22

CHAPTER
NO.

CONTENTS

PAGE

Graphical Interpretation
Meaning
Analysis of Close-Ended
Questionnaires
Analysis of Open-Ended
Questionnaires

23-50

Chi-Square Test
Meaning

51-59

Characteristics of Chi-Square Test


Importance of Chi-Square Test
Conditions for the Application of
Chi-Square Test

Suggestion

60

Conclusion

61

Bibliography

62

Annexure

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
MEANING OF RESEARCH:
Research is common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an academic activity and
the term should be used in technical sense.
Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from known to unknown.
It is actually voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for,
when the unknown confronts wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us problem
attain full understanding of the unknown which man Employs for obtaining the
knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is, thus,an
original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its.
Hence research is a part and parcel of any systematic knowledge. The human urge for
new ideas of knowledge has developed a faculty for search and research in him. Research
has now become an integral part, not only of academic pursuits, but also of all the areas
of human activity.

RESEARCH DEFINITIONS
According to CLIFFORDWOODY:
Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypotheses or
suggested solutions, collecting, organizing, and evaluating data, making deductions
and reaching conclusions ant at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine
whether they fit the formulating hypotheses.

According to REDMAN and MOREY :


Research can be defined as systematised to gain new knowledge.

According to D.SLESINGER and M.STEPENSON in the Encyclopedia of social


Science
The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to
extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of
theory or in the practice of an artntegral part, not only of academic pursuits, but also of
all the areas of human activity

TYPES OF RESEARCH
A research can be of various types. Type of research depends upon the nature enquiry
taking place by the researcher. Following are the various types of research:
1) Descriptive Research:
Descriptive research means description of state of affairs as it exists at the present. The
main characteristic of this research is that the researcher does not have any control over
the variables. He can only report what has happened and what is happening. It includes
surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds.

2) Analytical Research:

In this type of research the researcher has to use facts or information already available
and analyse these to make critical evaluation of the material related with individual group
or situation.

3) Applied Research:
Applied research is concerned with solution of particular problem. Thus it aims at finding
a solution to an immediate problem faced by the society, industry or business
organization. This is also known as Action research.

4) Fundamental Research:
This research is mainly concerned with formulations of theories and approaches. It is
original and investigative study of a basic nature which is carried out to originate a new
knowledge or to make additional contribution to knowledge.

5) Experimental Research:
This research is based on experiments conducted in a laboratory. Under this, a lab is set
up and environmental conditions are created to study variables. Hawthrone Experiment is
one examples of this type of research.

6) Ex-post facto Research:


This type of research is based on analytical and scientific examination of relationship
between independent and dependent variables. This is an empirical research and the
researcher does not have any control over the independent variable.

7) Qualitative Research:
This type of research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon relating to or involving
quality aspect of an event. For example: Motivation research.

8) Quantitative Research:
Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable
to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity. For example: Commercial
Research.

9) Conceptual Research:
Conceptual research is one which is related to some abstract ideas or theories. It is
generally used by the philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts.

10) Historical Research:


It is that research which utilizes historical sources like documents, remains etc. to study
events or ideas of the past including the philosophies of persons and groups at any remote
point of time.

11) One time Research:


One time research portrays a single event. Hence it is also known as longitudinal
research.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of
scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden
and which has not been discovered yet. Though each research study has its own research
purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad
groupings:
To gain familiarity with the phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a
group.

To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is


associated with something else.
To test a hypotheses with a casual relationship between variables.

REREARCH METHODOLOGY APPLIED IN RESEARCH REPORT:


Data is collected by primary source and secondary source of data collection is used for
literature survey. Sample of 60 units is taken from Bhopal region and data is collected in
the form of questionnaire. On the information generated through the questionnaire, chisquare test applied to accept or reject the hypothesis.

INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC
Definition:
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds features
that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer. A smartphone also offers
the ability to send and receive e-mail and edit Office documents, for example.
While there is no standard definition of the term "smartphone" across the industry, there
are a few features that you'll find on every smartphone.
The advance APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) in smartphones allow better
integration of third-party applications with their Operating systems and Hardware than
other contemporary phone.
The term 'smartphone' was first used by Ericsson in 1997 for their GS88 phone which
was
first
labelled
as
Smartphone.

History
IBM designed the first smartphone in 1992. It was called Simon. The smartphone was
presented that year as a concept device in Las Vegas at the computer industry trade show
known as COMDEX.
The first cell phone, on the other hand, was demonstrated 19 years before the first
smartphone

Advanced Features of Smartphones:

Have advanced computing ability


High speed data access through Wi-Fi
Mobile broadband feature for data access
Have Web browser functionality for surfing websites
High resolution touch screen facility
Pocket Video camera and compact Digital Camera
File, audio and video transfer ability and light pen functionality
They are built on mobile computing platform
Email facility
Large memory for storage

Year 1992
IBM Simon - designed in 1992, shown as a concept product in Las Vegas, Nevada. (The
very First smartphone)

Advantages of smart phones

Smart phone has the ability to browse full websites with large amount of data and
it will appear the same way as it is in the desktop browser.
Also has QWERTY keyboard which is similar to the computer keyboard. The key
board can be hardware (physical keys that you type) or it can be software (on a
touch screen like you will find on an IPhones).
Smart phones have got application that can help you create and edit Microsoft
office documents.

Smart phone also has gps which can be used to locate place that are new to you.
When traveling to unknown places it is a good idea to have a gps to help you find
the place youre looking for. Smart phones will help makes your tour navigable.
When it comes to messaging a smart phone will send messages and also email
messages. A smart phone can synchronize your personal and most likely your
professional email account. Some smart phone can support multiple accounts
depending on the make and model.

Disadvantages of smart phones

Smart phone not durable especially when not taken good care of. For example it

can malfunction easily when they come into contact with water.

It is very expensive to buy compared to other phones.

More complex when it comes to operating because of the many applications which
need to be mastered to avoid confusion when operating it.
Can only work efficiently where there is accessible internet connection when it comes to
browsing. Smart phone cannot be used to store large amount of data due to their storage
memory. You cannot depends on smart phone for all your work you will all need a
computer to do some tasks

Benefits Of Smartphone Apps For Students


The students of modern age are gifted with mobile phone technology. Smartphones and
tablets offer more learning opportunities which were not there before. These devices
transform education from classroom-teacher-centric to student-centric.
All the devices come with several functions and applications which allow its users to
perform multiple tasks at anytime and from anywhere.
Since they offer numerous benefits, the ownership of both Smartphones and notepads
increased significantly. Smartphone users increased from 49% in May 2011 to 67% in
February 2012. At the same time, over 1 billion applications are downloaded from
Apples App store for every month.
Among many advantages, students can access information instantly. They can constantly
engage in activities like tweeting questions, answering polls, etc. All the devices are
portable weighing a fraction of their earlier devices.

LITERATURE SURVEY RELATED TO TOPIC


Anderson et al. (1971)4 say, The review of literature is a task that continues throughout
the duration of the thesis. It begins with a search for a suitable topic. Since a thesis aims
to be a contribution to knowledge, a careful check should be made that the proposed
study has not previously been carried out. Although completely new and original
problems are rare, a previous study should not be exactly replicated unless the techniques
used had been faulty or the findings and conclusions doubtful to shed new light on the
problem. A good test is whether the problem still requires solution. Before final
formulating of the problem and identifying its objectives and hypotheses and
determination of population and selection of sample, initial literature review for this
study was executed. Literature survey related to topic are1 . The impact of smart phones on business and private life
Published Date: 19/12/2011
Level: General public

Validated by: Committee Oboulo.com


Since few years, mobile phone market is changing radically and many new
mobile phones, called smart phones or intelligence phones are entering on the market and
have produced a boom. Before, those intelligence phones were only dedicated to
professional persons, but mobile manufacturer felt that it could be a potential market and
provided additional revenue. So unit sales of smart phones have been growing faster than
the overall market for mobile phones. In fact, based upon increased user demand, this
trend will continue through 2013. We noticed that smart phone unit sales are poised to
grow even faster than the healthy growth over the past few years. Smart phones provide a
rich cocktail of features: radio, music, video, network interfaces, gigabytes of storage and
powerful processors, games and new applications moreover, they become thinner and
cheaper and as a result they entered in the consumer market and they are really
appreciated. As we said before, for the past few years smart phones have been aimed at
professional consumers and prosumers (they are people who are early adopters with
respect to products and have a high passion for news technologies), and it became a new
generation of mobile internet devices because a small smart phone that is only four inches
long provides sharing of real-time information and knowledge and it can
transform lifestyles. The speed of information processing is accelerating, and real-time
communication is becoming universal and is no longer constrained by time and space.
Smart phones became a real interest for companies and they provide one to each of their
executives in order to provide to them an all in one device where they can check their
mail and be available twenty for hours a day for their customers. In
fact, smart phones changed radically the vision of workers life because they are now
enlisting in a world where work never stops. We noticed that every activitys sector is
touched by this phenomenon. However, when workers come back home they are still
connected to their job because mail box and other network account stay connected
on smart phone and are accessible in one click. The main question is when workers can
stop to be alert by their smart phone. Some studies as we saw in the thesis, ask to workers
if they stay connected also when they are in their bedroom, and forty four percent of them
said yes. When people are not working in their office they are looking at
their smart phone every six to twelve minutes. On another hand, thirty five percent of
workers checked their mail in the morning and it is the first action they did when they
wake up. It is not surprising that smart phone lead to friction in private life of owner
of smart phone.

2. Development and initial evaluation of a smartphone application based


on acceptance and commitment therapy
Published date :

31 July 2012

Author: Kien H Ly
Case description
Primarily, the study aims at investigating a new field, providing a basis for generating
hypotheses for further research. The first aim of this initial, exploratory study was to
examine if this intervention had an effect on the variables of: valued actions,
psychological flexibility, and life satisfaction as well as the states of depression, anxiety
and stress, for a non-clinical sample of 11 Swedish Iphone users. This was made with a
quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without control group. The second aim was to
investigate how the participants experienced the intervention, as measured by a
qualitative questionnaire.
Conclusions
The results from the present study indicated that the intervention should be studied
further. The findings also generated a number of hypotheses that could be investigated in
further research.
.

3. Introduction to Technological Management: mobile telephony (2005)


Published date: 16/02/2011
Level : Advanced
Validated by: Committee Oboulo.com
Initially, the mobile phone had limited technical resources. It was used mainly to call, and
to send messages. With the development of the Internet, these phones have evolved and
moved into WAP phones. Yet, the potential of this novelty has been limited: it has been
extended to consultation of the outstanding package, weather, news and other updates.
PDAs, in turn, are used to read mail, to organize, but do not have the functions of the
phone. How do we talk about the convergence of both worlds? Phones with features of
personal assistants or PDAs equipped with mobile phone technology may be the new
generation of mobile phones. They combine the advantages of mobile (telephony, SMS,

WAP) and those of PDAs. They are called smart phones. The first Smartphone has been
developed by IBM in 1992. It contained a calendar, address book, clock, games and the
ability to send and read mails. We will study this issue and answer several questions to
understand how Smartphones are developed and their features.

4. Dependency on smartphone and the impact on purchase behaviour


Published: February 2011
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Hooi Ting

Author: Ding

This study aims to investigate the effect of convenience, social needs and social
influences on university students' dependency towards smartphones and the impact on
future purchase behaviour in Malaysia.
Hypotheses were tested with a random and judgemental sampling (students who use
smartphones only) of 358 university students using a face-to-face survey method.
Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses.
The results indicated that university students' dependency on smartphones is influenced
by convenience, social needs and social influences and dependency is positively related
with future purchase behaviour.
The domain of research, smartphones, is a new technology that is largely adopted and
deserves investigation for future mobile market strategies. Although this research of
smartphone dependency is limited to universities, this study contributes to the field by
adding new investigation in this new target segment of smartphone users.

5. The place of emplaced visualities: A case study of smartphone visuality


and location-based social media
Location : Shangai, China
As camera phones become more commonplace in the explosion of smartphones along
with new contexts for image distribution like microblogging and location-based services
(LBS) we are witnessing emergent types of visuality. In particular, through LBS such as
Facebook Places we see ways in which users create new contexts for the overlay between
place, ambient images, and geographic locations. While globally camera phone genres
like self-portraiture have blossomed, we are also witnessing the flourishing of vernacular
visualities that reflect a localized notion of place, social, and identity making practices
(Lee 2009). As LBS transforms the context, and thus content, for camera phone images,

there is a need to reassess the role of such visualities. Can we speak of smartphone
visuality? This paper considers the shift through a case study of Jiepang users in
Shanghai. As an emergent area in mobile communication, we reflect upon some of the
ways it rehearses and extends earlier studies on networked visuality as well as reflecting a
localized notion of mobility and place.

6. Smartphone Application Usage Amongst Students at a South African


University
Location-south Africa university
This study assesses the usage of smartphone applications and specifically
Social networking applications (SNS) amongst smartphone users , due to the
perceived high-level of usage amongst University Students. Questionnaires were
derived from the literature, and used to assess the frequency and intensity of
application usage. The data was analyzed looking at key applications and
frequency/intensity of usage. It was found that the students that were questioned at
this university, spend an average of five hours per day on their smartphones
interacting with others via SNS, and remain online for about 16 hours per day. The
students that were sampled preferred to communicate using SNS. These students
appear to use sms for close friends only, and phonecalls for loved ones and family;
possibly due to the high cost of sms and phonecalls in South Africa compared to the low
cost of SNS. Students use SNS predominantly for Facebook, Facebook chat and
Blackberry Messenger (BB users) in order to update their profiles, chat with friends, and
look at their friends profiles and statuses. Future studies should investigate what
motivates students to spend such an inordinate amount of time with SNS apps, and which
Apps are long term favourites in the race for market leading SNS App. Keywords:
Smartphones, Applications, Mobile Social Networking, M-Education,
Smartphone Usage.

RATIONAL BEHIND TOPIC

Reason to choose topic:


1. It very popular among youth and it is related to the day to day life of every one.
2. It is the interesting topic to work.
3. It has a great influence on society.

Objectives of my Study:

1. To study the features of smartphones.


2. To analysis the positive effects of smartphones.
3. To analysis the negative impact of smartphones both mentally and physical.
4. To study the impact of smartphones on the performance of students in positive and
negative aspects.
5. To provide the suggestions for better use of smartphone.
6. To access the use of social networking sites.
7. To study the time management of youth using smartphones.

Area of my Research Work:


1. 60 units
2. Boys and girls of age between 18-21 years of college going.
3. Research is conducted in Bhopal region.

FRAMING THE HYPOTHESIS


Meaning of hypothesis
A hypothesis is considered as the principal instrument in research. Its
main function is to suggest new experiments and observations.
Thus, hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation,
phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further
investigation. It offers a solution of the problem that is to be verified
empirically.
HYPO + THESIS = HYPOTHESIS

Hypo means a tentative or subject to the verification.


Thesis means statement about the solution of the problem.

Definition:
According to Black and Champion: - a tentative statement about
something, the validity of which is usually unknown is known as
hypothesis.

According to Webster: - a tentative assumption made in order to draw


out and test its logical or empirical consequences.

Characteristics of hypothesis
1. Hypothesis should be clear and precise. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise,
the inferences drawn on its basis cannot be taken as reliable.
2. Hypothesis should be capable of being tested.
3. Hypothesis should state relationship between variables. One should be able to
judge the dependent and independent variable.
4. Hypothesis should be limited in scope and should be specific .a researcher must
remember that narrower hypothesis are generally more testable.
5. Hypothesis should be stated in simple terms, it will be easily understandable by all
concerned.
6. Hypothesis should be consistent with most known facts. it should be the one which
judges accept as being the most likely one.
7. Hypothesis must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for exploring facts.

NULL HYPOTHESIS
A null hypothesis (H0) is a concept which arises in the context of
statistical hypothesis testing. A common convention is to use the
symbol H0 to denote the null hypothesis.
The null hypothesis describes in a formal way some aspect of the
statistical behavior of a set of data and this description is treated as
valid unless the actual behavior of the data contradicts this

assumption. In other words, one may either reject, or not reject the null
hypothesis. Failing to reject H0 says that there is no strong reason to
change any decision or procedures predicated on its truth, but it allows
the possibility of obtaining further data and then re-examining the
same hypothesis.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
The alternative hypothesis, Ha, is a statement of what a statistical
hypothesis test is set up to establish.
For example : in a clinical trial of a new drug , the alternative
hypothesis might be that the new drug has a different effect , on
average , compared to that of the current drug.

HYPOTHESIS OF MY RESEARCH WORK

Topic: Impact of smartphones on youth.

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0):

There is no significant difference between the impact of


smartphones on boys and girls.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (Ha):

There is significant difference between the impact of


smartphones on boys and girls.
Attributes:
A-Males
a-Females

B-Positive Impact
b-Negative Impact

COLLECTION OF DATA
MEANING AND DEFINATION
Collection of data means the methods that are to be employed for
obtaining the required information from the units under investigation.
The method of collection of data depends upon the nature, object and
scope of investigation on one hand and the availability of money and
the time on the other. It is prime importance to know very clearly the
points on which data is to collect for analysis of problem at hand.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


PRIMARY DATA
SECONDARY DATA
PRIMARY DATA: - Primary data is one which is collected by the investigator
himself for the purpose of a specific enquiry or study. Such data is original in
character and its generated by survey conducted by individuals or research
institutions.

SECONDARY DATA: - When an investigator uses the data which


has already being collected by others such data is called as
secondary data. The secondary data can be obtained from
journals, report government publications, publications of
professionals and research organizations etc.

DATA COLLECTION IN RESEARCH WORK:


My complete research study is based on primary data. There are
various modes of collection of primary data. They are following :

OBSERVATION
EXPERIMENTS
QUESTIONNAIRE/SCHEDULE
INTERVIEW
CASE STUDY

OBSERVATION
Watching with a view to derive to a conclusion is known as
observation. In observation method, the information is sought by way
of investigators own direct observation without asking from
respondents
Goode and Hatt say science begins with observation and must ultimately
return to observation for its final validation.

Moses AND Kalton say observation implies the use of eyes rather than
the ears and the voice.

According to oxford concise dictionary,


Observation means accurate watching, knowing of phenomena
as they occur in nature with regard to cause and effect or mutual
relation.
EXPERIMENTS
An experiment has been considered as the basis of scientific method. It
is extensively used in physical sciences but its application is greatly
limited in social sciences. Experiments cannot be perfectly carried out
in science which deals with human behavior. The behavior of human
being cannot be controlled and it cannot be subjected to laboratory
test. Experimental method is now finding place in social science also
due to scientific equipment that has been made available to social
scientists.

According to GREENWOOD, an experiment is the proof of testing


hypothesis which seeks to loop up two factors into a casual relationship
through the study of contrasting situations which have been controlled
on factors except the one of interest the latter being either the
hypothetical cause or the hypothetical effect.

QUESTIONNAIRE
Questionnaire is an important tool in obtaining the important
information in particular field of enquiry. In general the word
questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to questions, by
using a form which the respondents fill in him. On the other hand
schedules the name usually applied to a set of questions which are
asked and filled in by the interviewer in a face to face situation. In both
the cases, the wording of the questions is the same foe all
respondents.

According to Davis & Jensen A questionnaire is a systematic compilation


of question that is submitted to a sampling of population from which
information is desire.

According to Goode & Hatt In general questionnaire refers to a device for


securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondents
fills in himself.

SCHEDULE
Schedule may be defined as a Performa that consist a
which are asked and filled by the investigator in a face
with another. In this method of data collection the
certain question and the respondents furnish certain
interviewer record as it is given.

set of questions
to face situation
interviewer put
answer and the

INTERVIEW
The interview is the implement par excellence of the field worker;
particularly in an underdeveloped country both because of both types
of problem tackled and the environment from which data are to be
collected.

GRAPICAL INTERPRETATION
MEANING OF INTERPRETATION
Interpretation refers to the test of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an
analytical and experimental study. In fact it is a search for broader meaning of research
finding. The task of interpretation has two measure aspects:

1. The effort to establish continuity in research through linking the result of a given
study with those of another.

2. The establishment of some explanatory concepts.

PRE-REQUISITES OF INTERPRETATION

1. Data must be homogeneous.


2. Interpretation of data is based on availability of information and if there are errors,
it has to locate in the testing itself.

ANALYSIS OF CLOSE ENDED QUESTIONS


Ques:1 How much time you spend using phone in a day?
a) less than 1 hr.
b) 1-3 hr.
c) 4-6 hr.
d) more than 6 hr.

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

10

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of 30 respondents, 10 respondents spend 1-3 hours in a day on their phones, while 8
respondents spend less than 1 hour in a day and 6 respondents spend 4-6 hours and 6
respondents said that they spend more than 6 hours in a day on their phones.
12
10

10
8
no. of respondents

4
2
0
A

B
Options

Ques:2 Apart from making call what all you do with your phone?
A) check mails
B) listen music
C) play games

D) surf net

Analysis Table
Options

No. of respondents

4(13.33%)

12(40%) 8(26.67%)

Total

6(20%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
Majority of 40%respondent said that apart from making call they like to listen to music
on their Smartphone. While 26.67%like to play games and 20%like to surf net and only
13.33% like to check mails.

15

12

10
no. of respondents

8
4

0
A B C D
Options

Ques:3 On which occasion will you use the smartphone most?\


A) During classs

B) Self study
C) Having meals
D) Other reasons

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

14

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of the whole sample, 6 respondent use smartphone during studies, 5 uses it while
doing self study, same 5 while having meal, 14 respondents specify other reasons like
during free time, or when they feel bored, when they feel they are in stress and when they
had not any important work to do.

14
12
10
No. of respondents

8
6
4
2
0

Ques:4 How do you connect people?

A) E-mails
B) Face book
C) Message
D) Twitter

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

4(13%) 5(17%) 17(57%) 4(13%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
57% people connect through message to other people, 17% through facebook,
13% connect through e-mails and remaining 13% through twitter.

13% 13%
A

B
57%

17%
C

Ques:5 With the smartphone you can have more contact with people?
A) Agree
B) Neutral
C) Disagree
D) Strongly disagree

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

12

10

30

INTERPRETATION:
12 respondent agree with the statement that with smartphone we can have more connect
with people. 10 feel neutral , while 5 are disagree and remaining 3 respondent are
strongly disagree with the statement.

14
12

12
10

10
8
no. of respondents

2
0
A

B
Options

Ques:6 Do you thing owing a smartphone is one of the main demand to get more
preference among your friends?
A) Agree
B) Neutral
C) Disagree
D) Strongly disagree

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

11

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of the whole sample, 7 respondents are agreed and think that smartphone is the main
demand to get more preference among the friends. 6 feel neutral and majority of 11
respondents are disagree and only 6 respondents are strongly disagree with the question.

12

11

10
8
no. of respondents

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:7 I often use phone without any particular reason.


A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

12

30

INTERPRETATION:
12 respondent sometimes uses their phone without any particular reason. 8 respondent
never use , 6 rarely use and only 4respondent are there who always use their phone
without any particular reason.

12
10
8
No. of respondents

6
4
2
0

Ques:8 Arguments raise with others because of my mobile phone use.


A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

12(40%) 9(30%) 3(10%) 6(20%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
Only 10% respondent said that they always argue with other for their smartphone while
20% are agree with rarely option. 30% are goes with never and majority of 40% said that
sometime it happens that they argue for their phone.

12
10
8
No. of respondents

6
4
2
0

Ques:9 I lose track of how much I am using my phone.


A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

10

30

INTERPRETATION:
10 respondents never lose their track when they use the phone. 9 respondent sometimes
lose their their track, 6 rarely lose their track but 5 respondents are there who always lose
their track when they use the smart phone.

6
A

10

Ques:10 The thought of how much I am using my phone makes me feel distressed.
A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

No. of respondents

8(26.67%) 15(50%)

Total

3(10%) 4(13.33%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
Out of the whole sample, 50% never feel distressed without their phone. 26.67%
sometimes feel distressed without their phone. 13.33% rarely feel distressed without their
phone and only 10% people always feel distressed without their phone.

A
B
C
D

Ques:11 I feel safer because I can always use my phone to get help.
A) Sometimes
B Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

13

30

INTERPRETATION:
13 people are there who always feel safe with phone because they think that they can use
their phone-in emergency. 7 people think that they can use their phone in rare cases. 6
sometimes use their phone while 4 people think that they never feel safe if they had
phone with them.

14

13

12
10
8
No. of students

6
4

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:12 When I feel bore I use my phone to entertain myself.


A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table

Options

Total

No. of respondents

10

11

30

INTERPRETATION:
Majority of 11 respondent always use their phone to entertain themselves, when they feel
bored. 10 respondent said that they sometime use their phone, 6 respondent rarely use
their phone to entertain themselves. And only 6 respondent are there who never use their
phone to entertain themselves.
12
10

11

10

8
No. of students

6
4

2
0
A

Options

Ques:13 How do you change your mobile phone?


A) Every 4 yrs

B) Every3 yrs
C) Every 2 yrs
D) Every 1 yrs

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

10

30

INTERPRETATION:
10 people are there who changes their mobile phone in every 4 years, 7 people are there
who changes their mobile phone in every 3 years. 8 people changes phone in every 2
years and only 5 people prefer to change their phone in every 1 year.
12
10

10

8
No. of students

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:14 What are your preference for consuming news on smartphones?


A) News in the form of text
B) News in the form of audio
C) News in the form of video
D) News in the form of photos

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

10(33.33%) 6(20%) 8(26.67%) 6(20%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
33.33 % or 10 respondents prefer for consuming news in the form of text on there smart
phone while 26.67% or 8 respondents prefer for watching news in video form. 20% or 6
respondents are there to see news in audio form and the same 20% or 6 respondents are
there who like to see news in photos format.
12
10

10
8

8
No. of respondents

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:15 If you are a buy a phone how important are these factors below influencing your
decisions (price, quality, design, features, performance, brand)
A) Not at all imp
B) Neutral
C) Imp
D) Very imp

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

11

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of whole sample, for 11 respondents the features of phone matter a lot. 9 respondents
feel neutral. Whereas for 6 respondents the features of phone is important but not a lot
and only 4 respondents are there who are not at all bother about the features of phone
when they have to buy a phone.

12

11

10

8
No. of respondents

6
4

2
0
A

Options

Ques:16 How does owing a smartphone effect the livelihood of you bringing your laptop,
tablet or netbook to campus?
A) More likely
B) Neutral
C) Less likely
D) About the same

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

12

30

INTERPRETATION:
For 12 respondent feels neutral ,7 respondent feels less effect ,5 respondents feels more effect of
owing a Smartphone effect the livelihood of bringing laptop, tablet or net book to campus and the
remaining 6 respondents feels no effect of owing a Smartphone effect the livelihood of bringing
laptop, tablet or net book to campus. It means that majority feels neutral.

15

12

10
No. of respondents

0
A

Options

Ques:17 Do you agree with the statement Uses of smart phone effect the health of the
user.
A) 0-20%
B) 20-50%
C) 50-80%
D) 80-100%

Analysis Table

Options

Total

No. of respondents

13

30

INTERPRETATION:
13 respondents think that use of Smartphone effect the health of the user up to 20-50%, 7
respondents think that 50-80% smart phone effect the health of the user. Where as 6 respondents
think that up to 20% smart phone effect the health and only 4 respondents think that from 80100% there is a impact of smart phone on health of youth.

13

14
12
10
8
No. of respondents

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:18 Who will you most likely to connect with the smartphone?
A) Classmates

B) Friends
C) Parents
D) others

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

6(20%) 15(50%) 5(16.67%) 4(13.33%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
50% people likely to connect with friends with their smart phone. 20% likes to connect with
classmates and 16.67% people like to connect with their parents with phone. And only 13.33%
people specify others like relatives, cousions, and other family members.

16

15

14
12
10
No. of respondents

8
6

2
0
A

B
Options

Ques:19 Upto what range you prefer smartphones?


A) 8000-10000
B) 13000-20000
C) 20000-40000
D) Above 40000

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

13

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of the whole sample, 13 respondents prefer smart phone from 8000-10000 range. Than 8
respondents prefer it from 13000-20000. 6 respondents prefer it from 20000-40000. And only 3
respondents are there who prefer the range of smart phone above 40000.

14

13

12
10

8
No. of respondents

4
2
0
A

Options

Ques:20 Do you think you should have the same Smartphone or better than what your
friend had?
A) Yes
B) No
C) Sometimes
D) rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of
respondents

4(13.33%) 14(46.67%) 7(23.33%) 5(16.67%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
46.67% people does not think to have a same or better phone than their friend had. 23.33%
sometimes feels to have a same or better phone than their friend. 16.67% rarely think and
13.33% people always think to have a better phone than their friends.

14

15
10
No. of students

7
4

0
A

Options

Ques:21 Do you feel addicted toward your phone?


A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

13

30

INTERPRETATION:
Out of the whole sample, 13 people never feel addicted towards their phone while 8 people
sometimes feel addicted. 5 people rarely feel addicted and only 4 people are their who always
feel addicted towards there phone. It means majority is not addicted towards their phone.

14

13

12
10
8
No. of students

2
0
A

Options

Ques:22 Do you ignore your relatives and family members due to your smartphones?
A) Sometimes
B) Never
C) Always
D) Rarely

Analysis Table
Options

Total

No. of respondents

6(20%) 13(43.33%) 4(13.34%) 7(23.33%) 30(100%)

INTERPRETATION:
Majority of 43.33%people said that they never ignore their relatives and family members due to
their smart phones use. 23.33% of people said that they rarely ignore their relatives and family
members. 20%people sometimes ignore their relatives and family members and only 13.34% of
people said that they always ignore their relatives and family members because of their smart
phone use. It means that majority of people never neglect their relatives and family members.

14
12
10
8
No. of students 6
4
2
0

13

6
4

Options

ANALYSIS OF OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS


Ques:1 Do you think phone effect your performance in studies?

Interpretation:Some people said no. There is no effect of smart phones on


studies. They said that it depend on the hard work and
sincerity of student. Some people never use phone in study
time in this way they are not affected by their phone during
study. Some people keep their phone when they are study.

Some people phone affect them during their study because


they are habitual of doing chatting and messaging. Some
people are very much addicted and busy uploading their
status on facebook or many Social networking sites.

Some people are there who uses there phone in there studies.
They take help of smartphone in preparing the study notes.
While some people are there for whom in depend on the
person who use it.

Ques:2 Do you believe that emergence of smartphone has change the way
of communication with one another ?
Interpretation:-

o Yes because it quickly connect the other people with you in a few
seconds.
o It is such a technology which provide easy an a very attractive way to
communicate with one another.
o Emergence of smartphones made the communication faster .
o It frequently connect you with a person who is sitting several mile far
from your place.
o With a smartphone you can but only talk to them but you can also see
them.
o It causes easy and convenient way of communication.

Ques:3 How does owning a phone or not owning a phone effect you.
Interpretation:-

o Owning a Smartphone makes life easy but it does not affect the person if
it does not owning a Smartphone.
o Owning a Smartphone help in trouble situation the person can contact
with there family and friends when they need help.
o Smartphone is easy accessible. It affects the status of the person by
describing the living status.
o It effect a lot in case if a person haven habit of looking at their phone
again and again even the phone does not ring.
o Owning of Smartphone help in emergency time like accident etc. A
person make contact to his friend or family but by not owning a phone
he cannot make contact to any one in any kind of situation.

Ques:4 Do you think having a smartphone can effect the health of person.

Interpretation:-

o A person use the Smartphone more than the normal limit it affect the
health and cause mental problem in a person.
o It emits the harmful radiation which affects the hearing capacity of the
person and reduces the concentration power.
o It cause brain tumor and cancer.
o Excessive use of it lead to stress, frustration, irritation, disturbance, and
bad tempered.
o It affect the health of the user in many other way like ear problem when
they uses Smartphone for many hours of calling without disconnected
and listing music at loud in ear phones.
o Eye problem when he or she continuously watching the screen of
Smartphone for watching movies and playing games also vibration of
the Smartphone affect the hard also.

Ques:5 What is the biggest advantage do you think smartphones brings to


you?
Interpretation:o It helps in day to day life and keep the person in contact with there
family, friends , relatives, and help in uncertain situation.

o Smartphone bought the world near to the user in just one click. By
sitting at one place only user can get the news of the world.
o They are many ways to communicate through your Smartphone. There
are many apps available on Smartphone for searching any places and
many services are provided which make the day to day life very easy.

Ques:6 Do you think in todays scenario the uses of phone increases the
crime among teens?
Interpretation:o An urge for expensive Smartphone leads to crime among teens to a great
extends.
o Teens uses their phone for wrong purpose and are more addicted towards
their phone and find many new methods to misuse the phone. Nature of
crime depends on individual psychology also.
o Corruption and frauds are done with phones.
o Today parents want to their child save so they by expensive phone for
their child, not aware of misuses of Smartphone in such a young age.

CHI SQUARE TEST

The chi-square test is an important test among the several tests of significance developed
by statisticians. This test was developed by Professor Fisher and first time used by Karl

Pearson. Chi square, symbolically written as 2 (pronounced as Ki-square), is a statistical


measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical
variance. As a non-parametric test, it can be used to determine if categorical data shows
dependency or the two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make
comparisons between theoretical populations and actual data when categories are used.
Thus, the chi square is applicable in large number of problems. The test is, in fact, a
technique through the use of which it is possible for all researchers to (i) test the goodness
of fit; (ii) test the significance of association between two attributes, and (iii) test the
homogeneity or the significance of population variance.

CHARACTERSTICS OF CHI-SQUARE TEST


Following are the important characteristics of 2 test:

As this test is non-parametric test hence it is based on the frequencies and not on
the parameters like mean and standard deviation.
The test is used for testing the hypothesis and is not for estimation.
This test can also be applied to a complex contingency table with several classes
and as such is very test in research work.
This test is an important non-parametric test as no rigid assumptions are necessary
in regard to the type of population, no need of parameter values and relatively less
mathematical details are involved.
It is used when there is a need of comparing between expected and observed
frequencies.
Chi-square distribution is a skewed distribution particularly with smaller degree of
freedom and as the sample size and degree of freedom increases and becomes
large, chi square distribution approach normality.

IMPORTANCE OF CHI-SQUARE TEST


Chi-square test enables us to find out the degree of discrepancy between observed and
expected frequency also known as theoretical frequency and then to determine whether
the discrepancy so obtained between observed and expected frequency is due to error of
sampling or error of chance. Hence, chi square test enables us to compare observed and

expected frequencies objectively, since it is not possible to tell just by looking at them
whether they are different enough to be considered statistically significant. Statistically
significance in this case implies that differences are not due to chance alone, but instead
may be indicative of other processes at work.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OFCHI-SQUARE TEST

CONDITIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF CHI-SQUARE TEST


The following conditions should be satisfied before 2 can be applied:
Observations recorded and used are collected on a random basis.
All the items in the sample must be independent.
No group should contain very few items, say less than 10. In case where the
frequencies are less than 10, regrouping is done by combining the frequencies of
adjoining group so that the new frequencies become greater than 10. Some
statistician take this number as 5, but 10 is regarded as better by most of the
statisticians.
The overall number of items must also be reasonably large. It should normally be
at least 50, howsoever small the number the groups may be.
The constraints must be linear. Constraints which involve linear equations in the
cell frequencies of a contingency table are known as linear constraints.

ANALYSIS TABLE

Q.NO

OPTION
A

OPTION
B

OPTION
C

OPTION
D

TOTAL

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
TOTAL

20
8
12
8
22
14
24
24
18
16
12
20
20
20
8
10
12
12
26
8
16
12
342

16
24
10
10
20
12
16
18
20
30
8
6
14
12
18
24
26
30
16
28
26
26
410

12
16
10
34
10
22
8
6
10
6
26
22
16
16
12
14
14
10
12
14
8
8
306

12
12
28
8
8
12
12
12
12
8
14
12
10
12
22
12
8
8
6
10
10
14
262

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
1320

HYPOTHESIS TESTING QUESTION:

1. Put tick on the right option.


A) MALE ( )

B) FEMALE( )

2. What according to you is the effect of smart phone ?


A) POSITIVE ( )

B) NEGATIVE ( )

ANALYSIS SHEET OF ABOVE HYPOTHESIS TESTING


QUESTION
PARTICULARS

MALES

FEMALES

TOTAL

Positive effect

16

20

36

Negative effect

12

12

24

TOTAL

28

32

60

STEPS INVOLVED IN APPLYING CHI-SQUARE TEST

For the purpose of applying chi-square test 60 respondents have been taken into
consideration. The application of chi-square test has been done on the frequency of 2
hypothesis testing questions. The respondents have been chosen randomly from the
population (area of research). The steps to be followed for calculating the value of chisquare are:

STEP 1: Formulation of hypothesis.


The very first step is the formulation of null and alternate hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant difference between the


impact of smartphones on boys and girls.

Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is significant difference


between the impact of smartphones on boys and girls.

STEP 2: Preparation of 2*2 Table


A 2*2 is prepared with the help of total columns of analysis sheet.

AB=16

aB=20

B=36

Ab=12

ab=12

b=24

A=28

a=32

N=60

AB=Males with positive impact=16


Ab= Males with negative impact=12
aB= females with positive impact=20
ab= females with negative impact=12

STEP 3: Calculation of expected frequencies.


Then the expected frequencies are calculated on the basis of formed hypothesis
corresponding to each cell by formula. The expected frequency for any given cell is
worked out as under:
Expected frequency of any cell=
(Row total of the row of that cell)*
(Column total for the column of that cell)
Grand total
i.e.
Ei= Ri *Ci /N
Where,
Ei= expected frequency
Ri = sum total of rows in which Ei lies
Ci= Sum total of columns in which Ei lies
n = total number of samples.
Expected frequencies are as follows:
(Group A ) AB=36 *28/ 60= 16.8
(Group B) Ab=24 *28/ 60= 11.2

(Group C ) aB=36 *32/ 60 = 19.2


(Group D ) ab= 24*32/60 = 12.8

STEP 4: PREPARATION OF CHI-SQUARE TABLE

Obtain the difference between observed and expected frequencies and find out the
squares of such differences i.e. calculate (Oi Ei)2.

Divide the quantity (OiEi)2 obtained as stated above by the corresponding


expected frequency to get (OiEi)2 / Ei and this should be done for all the cell
frequencies.

Chi-square table
Group

Oi

Ei

Oi-Ei

(OiEi)2

(OiEi)2 /
Ei

16

16.8

-0.8

0.64

0.039

12

11.2

0.8

0.64

0.057

20

19.2

0.8

0.64

0.033

12

12.8

-0.8

0.64

0.05

Total

=0.179

STEP5: CALCULATION OF VALUE OF CHI-SQUARE


Find the summation of values of (OiEi)2 / Ei or we can write it as (OiEi)2 / Ei.
is the required 2 value.
From the above table the value of chi-square is 2 = 0.179

This

STEP6: CALCULATION OF DEGREE OF FREEDOM


Degree of freedom is calculated in supposition that in a certain lot of sample there can be
some defective items, the lot may not be good. Hence we need to decide the number items
to be tested and the criteria for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis.
Here, the degree of freedom is calculated by the given formula:

Degree of freedom=(R-1) (C-1) where,


R=total no. of rows
C=total no. of columns.
Here, degree of freedom = (2-1) (2-1)
=1

STEP7: DECIDING LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE


Level of significance means that researcher is willing to take a certain percentage of risk
with a probability of rejecting true Ho. Hence a level of significance is decided.
Here, level of significance is taken as 5%.

STEP8: FINDING OUT THE TABLE VALUE


Table value is found at after deciding level of significance and degree of freedom from the
2 table.
Here, taking 5% level of significance and 1 degree of freedom, the table value comes out
to be 3.841

RESULT:

From the above calculations, observed value is 0.179 and the table
value is 3.841.The observed value is smaller than the table value; hence observed value lie
in acceptance region. It does not lies in the rejection area. Hence, the null hypothesis is
accepted.

Therefore, by taking 5% level of significance and 1 degree of freedom null hypothesis is


accepted.

CONCLUSION:
By taking 5% level of significance and 1 degree of freedom null hypothesis is accepted
and hence conclude that, there is no significance difference between impacts of smart
phone on youth

SUGGESTIONS
As my topic is impact of smart phone on youth, as result of study itself gives that there is
same impact of smart phone on youth. Majority of people feel addicted towards their
phone. If they use there Smartphone correctly and do not develop any addiction for it,
then the benefits of having it are one and several.
Some of the benefits are:

There is no limit to the contacts information (only limited by available memory).


Traditional phone has fixed limit on number of storable contacts.
There are many applications that you can download.
You are able to add plug-in to its web browser, such as enabling the capability to
display flash animation
.

If you pay for it, you can have internet access which allows you to check your email, access facebook, etc.
They help you keep yourself organized. Smartphone handsets can function as
personal organisers, with electronic diaries, contact lists, and automatic reminders.
Never out of touch you can connect to the internet for e-mail and web accesson
the move, or connect to your computer network to access relevant data.
You have faster communication. For example on blackberries you have BlackBerry
Messenger which is a very fast method of communication between Blackberries.

Above benefits will work only when people uses their phone as a phone and not become
addicted towards it.

CONCLUSION
When it comes to the conclusion of topic then there are a few things that may or may
not majorly impact peoples decision to purchase one or not. Currently some smart
phones have Internet capabilities, but they will be better in the future. The Internet will
be much quicker, since its looking like a 4G network is on the horizon, and also more
efficient. Instead of looking at a webpage in mobile view people will just see it as you
do on the computer. There is also talk of widgets, which are basically applications that

are

on

your

Smartphone

and

can

access

information

on

the

backend.

Another topic in the future of Smartphones are the memory capabilities. As of now
there are memory cards and Smartphone that just store information on a memory bank
inside the phone itself. Some phones have both of these. Researchers are trying to figure
out how to create more space, so that the phones will run faster as well as perform
applications
with
better
quality.
Hence, there is a big importance of smart phone in today generation. We came to know
various merits and demerits of smart phone and its impact on youth the future of smart
phone from world perspective and Indian perspective.
To know the views of smart phone questionnaires were made to be filled by the
respondents. From that we came to know that though smart phone has many advantages
but the some users are still dissatisfied somehow or the other way. They consider smart
phone effect as negative and for some user its effect on youth is positive.
smart phone has made consumers induce their needs, hence their preferences have
changed and so the expenditure pattern.
For proving the hypothesis of research chi-square test has been applied systematically by
analyzing the responses from respondents.

TITLE

AUTHORS

Research Methodology
Dr. KOTHARI

(Methods and
Techniques)

CAUVERY &
Research Methodology
SUDHANAYAK &
GIRIJA & MEENAKSHI
Research Methodology
BHATTACHARYA

Research Methodology
PANNEERSELVAM

EDITION PUBLISHER
Second
Revised
Edition
-2004

New Age
International
(P) Limited

First
Edition

S. Chand

-2003
Second
Edition

Excel Books
Prentice hall of

2007

India private
limited

Research Methodology
Dr. MICHAEL
In Management

2006

Bibliography
NEWSPAPERS & MAGAZINES:

Economic Time
Hindustan Times
The Times of India
India Today

Himalaya
Publishing
House

WEBSITES:

http://en.oboulo.com/impact-smart-phones-business-private-life-83167.html
http://www.springerplus.com/content/1/1/11
http://en.oboulo.com/summary?id=80970
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1949222
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10304312.2012.706459
http://www.techulator.com/resources/6688-Smartphones-Advance-featureshistory.aspx

Annexure