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E106: UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

MASALUNGA, Kimberly T.
The set of weights are used to make necessary
OBJECTIVE
weight adjustments in the experiment.
Centripetal force is a force on an object directed
Stop watch is used in the experiment to get the
to the center of a circular path that keeps the
time of revolution of the platform.
object on the path. Its value is based on three
factors: 1) the velocity of the object as it follows
the circular path; 2) the object's is distance from
the center of the path; and 3) the mass of the
object. (education-portal.com)
The purposes of this experiment are:
1. To determine effect of the change in
radius of the rotating body to the result of
the period of rotation, frequency and
centripetal force.
2. To determine effect of the change in
weight of the rotating body to the result of
the period of rotation, frequency and
centripetal force.
3. To determine effect of the change in
weight in the weight hanger to the mass
of the rotating body.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The materials used for this experiment are one
set of rotating platform, one clamp-on pulley, set
of weights, weight hanger and a stop watch.
The rotating platform is the apparatus to be used
in the experiment to find the centripetal force of
the rotating body.

Figure 1: Materials used in the experiment.

Procedure:
A. Determination of Centripetal Force (with
constant mass and variable radius of
rotation)
1. The rotating platform was placed to a
surface that is 0 degrees so that it will be
accurate.
2. The radius was set to 16 cm by adjusting
the side post to the desired radius.
3. A mass of 10 grams (or any mass) was
put in the weight hanger.
4. The spring bracket was adjusted up or
down to make sure that the spring is in
vertical orientation.

5. The indicator bracket was adjusted to


where the orange indicator is. It was in
adjusted with an eye level position to
make sure it is at the same level.
6. The mass in the weight hanger was
removed.
7. The apparatus was gently rotated. The
orange indicator was at the center of the
indicator bracket to keep its desired
radius.
8. A stop watch was used to record the time
of the 10 revolutions of the apparatus.
The time obtained was divided into ten
and was recorded in the data table.

3. The spring bracket was adjusted up or


down to make sure that the spring is in
vertical orientation.
4. The indicator bracket was adjusted to
where the orange indicator is. It was in
adjusted with an eye level position to
make sure it is at the same level.
5. The mass in the weight hanger was
removed.
6. The apparatus was gently rotated. The
orange indicator was at the center of the
indicator bracket to keep its desired
radius.
7. A stop watch was used to record the time
of the 10 revolutions of the apparatus. The
time obtained was divided into ten and
was recorded in the data table.
8. Two more trials were made by changing the
mass of the rotating body then steps 3 to 7
were repeated.
9. The centripetal force was computed by
using the formula, Fc = m4

f r.

2 2

10. Percentage difference was calculated using


Figure 2: Group mates were conducting the
experiment part 1.

the formula,
9. For the next trial, the side post was
moved to 17 cm and for the other trial,
one cm was added. Steps 3 to 8 were
repeated.
10. The centripetal force was computed by
using the formula, Fc = m4

f r.

2 2

11. Percentage difference was calculated using

the formula,

AV EV
100
AV + EV
.
2

B. Determination of Centripetal Force (with


constant radius and variable mass of
rotating body)
1. The radius was set to 17 cm (or any
desired radius), it was used for the entire
experiment B.
2. The mass of the rotating body was
recorded in the data table.

AV EV
100
AV + EV
.
2

C. Determination of mass of rotating body


(with variable force)
1. A mass of 10 grams was put on the
weight hanger.
2. The radius was set to 17 cm (or any
desired radius), it was used for the
entire experiment C.
3. The spring bracket was adjusted up or
down to make sure that the spring is in
vertical orientation.
4. The indicator bracket was adjusted to
where the orange indicator is. It was in
adjusted with an eye level position to
make sure it is at the same level.
5. The mass in the weight hanger was
removed.
6. The apparatus was gently rotated. The
orange indicator was at the center of
the indicator bracket to keep its desired
radius.

7. A stop watch was used to record the


Table 1. Determination of Centripetal Force (variable
radius of rotation)
Mass of rotating body, m= 207.7 g
(Mass hanging+ mass of pan) x 980 cm/s2 = 14 700 dynes
Actual value of centripetal force
TRIAL
Radius of
Period of
Frequency
Centripetal
rotation, r
rotation, T
of
Force
rotation, f (experimental
value),

Fc
1

16 cm

1.7325 s

17 cm

1.9315 s

18 cm

1.8180 s

19 cm

1.7440 s

20 cm

1.9620 s

0.5772
rev/s
0.51773
rev/s
0.5501
rev/s
0.5734
rev/s
0.5097
rev/s

Centripetal Force (Average)


Percent Difference

time

13, 912.9703
dynes
11, 893.3954
dynes
14, 214.4843
dynes
16, 304.4818
dynes
13, 560.5827
dynes

Figure 3: Group mate was changing the


mass in the weight hanger.

9. The mass of the rotating body was


computed using the formula, m=

Fc

4 2 f 2 r .
10. Percentage difference was calculated

using the formula,

AV EV
100
AV + EV
.
2

13, 977.1829
dynes
5.0411%

of the 10 revolutions of the

Table 2. Determination of Centripetal Force (constant


radius and variable mass of rotating body)
Radius of rotation, r= 17 cm
(Mass of hanging + mass of pan) x 980 cm/s2 =14,700 dynes
TRIAL

Mass of
rotating
body, m

Period of
rotation, T

Frequency of
rotation, f

Centripetal
Force (exp.
Value), Fc

207.7 g

2.9210 s

0.3423 rev/s

157.3 g

2.5030 s

0.3995 rev/s

106.9 g

2.3650 s

0.4228 rev/s

16,337.3661
dynes
16,850.6121
dynes
12,826.9698
dynes
15,338.3160
dynes
4.25%

Centripetal Force (Average)


Percent Difference

apparatus. The time obtained was


divided into ten and was recorded in
the data table.
8. Four more trials were made by hanging
the mass in the weight hanger.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS

In this part of the experiment the mass of the


rotating body and the mass in the weight hanger
are constant. Only the radius is changing, the
initial radius was set at 16 cm then in every trial
one cm was added. The period of rotation is
obtained by dividing the time in the stop watch
by 10 while frequency is the inverse of period.
Centripetal force was computed using the formula
in the procedure.
In experiment B, the radius of the rotating body
and the mass in the weight hanger are constant
while the mass of the rotating body is changing.
The period of rotation is obtained by dividing the
time in the stop watch by 10 while frequency is
the inverse of period. Centripetal force was
computed using the formula in the procedure. As
the mass of the rotating body is decreasing, the
period of rotation is decreasing as well. While as

the mass of the rotating body is decreasing, its


frequency is increasing.
In this part of the experiment the mass of the
rotating body and the radius are constant. Only
the mass in the weight hanger is changing. The
period of rotation is obtained by dividing the time
in the stop watch by 10 while frequency is the
inverse of period. Centripetal force was computed
using the formula in the procedure. As the mass
in the weight hanger is increasing, the mass of
the rotating body is increasing as well.
Sample computations: (For Table 1)

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION


Table 3. Determination of Mass of the rotating body
(constant radius and variable force)
Radius of rotating body, r = 17 cm
Mass of rotating body, m = 207.7 g
TRIAL

1
2
3

For trial 1:
Fc = m4

4
5

fr

2 2

Fc = (207.7) (4

) (0.5772)2 (16)

= 13, 912.97026
(For Table 2)
For trial 1:
Fc = m4

fr

2 2

Fc = (207.7) (4

= 16, 337.36608
(For Table 3)
For trial 1:

Fc

m=

4 2 f 2 r

19,600
2 2
4 f r

=161.144

) (0.342348)2 (17)

(Mass
hanging
+mass of
pan) x 980
cm/s2
19, 600
dynes
24, 500
dynes
29, 400
dynes
34, 300
dynes
39, 200
dynes
Mass of

Period of
rotation,
T

Frequency
of rotation,
f

Mass of
rotating
body (exp.
value), m

2.3490 s

0.4257 s

161.1437 g

2.1790 s

0.4589 s

173.3293 g

1.9620 s

0.5097 s

168.6307 g

1.9560 s

0.5112 s

195.5344 g

1.9900 s

0.5025 s

231.3042 g

rotating body (Average)


Percent Difference

185. 9885
g
11.0230%

I can say that the experiment that I have


conducted with my group mates was successful
because the data that we have gathered are
good. And the percentage difference that we
have computed is very small which means that
our data is near to the calculated values. For the
improvement of this experiment, it is important
to follow the procedures correctly and to set the
materials properly because wrong set up might
cause inaccurate results. It is better to have
coordination among the group so that the time of
revolution will be accurate.
After conducting the experiment, I can say that
radius of the rotating body may affect the time of
revolution. The longer the radius the longer the
time it takes to make 10 revolutions. The same
with the change in mass of the rotating body, it
also affects the result of the period of rotation.
As the mass of the rotating body is decreasing,
the period of rotation is decreasing as well. While
as the mass of the rotating body is decreasing,
its frequency is increasing. And lastly, as the
mass in the weight hanger is increasing, the
mass of the rotating body is increasing as well.

The possible errors that might be encountered in


the experiments are the wrong set up of the

rotating platform. Also, there may be an


inaccurate time if the start of the time is not
equal to the time the platform rotated.
Inaccuracy may also be encountered if the
surface where the platform is placed is not at 0
degrees. There may also be errors if the orange
indicator is not at the indicator bracket.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT & REFERENCE
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to
all those people who have inspired and helped
me to finish this lab report. First I would like to
thank God for giving me the energy, wisdom and
strength to do this. Also, I would like to thank my
professor, Ricardo De Leon, for explaining to us
what should be done with the experiment. Also I
would like to thank him for teaching us how to
write this lab report properly. And to Mang Jing
and Mang Jerry who never lose patience in

lending us the materials and explaining to us the


use of the materials. Also, my group mates who
helped me conduct the activity successfully. I
would like to acknowledge their enthusiasm to
finish this experiment with good data and results.
I would like to give special recognition to Niel
Atienza and Kashieca Roxas for their skills in MS
Excel. Also, I would like to thank Reymarie
Carbonel for uploading all the photos of our
experiment in our facebook group. And lastly, I
would like to thank my parents for supporting me
in my studies.
SOURCE:
http://educationportal.com/academy/lesson/centripetal-forcedefinition-formula-examples.html