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Read out the sentences and see whether they are correct :
a) The boy worked really hard he secured a fabulous scholarship
b) The boy worked really hard, he secured a fabulous scholarship
The first one is an example of Run-on sentence or Fused Sentence. The second one is an
example of Comma splice.
Sentence : The sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. Every sentence has
two essential parts : Subject and Predicate. The Subject of a sentence is the part about which
something is being said. The Predicate of a sentence is the part which says something about the
subject. Example : The girls on the team \ were all good students.
The Complete Subject is the main word and all its modifiers. Exp : The four new students of
class eight \ arrived late. The Simple Subject is the main word in the complete subject. Exp :
The Complete Predicate is the verb and all its modifiers. Exp: Bob \ plays the piano well. The
verb is the complete predicate is the Simple Predicate. Exp: In the sentence Bob plays the
piano well. The verb plays is the simple predicate.
A simple case of Subject/Verb Agreement :
The discovery of new lands (was/were) vital to the expansion of the British Empire.
The building of tall skyscrapers (has/have) increased in the past few years.
Clauses and Phrases are the building blocks for sentences. A clause is a group of related words
containing a subject and a verb. Exp : A flood often leaves behind trails of destruction. A clause is
different from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and a verb. Example: The
house at the end of this road was built during the colonial period by a Zaminder.
There are Various kinds of sentences depending on how the clauses are connected among
themselves: Simple Sentence, Complex Sentence , and Compound Sentence.
Simple Sentence : A simple sentence has only one subject and one verb. Example : a) The team
won the championship.
b) The car crashed into the barricade, killing all its passengers. Compound Sentence : A
Compound Sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete
sentences) connected to another with a coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunctions are
easy to remember if you think of the word FANBOYS. ( For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) Example : a)
Joe waited for the train, but the train was late. b ) Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station ,
and they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. Complex
Sentence : A Complex Sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more
dependent clauses connected to it.

An Independent Clause is one that can stand by itself and still make sense. An Independent
Clause could be its own sentence, but is often part of a large structure, combined with other
independent clause and with dependent clause.
A Dependent Clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks
one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence. Examples of dependent clauses
include the following: a) because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon b)
While he waited at the train station ) after they left on the bus. Dependent Clauses begin with a
subordinating conjunction.
Example of Subordinate Conjunctions : after, although, as, because, before, even if, even though,
if, in order that, once, provided that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until,
when, whenever, where, whereas, whenever, whether, while, why .
Run-on Sentences and Comma Splice
A run-on sentence is one in which two clauses have been connected incorrectly. If you put two
sentences (or independent clauses) together without a sufficient amount of signals (commas, semicolons, or connecting words), you have created a run-on. Example of a run-on or fused
sentence : Some students think that they can study for an important exam by cramming all night
they are probably wrong.
A Comma Splice connects two independent clauses with only a comma. Example of a Comma
Splice : Some students think that they can study for an important exam by cramming all night,
they are probably wrong.
Ways to fix Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices :

We can insert a period and start a new sentence. Example : Some students think that
they can study for an important exam by cramming all night. They are probably wrong.
We can insert a comma and a coordinating conjunction . Example : Some students
think that they can study for an important exam by cramming all night, but They are
probably wrong.
We can use a semicolon. Example : Some students think that they can study for an
important exam by cramming all night; they are probably wrong.

For a sentence to be grammatically correct, its individual parts must be parallel. Although
parallelism does not affect every sentence, it impacts a large percentage of them. Parallelism
dictates that comparable sentence parts must be structurally similar. The following example
demonstrates a sentence that lacks parallel structure.
The employees were upset with their low pay, poor working conditions and that
they did not have many
opportunities for advancements.

Notice that this example has three comparable parts the three items that upset the employees.
The structure of the first two parts low pay and poor working condition is similar; both parts
consist of a noun modified by an adjective. However the third part has a different structure
altogether, it is a clause consisting of a subject, verb, and object. In order to make the sentence
parallel, we must change the third item so that its structure is like that of the first two items (noun
modified by adjective):
The employees were upset with their low pay, poor working conditions, and limited
opportunities for advancements.
Parallelism of Nouns :
Parallelism of Adjectives :
Parallelism of Verbs :

Trevor collects stamps, souvenirs, and cards.

The wait staff was prompt, friendly, and
We worked all day, ate all evening, and slept all night.

Parallelism of Verb Infinitives :

around the world.
Parallelism of Participial Phrases :
thirsty plants but flooding

I decided to swim across the river rather than sail

(The second to is optional.)
The rain continued to fall, providing water for the

the streets as well.

Parallelism of Adverbial Phrases : Ive noticed that you often howl in anger after you
cower in fear.
He plays basketball.
He hated her.
In the sentence He plays basketball , ask the verb plays the question What he plays? If
you get an answer then it is the object of the verb plays. Objects are usually nouns or
pronouns. In the second sentence He hated her.
Ask the verb hated the question Whom he hated? If you get a definite answer then the
answer is also an
Object. If a verb has an Object then it is a transitive verb.
Now notice the following examples :
He bought a camera, a computer, and a sunglass.

(Bought what? The

answer to this
question will give the names of things that
must be expressed in
parallel form that is all noun forms)
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include
fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the

Earth's crust,
changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the
electrical properties
of underground rocks.
He believed that the document was fake.

Usage of Comma
Use a comma to set off the elements of a series (three or more things), including the
last 2.
Example : My favorite uses of the internet are sending e-mails, surfing the web, and
using chat room.
Use a comma and a co-coordinating conjunction ( and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so) to
separate to independent clauses. Example : The public seems eager for some kind
of gun control legislation, but the congress is obviously too timid to enact any duly
effective measures.
If the two independent clauses are brief and nicely balanced, this comma may be
omitted, but the comma is always correct. Example: Our team is very good but their
team is better.
Use a comma to set off an introductory element:
- Anxious about the upcoming winter, settlers began to bicker among themselves
about supplies.
- In the winter of 1644, nearly half the settlers died of starvation.
- In 1844 the settlers abandoned their initial outpost.
(If the introductory element is brief and the sentence can be read easily without
the comma, it can
be omitted)
Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives :
- Coaches grew weary of running practices in the drafty, dreary, dilapidated
- The designs for an expensive, modern gymnasium should make them happy.
( If you could put a but or an and between the adjectives, you should put a
comma between them)
- Expensive and modern = expensive, modern but not a little and old house.
A little old house would be correct.


Use a comma to set of elements that expresses a contrast or a turn in the sentence.
- The house was cute, but too expensive for newlywed.
- They were looking for something practical, not luxurious.
Use a comma to set off quoted language. We cant see into the future, said the
president, but we have
to prepare for it nonetheless.

The colon comes at a point in the sentence where the sentence where the sentence could come
to a complete stop.

Im going to tell you the names of my favourite breakfast foods.

Im going to tell you the name of my favourite breakfast foods: meuslix, cornflakes,
oatmeal, grits and
gravy, and yogurt on toast.

The apostrophe is used to create possessive forms for singular and plural nouns, especially
nouns referring to people.

the mayors car

my fathers moustache
When a noun already ends in s, you can decide whether or not to use another s after the

Charless car
Charles car
When multisyllabic words, dont add another s after the apostrophe

Dumas second novel ; Jesus birth ; Socrates ideas;

Illinois legislature
To form the possessive of a plural noun, we pluralize the first and then add the apostrophe

The Kennedys house

; The childrens playhouses ; The travelers expectations

common use of apostrophe

Let us go = Lets go
; It is Dridi = Its Dridi
; Its = possessive
The word Mississippi has fur ss
; She got 3 As and 2 Bs
She dotted all her Is carelessly
Subject Verb Agreement

The verb that accompanies pronouns such as all / some depends whether the subject is
countable or not.

Some of the students in the cafeteria have voted already.

Some of the grain was ruined by the flood.

None is usually regarded as singular, but it can be used as a plural pronoun

None of the representatives has indicated how he or she will vote.

None of the representatives have indicated how they will vote.
With functional expressions (functions or decimal equivalents) the verb will be determined by
what is being measured;
is it Countable or not

Two-fifths of the grain is ruined

One-half of the students were convinced that there would be no final exams

Of all the returns we have counted so far, fifty percent are in favor of the referendum.

A majority of the student body is in favour of asking the Dean to stay another year.
Phrases such as together with, along with, and as well as seem to join subjects, but they
do not work the same as
and and they are not conjunctions.
Some of the hay in the barn, as well as some major pieces of firm equipment, was ruined in
the fire.
The major spending bill before Congress, together with some other bill that are awaiting
action, is going to cost taxpayers plenty.
In formal writing, when either or neither appear as a subject (without their sidekicks or and
nor , they are singular. This is true even tough the subject seems to be two things.

Neither of these choices appears to be satisfactory

The purchasing office will lend me a company car or compensate me for travel expenses.
Either is fine with me.
When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions, however, life becomes a bit more.
When either and neither act as correlatives conjunctions, the subject that is closer to the verb
determines the number singular or plural form) of the verb.
Neither the principal nor the teachers are at fault.
Either the teachers or the principal has to be present.
Has either the President or his aides been in touch with you?
Be careful when lengthy or numerous modifying phrase come between the subject and its verb.

Tim Bernes-Lee, one of Americas most prominent computer scientists and as a founder
of the World Wide Web Consortium one of the most important figures in the
development of the internet, has been working quietly at MIT for many years. ( The fact
that the plural Scientists and figures has no effect on our choice of a singular verb