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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 3B
Cover Page

February, 1999

Page 1 of 53

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

CONTENTS
SECTION

PAGE

1.

SCOPE.................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2.

REFERENCE DOCUMENT, CODES AND INDUSTRY STANDARDS ...................................................................... 4

3.

GENERAL............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.

BASIC DESIGN..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.3
4.3.1
4.4
4.5
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

DRAWINGS ..........................................................................................................................................................................6
DESIGN BASIS .....................................................................................................................................................................9
Design Pressure..................................................................................................................................................... 9
Design Temperature ............................................................................................................................................. 9
Design Loading and Condition .......................................................................................................................10
Wind and Earthquake Loads............................................................................................................................11
A LLOWABLE STRESS......................................................................................................................................................13
Vessel Rigging Analysis/Lifting Requirements..............................................................................................15
A NALYSES ........................................................................................................................................................................15
CORROSION A LLOWANCE .............................................................................................................................................15

DESIGN AND FABRICATION DETAILS ......................................................................................................................17


SHELL AND HEAD SEAMS..............................................................................................................................................17
DESIGN OF W ELDED JOINTS .........................................................................................................................................17
REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS ...................................................................................................................................18
REINFORCEMENT AT SHARP CONE-TO-CYLINDER INTERSECTIONS...........................................................19
HEADS AND TRANSITION SECTIONS............................................................................................................................19
NOZZLES, M ANHOLES, CONNECTIONS AND GIRTH JOINTS ....................................................................................19
SUPPORTS.........................................................................................................................................................................22
A NCHOR BOLTS...............................................................................................................................................................22
INSULATION SUPPORTS.................................................................................................................................................22
A CCESS OPENING ............................................................................................................................................................22
VENT IN SKIRT ................................................................................................................................................................23
TOP DAVIT .......................................................................................................................................................................23
NON-PRESSURE PARTS....................................................................................................................................................23
GROUNDING CLIP ............................................................................................................................................................23
NAMEPLATE ....................................................................................................................................................................24
MATERIALS........................................................................................................................................................................24
GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................................................................24
LININGS .............................................................................................................................................................................26
BOLTING...........................................................................................................................................................................26
GASKETS...........................................................................................................................................................................27

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6.5

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

SUPPLEMENTARY M ATERIALS....................................................................................................................................28

7.

FABRICATION...................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................................................................28
CUTTING...........................................................................................................................................................................28
REPAIR W ELDING OF DEFECTS IN M ATERIAL..........................................................................................................28
COLD FORMING ...............................................................................................................................................................28
PREPARATION FOR W ELDING ......................................................................................................................................28
W ELDING..........................................................................................................................................................................29
POST W ELD HEAT TREATMENT .................................................................................................................................30

8.

INSPECTION AND TEST .................................................................................................................................................32

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.5.4
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10

GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................................................................32
M ATERIAL INSPECTION ................................................................................................................................................32
W ELDING INSPECTION...................................................................................................................................................32
DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION...........................................................................................................................................33
NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION ............................................................................................................................34
Radiographic Examination ..............................................................................................................................34
Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Examination...............................................................................35
Ultrasonic Examination ....................................................................................................................................37
Impact Test Examination...................................................................................................................................38
PRESSURE TEST ................................................................................................................................................................38
REJECTION .......................................................................................................................................................................39
POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT CHECK .....................................................................................................................39
SHIPPING PREPARATION CHECK .................................................................................................................................40
INSPECTION REPORT ......................................................................................................................................................40

9.

SHOP PAINTING...............................................................................................................................................................40

10.

PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT..................................................................................................................................41

11.

APPENDIXES ......................................................................................................................................................................43
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3

August, 1999

Summary of Inspection and Tests.......................................................................................................41


Pressure Vessel Tolerances ...............................................................................................................42
Material Sheets......................................................................................................................................46

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Petrokemya

1.

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

SCOPE

This specification defines the mandatory technical requirements for the design, materials, fabrication,
testing and inspection of pressure vessels.

2.
REFERENCE
STANDARDS

DOCUMENT,

CODES

AND

INDUSTRY

The requirements contained in the latest edition of the following documents, codes and standards shall
form a part of this specification, in the manner and to the extent indicated herein:
1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section I
Section II, A, B, C, D
Section V
Section VIII

Section IX

- Power Boilers
- Material Specifications
- Nondestructive Examination
- Pressure Vessels
- Division 1
- Division 2 - Alternative Rules
- Welding and Brazing Qualifications

2) ASME
Transactions - Volume 102, February, 1980
Publication - 71-DET-36
3) ASTM Standards
4) ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges

5) ANSI/AWS A2.4

Standard Weld Symbols

6) ASME

B1.1
B16.5
B18.2.2

Unified Screw Threads


Steel Pipe Flanges, Flanged Valves and Fittings
Square and Hex Nuts

7) Welding Research Council (WRC)


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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Bulletin Number 107, Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External
Loadings
Welding Journal Research Supplement, Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure
Vessels on Two Saddle Supports, L.P. Zick
8) OWNERs General Engineering Specifications

3.

GES-001
GES-003-06
GES-003-51
GES-004
GES-012-01

GES-014-03
GES-019
GES-020
GES-021
GES-024
GES-025-01
GES-025-02

Design Requirements
Design of Welding Requirements
Installation of Towers, Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Vessel Internals
Piping
GES-014-01 Loads and Forces for Use in Designing Buildings,
Structures and Foundations
Fireproofing of Vessels and Structural Steel
Design of Painting
Hot Insulation
Cold Insulation
Threads and Bolts and Nuts
Inspection
Alloy Verification

GENERAL
1) All pressure vessels except those listed below shall conform to the requirements of the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, including latest addenda,
(hereinafter referred to as Division 1), together with the supplemental requirements described
herein. Code stamp requirements will be specified on vessel data sheets and/or mechanical
drawings, however vessels shall be constructed and inspected in compliance to the requirements
of Division 1 as a minimum requirement.
a) VENDORs standard air receivers and pressure vessels furnished as part of proprietary or
standardized equipment shall conform to the applicable code requirements and the
VENDORs standards for the design conditions.
b) Pressure vessels when part of the ASME Code Section I, Steam Generating Equipment
shall be designed in accordance with Section I of the ASME Code and the requirements of
this specification.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

c) Vessels designed for pressure above 207 Barg (3000 psig) or those of special (proprietary)
design or construction shall conform to applicable ASME Code requirements and to the
VENDORs proprietary design and construction practice for such equipment.
2) Vessels shall also conform to the requirements of any applicable local rules. In case of a conflict
between requirements in this specification, applicable code and local rules, the most stringent
requirement shall apply.
3) Any deviation from the requirements herein shall be subject to approval by OWNER.
4) Individual Specification for Pressure Vessels of Process Unit shall be applied to all pressure
vessels in process units as supplemental requirements to this specification.

4.

BASIC DESIGN

4.1

Drawings
1) Language: The language of all drawings, specifications and calculations shall be in English.
2) All welding and other fabrication details shall be shown in the VENDORs drawings. All welds
shall be detailed and/or identified by the use of the Standard Welding Symbols of the American
Welding Society ANSI/AWS A2.4.
3) Units and Dimensions: All units shall be modified SI units in accordance with GES-001. Vessel
diameter shall be specified in millimeters rounded up to nearest 100 mm.
4) Data and Specifications: The OWNER will furnish the VENDOR with drawings or data sheets
specifying the design conditions and showing the shape, dimensions, and material specifications
for all primary parts, and certain construction details. In addition, the OWNER will supply such
engineering data as required by the VENDOR to mechanically design and construct the vessel.
5) When OWNER requests the VENDOR to furnish a vessel conforming to the VENDORs
proprietary design, the materials of construction and other construction details shall be selected
by the VENDOR based on the design conditions specified by OWNER.
6) VENDORs drawings shall include:

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

a) OWNER item number, P.O. Number, and M.R. number


b) Local rules (if applicable)
c) References to Specifications and Codes: Also to include all OWNER specifications and
standards as applicable and VENDORs own standards. Copies of such standards shall be
included with the submitted working drawings.
d) Material specifications
e) Maximum allowable working pressure
f) Maximum operating pressure (if specified)
g) Maximum operating temperature (if specified)
h) Minimum operating temperature (if specified)
i) Design pressure
j) Design temperature
k) Minimum design temperature
l) Postweld heat treatment (required or not)
m) Radiography (full, spot or not required) and/or other inspection and testing requirements
and NDE requirements
n) Shell joint efficiencies
o) Head joint efficiencies
p) Corrosion allowance

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

q) Hydrostatic test pressure (both at shop and in field) with minimum permissible test
temperature and quality of water.
r) Pneumatic test pressure (if required)
s) Erection weight
t) Operating weight
u) Full water weight
v) List of reference drawings
w) Nozzle schedule and flange rating/design basis
x) Vessel volume
y) Insulation thickness
z) Thickness of all components
aa) Surface preparation and painting or other protective coating specifications.
bb) Under Special Notes: VENDORs drawings shall also include the following notes as
applicable:

For Stainless Steel (S.S.) Vessels, galvanized parts or zinc coating shall not be used to
avoid zinc dripping on S.S. during fire condition.

Hastelloy B., Monel or nickel and nickel alloy vessel shall be kept clean and away from
substances containing sulphur (e.g. lubricants). Lubricants containing sulphur shall not
be applied to any alloy parts of the vessel.

Substances containing chlorine or which will decompose to hydrogen chloride shall not
be applied to any part of a vessel regardless of the material of construction of the vessel.

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4.2

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Design Basis

4.2.1 Design Pressure


1) The design pressure specified in the design specification summary sheet shall be defined as the
pressure at the highest point of a vessel in its operating position, and in its corroded condition
when corrosion allowance is required by code or this specification. Alloy cladding thickness
shall not be included in the calculated wall thickness required for design conditions. Additional
pressure due to any static head of the liquid shall be considered in the design of the vessel.
2) Vessels shall be designed to withstand the specified Design Pressure at both the maximum and
minimum design temperature, including any additional loadings as specified under 4.2.2., the
ASME Code and GES-014-01.
3) Vessels protected by safety valves shall be designed for a minimum internal pressure of 3.5 barg
or the maximum specified operating pressure plus 10% [1.75 bar (25 psi) minimum] when
conventional or balanced (bellows) type safety relief valves are used, and operating pressure
plus 5% [1.75 bar (25 psi) minimum] when spring pilot operated safety valves are used.
4) Vessels without pressure relieving devices shall be provided with an outlet which cannot be
completely blocked off. The minimum outlet opening shall be sized so that the maximum
pressure which can be developed in the vessel is not greater than the design pressure.
5) Only those vessels actually subjected to external pressure in operation shall be designed for
external pressure. Vessels shall not be designed and protection shall not be furnished for
vacuum caused by emptying water after hydrostatic tests. Vessel shall be designed for steaming
out condition per GES-001.
6) Vessels subjected to partial operating vacuum shall be designed in accordance with UG 28(f)
for external pressure design and the design external pressure shall be given on the vessel name
plate. Code stamping shall be provided only if specified on the vessel data sheet.
4.2.2 Design Temperature
1) Vessels shall have both a maximum and minimum temperature rating stamped on the vessel
nameplate. The design metal temperature for vessels except for conditions as described under
a and b listed below shall be at least equal to the maximum operating temperature of the fluid
in the vessel after considering over pressure, unsafe and shutdown condition plus quenching or

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

flashing, if such occurs, plus 14C (+25F), but in no case less that 150C (300F) unless a
lower temperature is shown on the Design Specification Sheet as approved by OWNER.
a) When exposed to fluids before quenching or flashing occurs, the design metal temperature
for vessel parts such as inlets and the adjacent area shall be the temperature of the fluid
before quenching or flashing occurs or the design metal temperature of the vessel, in zone,
whichever is higher.
b) The design metal temperature for internally insulated vessels shall be based on the
temperature calculated using maximum operating fluid temperature, no wind, and 38C
(100F) ambient temperature plus a minimum of 28C (50F) above the calculated metal
temperature.
2) The minimum design temperature rating shall be the highest of the minimum temperature
permitted for any component. For vessels whose metal temperature in normal service is
dependent on ambient temperature, the minimum design temperature shall be taken as the
lowest one day mean temperature based for the local Al-Jubail Al-Sinaiyah weather statistics
record temperature.
3) Vessels shall have a minimum design temperature equal to or lower than the anticipated
temperature (considering start-up, normal operating, upset and shutdown condition), but in no
case higher than 3C (37F).
4.2.3 Design Loading and Condition
Vessels and their supports, including anchor bolts, shall be designed for the following combinations of
loading and condition, shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
COMBINATIONS OF LOADING AND CONDITION
Condition
Loading
Dead Load
Internal and
External Pressure

August, 1999

Normal
Operation
(2)

Testing and
Flushing
(2) (3)

As Erected
(2) (14)

During
Erection
(13) (14)

(4)

(4)

(5)

(5) (12)

(6)

(7)

--

--

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Condition
Loading

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Normal
Operation
(2)

Testing and
Flushing
(2) (3)

As Erected
(2) (14)

During
Erection
(13) (14)

Weight of Contents
Wind Load or
Earthquake Load

(8)

(9)

--

--

(10)

(11)

(10)

--

Metal Temperature

D.T.

A.T.

A.T.

A.T.

New or Corroded
Additional Loads
and Forces

Corroded

New

New

New

(15)

(15)

(15)

(15)

NOTES:
1)

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)

Abbreviations:
D.T = Design Temperature
A.T. = Ambient Temperature
In operating position
Only when field testing or flushing is specified by OWNER.
All internals, insulation, fire proofing, piping and platforms attached to the vessels to be included.
All loose internals, insulation, fire proofing, piping and platforms attached to the vessels to be excluded.
In accordance with Subsection 4.2.1 design conditions specified.
Pressure including liquid head.
Weight of operating liquid to the maximum specified operating liquid level and of operating liquid on the trays and in the
packing to be considered.
Weight of water for testing or flushing.
Design wind load or earthquake load, whichever is greater (in accordance with Subsection 4.2.4)
One third of design wind load or one half of design earthquake load, whichever is greater.
Actual weight multiplied by a dynamic load factor of 1.2.
In accordance with OWNERs instruction.
Calculations may be omitted for smaller vessels when approved by OWNER.
Required only if specified by OWNER.

4.2.4 Wind and Earthquake Loads


1) Wind Loads
Wind pressure will be specified in GES-014-01. The shape factor 0.6 shall be used for
cylindrical vessels.

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

2) Earthquake Loads
Earthquake loads shall be based on the static seismic coefficient as specified in GES-014-01.
3) Tall vessels L/D > 15 shall be investigated for dynamic behavior (vibration) due to wind
excitation in accordance with ASME Paper No. 58-PET-13, 71-PET-36 or approved
alternate.
Alternate:

5.45 x 10-6 D5 E < 1


L3 x W

15

D: Nominal/Average Diameter (mm)


E: Modulus of Elasticity of Column material at design temperature (Mpa)
L: Vessel height (mm)
W: Weight of vessel and internals (kg)
4) The effective diameter to be used for vertical vessel wind design shall be:
De = 1.1 Di + 915 + 2(ts + ti) + Pf
Where:

(De)
(Di)
(ts)
(ti)
(Pf)

is effective wind diameter (mm)


is vessel inside diameter (mm)
is vessel shell thickness (mm)
is vessel insulation thickness (mm)
is insulated overhead line outside diameter (mm) [OD of top head nozzle plus
2 ti].
915 accounts for ladders and platforms

NOTE: Do not use less than 150 for 2 (ti + ts)


This effective diameter includes wind loads on platforms, ladders and piping. The 915 factor in the
above equation may be deleted for small vessels that do not have platforms or ladders.
In addition to the above effective vessel diameter, the top head platform contribution to the total
wind load shall be:
Fp = W Qf
Where:

August, 1999

Fp is the force on the top head platform (kilograms-force)


W is the larger of 1.4 or the vessel outside diameter (meters)
Qf is the wind pressure at the top head platform level (kgf/m2).
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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

The top head platform force is to be applied at 0.46 meters above the top head.
4.3

Allowable Stress

1) The allowable stress values for vessels shall be established by Table 2. For all design conditions:
The maximum allowable longitudinal stress for support skirts shall be determined in accordance with
ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-23.
2) The basic allowable stresses for detail stress analyses shall be the maximum allowable stresses S
above, in lieu of stress intensity Sm of the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 2; stresses shall be
categorized and limited in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4.
3) The allowable bending stress of the base plate shall be 1600 kgf/cm2, for a combination of wind or
earthquake loads.
4) The allowable bearing stress for the concrete foundation shall be 60 kgf/cm2.
5) The allowable stresses for non-pressure parts shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3, except as
modified below:
a) Welds attaching non-pressure parts to the pressure shell and supports for important internal
equipment such as cyclones or grids shall be designed to the allowable stress for pressure parts.
b) The allowable stress for anchor bolts shall be 1400 kgf/cm2, for a combination of wind or
earthquake loads.
6) Any unusual piping thrust loads and eccentric platform loads along with the earthquake loads and
wind loads shall be considered in design of vessel shell and skirt.

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

TABLE 2
ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES

Loading
Internal
Pressure
External
Pressure
A
________
B
C.L
A
________
B
A
B

Stress
Category
(Membrane
Stress)
Tensile
Stress
Buckling
Tensile
or Compressive
Stress
Compressive
Stress for
Buckling
Shear
Stress

Condition
Normal
Operation

Testing &
Flushing

As Erected

During
Erection

S
Division 1,
Paragraph UG28

0.9.Y.S.

--

--

--

--

--

0.9.Y.S.

1.2 S
S

1.2S
S

1.2 S
S

Division 1, Paragraph UG-23 (b)

0.25 Y.S. x 1.5


0.25 x Y.S.

--

0.25 Y.S.
x 1.5

Note:
1) Abbreviations
S = maximum allowable strength in tension
Y.S.= minimum yield strength given by the ASME Code, Section II Part D.
C.L.= combination loadings
2) Combination loading means
A: including wind or earthquake loadings
B: excluding wind or earthquake loadings

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4.3.1

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Vessel Rigging Analysis/Lifting Requirements

1) Impact Factor
Unless otherwise specified by the user, a minimum impact factor of 2.0 be applied to the lift
weight for designing the lift devices. The basis for the lift weight must be established during the
design phase of the vessel so that the design of lifting devices includes all components to be
included in the lift. (e.g., trays, ladder/platforms, insulation, piping, etc.)
2) Vertical Vessels
Vertical vessel having height to diameter ratio greater than 8 and weight more than 11,500 kgs.
shall be checked for the bending stress in the vessel shell/skirt. Calculated tensile stress shall not
exceed 80% of the materials specified minimum yield strength at 38C of and calculated.
3) Welds
Shear stress for fillet welds on the lifting attachments to the vessel shell/head shall not exceed
0.55 times the code allowable stress at 38o C for the selected material.
4.4

Analyses
1) The deflection of vessels at the design wind load under normal operating conditions shall not
exceed H/100, where H is the total height in mm. Earthquake loads need not be considered in
connection with this deflection limitation.
2) Stresses in the vessel shell due to support lug or leg attachments shall be analyzed using the
WRC-107.
3) Horizontal vessels on saddle supports shall be checked for buckling, local circumferential
bending and shear stress. The vessel shall be analyzed using Stresses in Large Horizontal
Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports by L. P. Zick for both, operating and
hydro test, conditions.
4) The hydrostatic test pressure at the top of a vessel shall be in accordance with Division 1,
Paragraph UG-99 (c).

4.5

Corrosion Allowance

A corrosion allowance, as specified on individual data sheets and mechanical drawings, shall be added
to the thickness calculated for the loadings and conditions in accordance with Table 1 as follows:
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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

1) In alloy, alloy lined, or clad vessels or sections of clad vessels or sections of vessels, all surfaces
of pressure parts, and nonpressure parts which are nonremovable and exposed to the contained
media, shall either be fabricated of or protected by the alloy or alloy lining material specified for
the vessel.
2) In unlined vessels or sections of vessels, all surfaces of pressure parts and nonpressure parts
welded directly to the pressure shell or those which are otherwise nonremovable and are
exposed to the contained media, shall have the specified vessel corrosion allowance added to
each surface.
3) On each surface of removable internal parts exposed to the vessel contents -- one fourth the
specified corrosion allowance shall be applied. However, corrosion allowance in GES-004
shall be applied for process units.
4) Unless otherwise specified on vessel drawings/data sheets, when the service conditions are such
that it is not practical to provide corrosion allowance by added base metal, the following shall
be accomplished:
a) With prior written approval of OWNER, a corrosion resistant lining within 2 mm (5/64 in.)
minimum thickness shall be attached to the pressure parts; or
b) Integrally cladding thickness or weld overlay or solid alloy material shall be used.
5) No unfired pressure vessel shall be of a plate thickness less than that indicated below

Diameter Range (mm)


914 mm dia. and under
2134 dia. and under, up
to 914 mm dia.
3658 dia. and under, up
to 2134 mm
Over 3658 mm dia.

August, 1999

Min. Thickness (include


Corrosion Allowance, mm)
6
9

Min Thickness Excluding Corrosion


Allowance mm
Carbon Steel or High Alloy Steel
Low Alloy Steel
5
3
5
3

12

14

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5.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION DETAILS

5.1

Shell and Head Seams

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

1) All vessel seams shall be located to clear important internals.


2) Longitudinal seams in cylindrical and conical shells and all seams in spherical shells and built-up
heads shall be located to clear openings.
3) Where possible, circumferential seams in cylindrical and conical shells shall be located to clear
openings and reinforcing pads. When reinforcing pads are required and they cover seams, the
seam welds that are to be covered by the pads shall be ground flush and 100%
radiographically examined before attachment of the reinforcing pad. The alignment of the butted
plates shall allow a proper fit-up of the reinforcing pad to the vessel shell.
4) Joints in horizontal vessels shall not be located coincident with or across saddle supports.
5.2

Design of Welded Joints


1) Pressure retaining shell, head, and transition section seams, nozzle and manway attachments to a
shell, head, or transition section, and similar joints shall be full penetration double-welded joints
except as noted in Paragraph 5.2.2 (Nozzles shall be inserted through the wall of the vessel;
nozzles abutting the vessel wall shall not be used.) This requirements is not intended to prohibit
reinforcing pad attachment details similar to ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Figure UW 16.1
(h), provided the requirements of UG-41 are met. Other joints are subject to approval by
OWNER.
2) When sound back-welding is not feasible, single-welded joints utilizing a root pass of GTAW or
GMAW are required.
3) Temporary backing strips may be utilized if, after removal, the joint is examined visually for
contour and undercutting and for cracks by the magnetic particle or the liquid penetrant method
of examination. These examinations shall be performed after any postweld heat treatment.
4) All nozzles shall be installed with full penetration and fusion welds.

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5.3

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Reinforcement of Openings
1) Nozzle reinforcement shall be designed for the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP)
for which the vessel can be rated. The MAWP shall be determined by calculation; it shall not
be assumed to the vessels design pressure. Nozzle reinforcement shall not limit the vessels
MAWP.
2) The following reinforcing requirements shall apply to all vessels. These requirements do not
apply to openings that are not required to have reinforcement by ASME Section VIII, Division
1, Paragraph UG-36 (c) (3).
a) The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required, A, shall not be less than :
A = d x t (square millimeters), where:
d = the diameter of the finished opening in its corroded condition (mm), and
t = the required thickness of the shell less corrosion allowance (mm), at the nozzle
location.
All metal area within the limits of reinforcement may be considered as having reinforcing
value as permitted by the code, unless otherwise specified on the drawings.
b) The strength of attachment welds joining the vessel wall and the reinforcement or any two
parts of the attached reinforcement shall be at least equal to the smaller of:

The strength in tension of the cross section of the area of reinforcement.


The strength in tension of area A as defined in Paragraph a above.

3) Each reinforcing pad, or segment if more than one piece is used, shall be provided with one 1/4
inch NPT threaded hole. Welds in segmented two-piece reinforcing pads on cylinders and
cones shall be in the vessels circumferential direction. The outside edge of reinforcing pads
shall be ground or otherwise made reasonably smooth before welding to the vessel.
4) For vertical vessels that have a ratio of height (length between tangents) to inside diameter
(smallest diameter when vessel have more than one dia.) greater than 12, the reinforcement of
openings in shell courses shall be calculated using the nominal thickness of the shell course under
consideration minus corrosion allowance instead of the thickness required by Paragraph UG-37
of ASME Section VIII Division I.

August, 1999

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Petrokemya

5.4

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

REINFORCEMENT AT SHARP CONE-TO-CYLINDER INTERSECTIONS

The reinforcement at junctions of conical reducers with heads, cylinders, or other conical reducers shall
be designed for the MAWP for which the vessel can be rated. The MAWP shall be determined by
calculation (see Paragraph 5.3). Cone-to-cylinder reinforcement shall not limit the vessels MAWP.
5.5

Heads and Transition Sections


1) The inside of radius of knuckles for conical transition sections, where knuckles are required,
shall be as follows:
Cone to cylinder junction at large end....
0.06 (Di + 2t) or 3t, whichever is larger
Where:
Di = the inside diameter of the adjoining cylindrical section
t = nominal thickness
Alternate:
For knuckle thickness up to 19mm, 0.06 (Di + 2t)
For knuckle thickness above 19mm, 0.10 (Di + 2t)
2) An intermediate head attached to the shell shall conform to Division 1, Figure UW-13.1 (f) and
shall be provided with a vent hole, if specified on the specification sheet.

5.6

Nozzles, Manholes, Connections and Girth Joints


1) Flanges for external nozzles NPS 24 and smaller shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5 for
the rating and type of facing specified. Flanges for external nozzles NPS 26 through NPS 60
shall be in accordance with ASME B16.47 Series B. For sizes over NPS 60, flange
dimensions will be shown on vessel drawings or data sheets. With prior approval of OWNER,
special flanges may be designed in accordance with ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix
2.
2) Threaded or socket-weld couplings shall not be used, unless specified on the specifications
sheets.

August, 1999

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

3) Manholes shall have a minimum nominal diameter of 24 inch with not less than 575 mm I.D.
minimum unless specifically approved by OWNER per GES-001. All manhole covers and
blind flanges weighing over 34 kg (75 lbs) shall be furnished with davit or hinge as specified on
the drawings. Manhole opening in vertical plane shall be furnished with handgrips inside the
vessel.
For small diameter vessels (<36) where 24 manholes are needed and cannot be provided,
20 manholes may be permitted only with prior approval by owner.
4) Flange bolt hole orientation shall be as follows (refer to Figure 1):
a) When the nozzle axis lies in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vessel, the
bolt holes shall straddle the flange centerline parallel to the vessel axis.
b) When the nozzle axis is parallel to or coincides with the longitudinal axis of the vessel, the
bolt holes shall straddle the north-south flange centerline on vertical vessels and the vertical
flange face centerline on horizontal vessels.
c) When the nozzle axis is radial to the vessel head surface, the bolt holes shall straddle the
flange face centerline lying in the plane containing the vessel axis.
d) Bolt hole orientation of nozzles not specified above will be shown on the drawings.
5) No corrosion allowance is required on the gasket surfaces of flanges. Flange facing and finish
shall be specified.
6) Welding neck type flanges shall normally be used. However, slip-on type flanges may be used
only when specified on drawing for nozzles over 2-1/2 NPS when the design pressure of the
vessel is below 20 kgf/cm2g and the design temperature is below 350oC. When slip-on type
flanges are used, telltale hole shall be provided to monitor for leaks between neck and flange.
7) All nozzles, except liquid outlet nozzles, pressure relief device nozzles, manholes, and drain
nozzles may have a 12 mm maximum internal projection. Liquid outlet nozzles pressure relief
device nozzles, manholes and drain nozzles shall be set flush with the inside of the vessel. The
inside corner of nozzle necks shall be rounded to eliminate all sharp corners.
8) Nozzles shall project beyond the vessel shell to a distance that enables the flange boltings to be
removed when the insulation has been applied.

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

9) Flanges shall be spot or full backfaced, as required by ASME B16.5.


10) All inside edges of nozzles and connections, whether flush or extended, shall be rounded off to a
minimum radius of 3 mm.
11) Vent holes shall be provided in any enclosed space of the slip-on flanges when vessels are
subject to postweld heat treatment.
12) Confined gasketed joint design shall be applied for nominal diameter larger than 610 mm and
having any of the following:
Pressure 21 kg/cmg or higher, temperature above 250 C or below minus 29 C, cyclic
service or flat metal gasket.
13) Flanged connection shall NOT be provided inside the skirt volume, all nozzles shall be piped
without any flanged connection to the outside of the skirt.
14) If the Process dictated to have flanged connection inside the skirt volume, skirt vent shall be
provided, reference is made to Section 5.11.
15) When tongue and groove facing is used, the groove shall be in the nozzle flange, except when
the nozzle is located in the bottom head of a vessel, the groove shall be in the piping flange or
blind cover.
16) The inside diameter of nozzles shall not be less than the inside diameter of the corresponding
size of double extra strong pipe for NPS 1 to NPS 3 nozzles inclusive, Schedule 160 pipe for
NPS 4 to NPS 12 nozzles inclusive, and nominal diameter minus 2 inches for nozzles over NPS
12. Nozzles shall generally be flanged and preferable minimum size shall be NPS 2 inches. Use
of nozzles 1 1/2 inch and below shall be approved by OWNER and where used shall be
suitably attached and adequately reinforced. (For manway refer to Paragraph three of this
section.)
17) Internal flanges for nonpressure connections may be of plate construction with machined flat
faces.
18) Flanged nozzles NPS 2 and smaller shall be long welding neck construction.

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Petrokemya

5.7

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Supports
1) Where vessels are supported on concrete saddles, corrosion plates shall be provided between
the saddle and vessel. These plates shall be a minimum 6 mm thick, shall extend 50 mm beyond
the periphery of the bearing area of the concrete saddle and shall be continuously welded to the
vessel. A 6 mm vent hole shall be provided in each plate. These holes shall be filled with a
heavy grease after the vessel has been pressure tested.
2) Where vessels are supported on steel saddles, the saddle pads shall be continuously welded to
the vessel. The saddle pad shall be vented with a 6 mm hole.
3) Bearing plates, 6 mm minimum thickness and smooth finished, shall be furnished by the
VENDOR for installation under supports where there are slotted holes for anchor bolts to
provide for shell expansion. For heavy equipment, special material and other considerations are
required to reduce the friction.
4) The center line of the skirt and the corroded shell plate (bottom course) shall be approximately
coincident except for conical skirts attached to the shells of vertical vessels. All support skirts
shall have approximately the same mean diameter as the bottom head and shall be attached with
a smooth flat-face weld.

5.8

Anchor Bolts

Anchor bolts holes shall straddle a position 0o - 1800 of the centerline.


5.9

Insulation Supports

Support rings shall be provided for the vessels to be insulated. Vessels with stiffening rings or shell
flanges may substitute these for the insulation supports, if practical. Insulation and insulation supports
shall be in accordance with GES-020 or GES-021, as applicable.
5.10 Access Opening
Skirt supports shall be provided with two round access openings spaced 180 degrees apart and
reinforced with sleeves. The openings shall not be smaller than the following:
Vessel OD, mm (inches)
> 610 (24) = 762 (30)
>762 (30) = 914 (36)
>914 (36) = 1219 (48)
>1219 (48) = 1524 (60)
>1524 (60)
August, 1999

Opening Diameter, mm (inches)


203 ( 8)
254 (10)
406 (16)
456 (18)
610 (24)
Page 22 of 53

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

5.11 Vent in Skirt


In service of the hydrocarbons or other combustible liquids or gases the skirts shall be provided with
minimum vent holes as high as possible 180 degrees apart. the vent holes shall clear head insulation.
(Refer to Table 3 for quantity). Coupling or pipe may be used for the sleeve.
TABLE 3
SKIRT VENTS
SKIRT
DIAMETER
AT BASE
UNDER 3-0
3-0 TO 6-0
61 TO 10-0
10-1 TO 14-0
14-1 TO 18-0
OVER 18-0

NO.
PIPE
REQ.D
SIZE
2
3
4
3
4
4
6
4
8
4
4 SIZE ON
APPROX.
7-0 SPACES

PIPE
SCHEDULE
40
40
40
40
40
40

5.12 Top Davit


Vessels equipped with trays, large internal pipes, packing material and safety valves, shall be furnished
with a top davit. The davit shall be designed to carry a load of 1/2 ton, to enable use of a winch basket
during maintenance periods. Lifting hook of davit shall vertically clear all vessel attachments and
working platforms by 1 meter. Vessel design shall consider the additional moment due to operation of
the davit.
5.13 Non-pressure Parts
Where possible all internal and external structural attachments shall clear pressure seam welds by at
least one plate thickness. If unavoidable, these attachments may be cut at the seam weld portion to
avoid any weld intersection. If continuous overlap is unavoidable, the portion of the pressure seam weld
to be covered shall be ground flush and 100% radiographically examined before attachment is welded
on.
5.14 Grounding Clip
Vessels are to be provided with a grounding clip.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

5.15 Nameplate
1) Along with the ASME minimum requirement per UG-119, additional information shall be
required as follows:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Maximum allowable working pressure


Maximum operating pressure (if specified)
Maximum operating temperature (if specified)
Minimum operating temperature (if specified)
Design pressure
Design temperature, maximum and minimum
Hydrostatic test pressure (both at shop and in field) with minimum permissible test
temperature and quality of water
h) Weight of unit empty and weight of removable item(s)
i) OWNER equipment item number
j) Internal volume of vessel.
2) All vessels shall be furnished with a stainless steel nameplate. Required markings shall not be
stamped directly on the vessel. Nameplates shall be installed on the VENDORs standard
nameplate holder of sufficient length to project at least 25 mm (1 inch) beyond the vessel
insulation.
3) The nameplates of vertical vessels shall be located on the shell above the lowest manhole. On
horizontal vessels, they shall be located in the center of a head or above a manhole in a head.
The nameplate location shall be shown on the VENDORs drawings.

6.

MATERIALS

6.1

General
1) The selection of material for pressure parts shall be based on the service and design temperature
and the material shall be in accordance with one of the appropriate specifications listed in
Section II of the ASME Code except that for vessels subject to pressurization at metal
temperature below 16oC (60oF) the material shall be selected, as a minimum requirement, in
accordance with Appendix 3, Table I and II. Vessel material shall be new and as specified on
the drawings.
2) Materials shall conform to ASTM material specifications and shall normally be limited to those
listed in ASME Section II for pressure parts.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

3) Substitute material with equivalent chemical composition and mechanical properties to those
listed in ASME Section II, Part D can be used with the approval of OWNER. Allowable stress
in tension for the substitutes shall be established in accordance with Division 1, Appendix P.
However, when using JIS material as a substitute, the allowable stress values permitted in JIS B
8243 may be used. ASME SA-36 material shall not be used for pressure parts.
4) Materials for support skirts welded directly to the vessel shall be selected as follows:
Design Temperature
Over 343o C and below 16oC

Skirt Material
Unless noted otherwise on vendor drawings, at least 600
mm of the upper portion shall be of the same material as
the vessel. The lower portion may be per ASTM A-283
Grade C, A-36 or A-285 Grade C.

From 16oC to 343oC

ASTM A-283 Grade C, A-36, or A-285 Grade C.

5) The materials of the lifting lugs for vertical vessels shall be killed steel.
6) Materials subject to welding shall be of weldable quality. Carbon content of all carbon steel
pressure parts shall be less than 0.3%.
7) Consumable insert material shall conform to the nominal chemical composition requirements of
the base metal material standard. The use of consumable insert requires the advance written
approval of OWNER.
8) The heat treatment for clad plate conforming to ASME SA-263 and SA-264 shall be done at
the mill.
9) All clad plate, including explosion clad plate, conforming to ASME SA-263 and SA-264 shall
be cold flattened, if required, only after final mill heat treatment and descaling.
10) Explosion clad plate not conforming to ASME SA-263 or SA-264 shall be stress relieved in
accordance with the times and temperatures required by the applicable code and Paragraph 7.7
of this specification before commencing fabrication operations. Any required cold flattening
shall be performed before stress relieving. The use of explosion clad material requires the
advance written approval of OWNER.
11) The minimum shell or head thickness, exclusive of corrosion allowance, shall be 5 mm (3/16
inch) for carbon and low alloy steel vessels and 3 mm (1/8 inch) for high alloy steel vessels.
Minimum composite thickness of clad shell or head materials shall be 10 mm (3/8 inch).

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

12) When specified on the drawings, alloy verification shall be performed using a portable X-Ray
spectrometric analyzer or other suitable equipment. This verification shall be performed during
production at such points that will ensure the correct material has been used. Certified Material
Test Reports shall not be an acceptable alternative to this verification. Unless otherwise
specified in the Purchase Order, OWNERs inspector will perform this verification.
13) Pressure retaining material shall meet the tensile strength requirements of the applicable material
specification after all the anticipated heat treatments including one extra PWHT cycle for a
potential future field repair.
14) Welding electrodes and rods shall be selected in accordance with GES-003-06.
6.2

Linings
1) Vessels requiring linings shall be either weld overlaid or integrally clad. Strip-type linings shall
not be used unless specified by OWNER.
2) When permitted, strip type lining shall be attached to the shell or nozzle circumferentially and
shall be designed so the width of the strips does not exceed that shown in Table 4. The welds
between the strips shall be at least 6 mm (1/4 inch) and not more than 12 mm (1/2 inch) in
width. Where vessel temperatures exceed 427oC (800oF), the width of strips will be given on
the design drawings.
TABLE 4
STRIP WELDED LININGS
Vessel Design Temperature
343oC (650oF) and under
Over 343oC (650o) to 427oC (800oF)

Width of Strips
114 mm (4-1/2 in)
102 mm (4 in)

Vessels with integrally clad linings shall be made of plate clad with the required lining material at the
steel mill in accordance with the applicable material specifications. Explosion clad material shall not
be used without the advance written consent of OWNER. Clad plate shall be shear tested at the
mill in accordance with SA-263 or SA-264 as specified on vessel drawing.
6.3

Bolting
1) Bolting material will be as listed in Table 5.
2) Unless otherwise specified, stud bolts shall be threaded full length.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

3) Bolt heads for type CB bolting shall be of heavy hexagonal (preferred) or regular square series.
4) Carbon steel and low alloy steel bolts on flanges shall be precoated with appropriate
fluorocarbon polymer against corrosion up to applicable temperature limits.
5) Bolts up to and including 1 diameter shall comply with UNC standards, bolts 1-1/8 diameter
and larger shall have an 8 UN thread, in accordance with ASME B1.1. Bolting material shall
be in accordance with Table 5. Stainless steel bolting if specified for cyclic service shall be strain
hardened type (e.g.: A193 B8 class2).
TABLE 5
BOLTING MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
OWNER
Bolting Type
B5
B6
B7
B8
B8M
B8T
B8C
B16
CB
HS
B8LT
L7

6.4

Bolt
Material
5Cr
12Cr
Cr-Mo
18Cr-8Ni
Type 304
18Cr-10Ni-2Mo
Type 316
18Cr-8Ni
Type 321
18Cr-8Ni
Type 347
Cr-Mo-V
Carbon Steel
Carbon Steel
18Cr-8Ni
Type 304
Cr-Mo

ASME Specifications
Bolts
Nuts
SA193 Gr B5
SA194 Gr 3
SA193 Gr B6
SA194 Gr 6
SA193 Gr B7
SA194 Gr 2H
SA193 Gr B8
SA194 Gr 8
Class 1
SA193 Gr B8M
SA194 Gr 8M
Class 1
SA193 Gr B8T
SA194 Gr 8T
Class 1
SA193 Gr B8C
SA194 Gr 8C
Class 1
SA193 Gr B16
SA194 Gr 4
SA307 Gr B
per SA307
SA325
per SA325
LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE
SA320 Gr B8
SA194 Gr 8
Class 1
SA320 Gr L7
SA194 Gr 4

Gaskets
1) Gaskets will be as specified in OWNERs unified piping specification. The process of
manufacture and any dimensions or tolerances not covered by the dimensional standards shall
be in accordance with the VENDORs standards.
2) Pressure 21.4 Barg or higher, temperature above 250oC or below minus 29C, cyclic service or
flat metal gasket. Gasket material shall be in accordance with OWNERs unified piping
specification.

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Petrokemya

6.5

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Supplementary Materials
1) The VENDOR shall furnish blind flanges, gaskets, and bolting for manholes, handholes, flanged
vessel ends, and for all other nozzles indicated on the drawings as requiring closures.
a) All gaskets furnished shall be new and shall be installed prior to the shipment of the vessel.
Gaskets which have been used for test purposes shall be replaced as specified in Paragraph
9.6.6.
b) Two spare gaskets shall be furnished for each manhole, handhole, and flanged vessel head.

7.

FABRICATION

7.1

General

The VENDOR shall carefully carry out thermal and workmanship control during welding, hot forming,
heat treatment and other shop fabrication based on the VENDORs quality control system. Substances
containing sulphur (e.g. machining lubricants) should not be applied to Hastelloy, monel, nickel or nickel
alloy parts. Substances containing chlorine or which will decompose to hydrogen chloride (e.g. coatings
to prevent adhesion of weld spatter) shall not be used on any material.
7.2

Cutting

Shear cutting is not permitted for plate materials to be used for pressure retaining parts.
7.3

Repair Welding of Defects in Material

Repair welding of defects in material shall be performed using a qualified procedure, after approval by
OWNER.
7.4

Cold Forming

Cold formed shell and head plates shall be stress relieved in accordance with the requirements of
Paragraph UCS-79 of Division 1.
7.5

Preparation for Welding


1) On alloy clad plates, if flame cutting is used for preparing plate edges, any flame-gouged areas
at the junction of the alloy and the base metal shall be repaired by stripping the cladding back at
least 10 mm (3/8 inch) from the gouged area and building up the base metal with weld deposits
and then the clad surface with alloy weld metal.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

2) Weld metal shall not be used to build up the edges of plates that are too short or those that
contain large cavities without advance written approval of OWNER.
3) The maximum allowable gap between nozzle and manhole reinforcing pads and the curvature of
the vessel shells or heads before welding shall be 3 mm (1/8 inch).
4) The weld bevels of stub end nozzles shall be in accordance with ASME Section VIII for the
size, schedule, and style of bevel specified.
5) All weld bevels in material 38 mm (1-1/2 inch) thick and over shall be examined by the
magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method. Any laminations exceeding the limits specified in
Paragraph 9.3 of ASME SA-20 shall be repaired. Application of Paragraph 9.3.5 of ASME
SA-20 requires OWNERs advance written approval.
7.6

Welding
1) Welding shall be in accordance with the applicable code and GES-003-06.
2) Fabrication involving welding shall not be sublet to others without advance written approval of
OWNER.
3) Welding shall normally be carried out in a flat position.
4) For double welded butt joints, the reverse side of the root pass shall normally be prepared by
gouging or chipping, to secure sound metal at the base of the weld metal first deposited, before
applying weld metal from the reverse side. These requirements are not intended to prohibit any
welding process, approved by OWNER, by which proper fusion and penetration are otherwise
obtained and by which the base of the weld remains free from impurities.
5) No welding is permitted on the pressure retaining parts after postweld heat treatment, except as
permitted by Division 1 and when approved by OWNER in writing.
6) Zinc-coated/galvanized or painted/components shall not be welded to stainless steel or nickel
alloy parts.
7) All weld slag shall be removed from austenitic stainless steels and nickel-iron-chromium alloy
material welds and parts by grinding or blast cleaning when the design metal temperature is
above 400oC (750oF) to avoid the possibility of corrosion at elevated operating temperatures.

August, 1999

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

8) Temporary attachment welds on pressure shells shall be removed. The surface under such
welds and under backing rings which have been removed shall be properly conditioned to
eliminate surface stress raisers. Such surfaces shall be examined by either the magnetic particle
or liquid penetrant method of examination when the surface material is carbon steel with a
design metal temperature below 0oC (32oF), austenitic alloy steel with a design metal
temperature above 400oC (750oF), or ferritic alloy steel. When the surface material is carbon
steel with a design metal temperature of 0oC (32oF) and above, such surfaces shall be so
examined only if attachment weld surfaces are required to be examined by Table 7.
9) Arc strikes on the pressure shell shall be minimized. When they occur, the surface shall be
properly conditioned to eliminate surface stress raisers. Such surfaces shall be examined by
either the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method of examination. Any defects found shall
be removed and the surface repaired and re-examined.
10) Brinell Hardness of the weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) shall not exceed the limits set
in Table 6.
TABLE 6
MATERIAL P NUMBER
P1 Groups 1, 2, 3
P1 Group 4
P3, P4
P3, P4
P5
P6, P7
P10A, P10B

MAXIMUM BRINELL HARDNESS


200
250
225
225
235
240
225

See weld overlay requirements in GES-003-06.


11) Weld overlay shall be applied circumferentially and it shall be relatively smooth with no notches,
flaws, or undercuts that would act as stress raisers. Small bore nozzles may be overlay welded
longitudinally followed by grinding or machining to a smooth surface.
7.7

Post Weld Heat Treatment


1) When postweld heat treatment is required, the entire vessel shall be given the final postweld heat
treatment in an enclosed furnace. When the entire vessel cannot be postweld heat treated in a
furnace because of its size, or because it is finally fabricated in the field, the final postweld heat

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

treatment may be performed locally outside of a furnace. The sections that are locally postweld
heat-treated shall be sufficiently insulated (complete circumferential band) to ensure that the shell
is not overstressed due to temperature gradients in area of local PWHT.
2) Vessels shall be heat treated in accordance with Paragraph. UCS.85 of Division 1 and the
VENDOR shall submit their specification with stress relieving drawings and procedure for
OWNERs review.
3) Postweld heat treatment for welds between dissimilar metals shall conform to the requirements
of the material having the more stringent requirements and shall be verified by the Procedure
Qualification Tests. The proposed postweld heat treatment for welds between ferritic and
austenitic steels shall be reviewed by OWNER.
4) Local postweld heat treatment shall not be performed without advance written approval of
OWNER.
5) P-3 (C-Mo and Mn-Mo) materials shall be postweld heat treated at a temperature of 593oC
(1100oF) minimum. Note 1 to Tables PW-39 of ASME Section I, UCS-56 of ASME Section
VIII Division 1, and AF-402.1 of ASME Section VIII Division 2 shall not apply to P-3 (CMo and Mn-Mo) materials.
6) P-4 (Cr-Mo) materials shall be postweld heat treated at a temperature of 660oC ( 15oC)
minimum. P4 materials shall be ordered as normalized and tempered condition. Tempering
temperature shall be 30 C higher than PWHT temperature. PWHT temp for P4 materials shall
be reviewed (and lowered if necessary) in line with this requirement.
7) Plate, seamless heads, parts of built-up heads, and similar pressure retaining parts subjected to
cold or hot bending and forming shall be heat treated as follows:
a) As required by the applicable code and the applicable material specification.
b) The hot forming temperature may be used as the normalizing temperature if the forming
temperature is at or above the normalizing temperature at the completion of forming.
c) Where the code or specification requires normalizing, the hot-formed parts which do not
meet the requirements of Subparagraph 7.7.6.b above shall be normalized after forming.
Material shall be re-tested and re-certified after normalizing.

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Petrokemya

8.

INSPECTION AND TEST

8.1

General

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Vessels shall be subject to free access inspection by a representative of OWNER during fabrication.
The inspection and test requirements covered by this specification are summarized in Appendix 1.
8.2

Material Inspection

Material shall be identified by a mill certificate and checked to ensure that there are no harmful defects.
8.3

Welding Inspection
1) The configuration and dimensions of prepared edges for welding shall be as those specified in
the drawing.
2) Root fit-up and joint alignment shall be checked before welding.
3) Any back chipped surface of the root pass (for all seams) shall be visually inspected to ensure
that there are no harmful defects.
4) All weld surfaces shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are free from undercut, overlap,
irregular bead, unsuitable reinforcement, and other defects indicative of poor workmanship.
5) For single butt-welded joints, a visual inspection shall be made prior to the subsequent welding
to check for complete penetration and fusion at the root of the joint.
6) Samples of production weld overlay shall be taken to confirm chemical analysis to the required
depth. Samples shall be taken as follows to represent both manual and automatic overlay
welding:
a) one sample from each automatically overlaid vessel part/section (e.g. each shell ring, head,
nozzle, cone, etc.).
b) two samples from each manually overlaid vessel part/section and each manually overlaid
seam (longitudinal, girth and nozzle welds).
7) A quantitative chemical analysis shall report all elements for which specific values are given in
ASME Section II, Part C.

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

8) Acceptance criteria shall be that the deposited overlay have the chemical composition of the
applicable filler metal as specified in ASME Section II, Part C. In the case of low carbon grade
stainless steels, the percent carbon shall not exceed 0.040%.
9) The production welds attaching welding pins or studs for external insulation or fireproofing
supports shall be tested by tapping lightly with a hammer.
10) Welds in any part of vessel, regardless of material or thickness, that is subjected to working by
any means, including spinning, pressing and rolling, shall be given a complete radiographic
examination and either a magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination after completion of
the working and before further fabrication is performed when the ration of thickness to local
radius of the worked part is greater than 5 percent.
11) Welds with defective areas shall have:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
8.4

the defect removed


confirmation of defect removal by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination
repair welding using qualified welding procedures
re-postweld heat treatment if originally required
re-radiographed if originally required
final weld surface re-examined by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination

Dimensional Inspection
1) Prior to the inspection under witness by OWNER, the VENDOR shall prepare the dimensional
inspection data for the parts required by this specification, as well as parts particularly specified.
2) The measurement of the plate thickness shall be made as follows:
a) The thickness of the cylindrical shell shall be measured at one point per each ring.
b) The thickness of the formed head shall be measured at one point for each knuckle and skirt
portion.
3) When pre-assembly is specified by OWNER, internal parts shall be checked for fit up and
alignment as installed to the vessel.

August, 1999

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Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

4) Vessel camber shall be measured by laying the vessel in a horizontal position and using parallel
strings method. Two directions, 90 degrees apart, shall be measured by turning the vessel.
5) Anchor bolt offset between the upper plate and lower plate of the base block shall be checked
to facilitate smooth erection in the field.
6) The top davit shall be preassembled to check both the location and smooth operation.
7) Vessels containing cartridge tray assemblies shall be checked with a template, to ensure smooth
insertion and withdrawal. The minimum diameter of the template shall be the specified inside
diameter of the vessel minus 6 mm.
8) Unless otherwise noted on the drawings, dimensional tolerances shall conform to the
requirements of the applicable code or Appendix 2 of this specification, whichever is most
stringent.
9) Dimensional inspections shall be performed after postweld heat treatment.
10) The tolerances on the specified thickness of the alloy on integrally clad plate shall be given in
Table 7.
TABLE 7
CLADDING TOLERANCES
SECTIONS
Flat plate as rolled, cylindrical &
conical sections after rolling and
other formed sections

8.5

TOLERANCE FOR THE CLAD THICKNESS


NOMINAL THICKNESS
MINIMUM THICKNESS
Under Tolerance 2%
Under Tolerance 0%
Over Tolerance
Over Tolerance
(by Vendor)
(by Vendor)

Non-Destructive Examination

8.5.1 Radiographic Examination


1) When radiography is not specified on the vessel drawing or data sheet, vessel seams shall be
spot radiographed as a minimum requirement.
2) Spot radiography shall be in accordance with Division 1; any additional radiography shall be
made, if necessary, so that at least one spot is examined for all seams defined as category A or
August, 1999

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Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

B in Division 1. Spots shall be selected to examine welds representing each welding procedure
specification utilized on each vessel.
3) Radiographic film shall be fine grain, high definition, high contrast film, Kodak AA or equivalent.
Film density shall be within a range of 2.0 or 3.0 as determined by film density specimens or by
densitometer.
4) Welds in any part subjected to severe working (ratio of thickness to local radius greater than
5%) by any means shall be given a complete radiographic and either magnetic particle or liquid
penetrant examination after the completion of the severe working and before further fabrication
is performed.
5) Main longitudinal, girth, and head seams of vessels built of the following materials shall be 100%
radiographed:
a. carbon steel over 19 mm (3/4 inch) thick having a specified minimum ultimate tensile
strength greater than 4921 kg/cm2 (70,000 psi).
b. all chromium-molybdenum steels having over % (nominal) chromium
c. austenitic steels over 19 mm (3/4 inch) thick.
8.5.2 Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Examination
1) Fillet welds on intermediate heads shall be examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant
method after hydrostatic testing.
2) Austenitic materials shall be inspected by the liquid penetrant method.
3) Internal and external finished weld surfaces shall be either magnetic particle or liquid penetrant
examined in accordance with Table 8 using the procedures of ASME Section V, Articles 6 and
7 respectively. Evaluations of indications shall be in accordance with ASME Section VIII,
Division 1, Appendices 6, 7, and 8. Examination shall be done after completing all required
postweld heat treatment, except weld surfaces which will become inaccessible by reason of
welded closures which themselves require postweld heat treatment shall be examined before
such closures are welded. When the vessel wall thickness is greater than 51 mm (2 inches), the
examination of accessible surfaces shall be done after the required pressure test is completed.
4) When liquid penetrant examination is required, it shall be performed on all accessible weld
surfaces. Any surface irregularities which interfere with the examination shall be removed by
grinding, machining, or wash-blending with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW).

August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

5) All weld overlay, whether by manual or automatic procedures, shall be liquid penetrant
examined in accordance to the methods described in ASTM E165. When the overlay involves
two passes and the procedure uses an intermediate heat treatment with cooling to room
temperature prior to applying the second layer, each layer shall be examined. Where overlay is
to be machined, such as in nozzles and flange facing, machined surfaces shall be examined. If
100% of the overlay is examined prior to the final postweld heat treatment, the overlay shall be
spot examined (no less than 10% of the surface) after heat treatment. Spot examination shall
also be conducted after shop hydrostatic testing. Any surface irregularities which interfere with
the examination shall be removed by grinding, machining, or wash-blending with gas tungsten
arc welding (GTAW).
TABLE 8
EXAMINATION OF WELD SURFACES

TYPE OF
VESSEL MATERIAL

Carbon & low alloy


Not postweld
steels with
heat treated
% (max.) nominal
Postweld heat
chromium content
treated
Low alloy steels over % nominal
chromium content
Austenitic steels with DMT* less than or
equal to 400oC (750oF) and thickness
19mm (3/4in) or less
Austenitic steels with DMT* greater
than 400oC (750oF) or thickness over
19mm (3/4 in)

August, 1999

REQUIRED SURFACE EXAMINATIONS


(MT OR PT)
Level of
Longitudinal
Nozzle
Attachment
Radiography
and Girth
Welds
Welds
(3)
Welds
(1)
(2)
Spot
No
No
No
Full
No
Yes
No
Spot
No
No
No
Full
No
Yes
Yes
Full or Spot
No
Yes
Yes
Spot
Full

No
No

No
Yes

No
No

Full or Spot

Yes

Yes

Yes

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

NOTES TO TABLE 8:
*Design Metal Temperature
1. Nozzle welds include the welds between nozzle and the reinforcing pad, vessel and the reinforcing
pad, and the nozzle and vessel under the reinforcing pad. Welds under the reinforcing pad shall be
examined before the pad is attached.
2. Attachment welds include structural support, external clips, tray support, and skirt and saddle
attachment welds.
3. Longitudinal and girth welds.

8.5.3 Ultrasonic Examination


Ultrasonic examination shall be performed as follows:
1) Plate material greater than 51mm (2 inches) but less than 102 mm (4 inches) in thickness shall
be ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-435.
2) Plate material 102 mm (4 inches) thick and greater shall be ultrasonically examined in
accordance with SA-435, supplementary requirement S1.
3) Integrally clad plate with a composite thickness greater than 38mm (1-1/2 inches) but less than
102 mm (4 inches) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-578,
supplementary requirement S6.
4) Integrally clad plate with a composite thickness of 102 mm (4 inches) and greater shall be
ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-578, supplementary requirements S1 and S6.
5) Forged products (except cylindrical shell rings) 102 mm (4 inches) thick or greater shall be
ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-388. Forged cylindrical shell rings greater than
51 mm (2 inches) thick shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-388.
Thicknesses of forgings shall be as defined in ASME Section VIII, Division 2, Paragraph AM200.2.
6) All nozzle-to-vessel welds in solid wall vessels or vessel sections (not layered construction)
greater than 51 mm (2 inches) thick that are not radiographable shall be ultrasonically examined
after PWHT.

August, 1999

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Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Defects detected during ultrasonic examination exceeding the acceptance standards of the applicable
code ultrasonic examination specification may be repaired only with OWNERs advance written
approval. Failure to obtain OWNERs approval prior to repair of such defects shall be cause for
rejection of the material.
8.5.4 Impact Test Examination
The following carbon and low alloy steel material vessel components shall be impact tested using
Charpy V-notch test specimens:
1) All plate material 76 mm (3 inches) thick and over
2) All forgings 76 mm (3 inches) thick and over
3) Welds in material 76 mm (3 inches) thick and over (production impact test plates for the weld
metal and heat affected zone). The impact test temperature shall be the lower of the minimum
vessel design temperature or 0oC (+32oF). Impact values shall meet the requirements of ASME
Section VIII. The test specimens shall be subjected to the same heat treatment cycles (time and
temperature) as the completed vessel.
8.6

Pressure Test
1) All vessels shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance with the applicable code. However,
ASME Section I and Section VIII Division 1 designed, shop-fabricated vessels shall be
hydrostatically tested in the VENDORs shop at 1 times the maximum allowable pressure
(new and cold). The test pressure and the part limiting the test pressure shall be shown on the
VENDORs drawings.
2) Testing of vessels partially or completely filled with air is not permitted unless approved by
OWNER. When such testing is approved, the test pressure shall be in accordance with
Division 1, Paragraph UG-100 and radiographs shall be taken of at least 20 percent of welds
defined as category A in Division 1
3) Before the hydro test, all internal surfaces shall be cleaned by sweeping, vacuum cleaning, or
other methods so the vessel will be free of welding slag and flux, weld rod stubs, loose scale,
dirt, and debris.
4) Clean fresh potable water shall be used for all tests unless otherwise specified by OWNER.
Special precaution shall be taken to prevent stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel. Vessels
fabricated of austenitic stainless steel must not come in contact with chlorides. Water used to
test and wash these (stainless steel or stainless steel clad) vessels must have less than 25 PPM
of chloride content.

August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

5) All water shall be drained after hydrostatic testing. Any standing water in austenitic stainless
steel or austenitic stainless clad vessels shall be removed by blowing with air or by swabbing;
heat or hot air shall not be used for drying.
6) Attached sleeve-type liners, including cover strips, and nozzle liners shall be tested at 1.75
kg/cm2 (25 psig) minimum in accordance with ASME Section V, Article T-1031 and T-1032
by introducing dry air between the lining and the base metal. The test shall be conducted before
postweld heat treatment and before pressure testing of the vessel. Any liquid which may have
become trapped between the lining and the base metal shall be completely removed and all test
holes drilled in the alloy liner or base metal shall be sealed by welding.
7) Each nozzle reinforcing pad or each segment thereof and similar attachments shall be tested
prior to the vessel pressure test at 1.05 kg/cm2 (15 psig) in accordance with ASME Section V,
Article T-1031 and T-1032 with dry air. All welds inside and outside the vessel shall be
inspected during the test. Test holes in pads shall be left open after the test.
8) The service bolting and ring joint gaskets to be furnished with the vessel may be used for testing.
Any material damaged during the test and all types of service gaskets other than ring joints used
in the test shall be replaced by the VENDOR with new material. Austenitic service bolts shall
not be used in the shop test.
9) Following the application of test pressure, a visual inspection for leaks shall be performed at a
pressure not less than the design pressure or two-thirds of the test pressure, whichever is
greater. This pressure shall be held for one hour per 25 mm (1 inch) of maximum shell or
formed head thickness, with a one hour minimum and a five hour maximum.
10) All vertical vessels and towers shall be designed for field hydro test in vertical position.
8.7

Rejection
1) Completed vessels, parts of vessels, or materials containing defects originating with the
VENDORs design, materials, or workmanship; or that are not in complete compliance with
the requirements of the Order will be rejected.
2) Discovery of conditions warranting rejection, after inspection and acceptance of the vessel by
OWNER, does not relieve the VENDOR of his responsibility to comply with the Order.

8.8

Postweld Heat Treatment Check

The VENDOR shall check that the postweld heat treatment has been correctly performed, and that the
temperature readings conform to the requirements of this specification.

August, 1999

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Petrokemya

8.9

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Shipping Preparation Check

The following items shall be checked:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cleaning, draining, drying, and blanking


Supports for shipping.
Protection of all openings for flanged connections, beveled ends and all machined surfaces.
Markings
Nameplate data
Protection of austenitic S.S. from sea water exposure.

8.10 Inspection Report


1) Data reports for inspection items specified by this specification shall be kept for review by
OWNERs inspector.
2) Inspection reports to be submitted for record shall include the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

9.

VENDORs data report


Materials mill certificates
Postweld heat treatment recording chart
Non-destructive examination records
Results of dimensional inspection
Pressure test records
Welding procedures and welders qualifications report
Manufacturers Design Report (MDR) for vessels requiring Code Stamp.

SHOP PAINTING
1) Before shipping, all exposed surfaces of vessels and their supports, except machined surfaces,
shall be painted in accordance with GES-019 (GES for painting).
2) Austenitic alloy steel and nickel-iron-chromium alloy material parts with design metal
temperatures above 400oC (750oF), except as required by GES-019, shall be kept free of paint
to avoid the possibility of corrosion at elevated operating temperatures. All traces of paint
which accidentally spatter on such parts shall be promptly removed.

August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

10. PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT


The preparation for shipment shall be as follows:
1) The vessel shell be drained and dried immediately after hydro test. Vessel shall be cleaned
thoroughly so that it is free from any debris, dirt and foreign matter before shipment.
2) The VENDOR shall be responsible for suitably packaging each vessel or component and
adequately supporting and securing all vessel internals to protect from damage or loss during
handling and shipment in accordance with the Order and the following requirements:
a) Packages shall include lifting lugs or designated lifting points.
b) Each vessel, crate or container shall be clearly identified by painting or stenciling the
receiving address, purchase order number, equipment item number, etc. according to
OWNERs instructions.
c) Orientation shall be marked on the top, middle, and bottom portions of the shells at 0, 90,
180, and 270 respectively, with white paint. The orientation mark shall be a minimum of
300 mm long and maximum 2.5 mm wide.
d) Internals, clips, lugs, or other similar attachments which are removable and are to be
assembled by others shall be marked with piece numbers for identification in assembly and
match-marked.
e) Special tools shall be separately boxed, shipped and identified with the vessel on which they
are to be used and the boxes marked as special tools.
3) For vessels that have been postweld heat treated or having a thermoplastic lining, the following
sign shall be painted on the vessel after heat treatment:
NO WELDING PERMITTED ON THIS VESSEL
The sign shall be in letters approximately 76 mm (3 inches) high painted with white paint.

On vertical vessels, this sign shall be located on two opposite sides near the bottom
tangent line and repeated at approximately each 3050 mm (10 feet) of height, but
rotated 90 degrees.

On horizontal vessels, the sign shall be located on both sides near the horizontal
centerline.

The above note shall be put on the VENDORs drawings.

4) Marking paint or water insoluble ink for use on austenitic and high nickel alloy steels shall
contain no substance (e.g., metallic pigments, sulfur or chlorides) which would be harmful to

August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

these materials at ambient or elevated temperatures. The VENDOR shall submit analysis of
marking material to OWNER. Submittal shall demonstrate (by chemical analysis and history of
use) that the material meets these requirements.
5) Stamping on all austenitic steels and impact tested materials shall be with low stress steel
stamps having round or U shaped cross sections or with interrupted-dot die stamps.
6) The VENDOR shall include a packing list in each shipment, listing the contents by assembly
piece mark, individual piece mark, or by vessel number of each box, crate, bag, and skid. The
list shall state whether the contents constitute complete or partial shipment.
7) For ocean shipment, vessels shall not be transported as above-deck cargo without prior written
approval of OWNER.
8) Where clearances for shipping require alteration or cutting off of vessel nozzles, clips, lugs, or
other similar attachments, the VENDOR shall submit loading diagrams showing the attachments
which require reorientation or removal. No changes shall be made unless written approval has
been obtained from OWNER.
9) Small parts of the vessel shall be shipped bagged, boxed, or otherwise protected from damage
or loss. Spare gaskets shall be shipped separately and not bolted in place. They shall be
clearly tagged as spares.
10) The VENDOR shall provide any special protection or packaging, and details of any storage,
shelf life, or maintenance instructions which are not within the scope of the Order but which
pertain to the VENDORs guarantee or are otherwise necessary for protection of the vessel.
11) Protection for flange faces, threaded connections, weld bevels, etc., shall be as follows:

All machined and threaded surfaces of carbon steel and ferritic alloy steel materials,
except weld bevels, shall be coated with one of the following rust preventives or an
equal approved by OWNER:
E.F. Houghton Co. Rust-Veto No. 342
Exxon Chemical Co. Rust Ban No. 326

Weld bevels shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, scale, rust, and other foreign materials. All
weld bevels of carbon steel and ferritic alloy steel materials shall be coated, after
cleaning, on the inside and outside for a distance of approximately 76 mm (3 inches)
from the end of the weld bevel with one of the following weldable rust preventives or an
equal approved by OWNER:
Deoxaluminite manufactured by:

August, 1999

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Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

AACCOS
5220 N 125TH Street
Butler, WI 53007, U.S.A.

All weld bevels shall be closed with metal or plastic caps to prevent damage and
entrance of foreign materials

All socket-weld ends and plain ends shall be closed with metal or plastic protectors that
fit either inside or outside to prevent damage and entrance of foreign materials.

Threaded openings shall be plugged with hexagonal headed threaded plugs of the same
material as the connected part and sealed with tetrafluoroethylene tape thread sealant.

For ocean shipment, flanged openings shall be protected and made waterproof with full
size 3.4 mm (0.134 inch, 10 USS gauge) minimum thickness steel covers and 3 mm
(1/8 inch) thick rubber gaskets between the flange face and cover. When steel flange
covers are furnished , they shall be secured with appropriately sized machine bolts as
follows: For flanges having 4 to 28 bolt holes, a bolt shall be place in at least every
other hole, with a minimum of 4 bolts. For flanges having more than 28 bolt holes, bolts
shall be placed in at least every fourth bolt hole.

For domestic land shipment, flanged openings shall be protected and waterproofed
using appropriately attached plywood or plastic covers with plastic sheet covering the
flange opening.

The test holes of reinforcing pads for nozzles and manholes shall be filled with a heavy grease,
except for stainless steel and nickel alloy vessels.

11. APPENDIXES
The following appendixes shall form a part of this specification:
Appendix No.
1
2
3

August, 1999

Title
Summary of Inspection and Tests
Pressure Vessel Tolerances
Material Specifications

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

APPENDIX 1

SUMMARY OF INSPECTION AND TESTS


Inspection and test
Requirements
Components to be
Inspected
Before Fabrication
A. Materials
1. Pressure
retaining parts
2. Non-Pressure
parts
B. Welding
qualifications
1. Pressure
retaining welds
As Fabrication
Progresses (Note 1)
A. Materials
1.. Pressure
retaining parts
2. Attachments

Chemical
Analysis

Mechanical
Test

Material
Identification
Mark Check

Paragraph
UG-93(a)

Paragraph
UG-93(a)
UW-13(f)

Subsection 8.2
Subsection 8.2

Welding
Procedure
Check

Welding &
Welding
Operator
Check

Visual
Inspection

4. Fillet
welds, intermediate head
5. Welds on
pneumatically
pressure tested
vessels
As Completed (Note 2)
1. Any components

August, 1999

Radio-graphy

MT or FT

Post Weld
Heat
Treatment
Check

Pressure Test

Shipping
Preparation
Check

Subsection
8.8

Subsection
8.6

Subsection
8.9

Subsection
8.2
Subsection
8.2

Paragraph
UW-47

Paragraph
UW-48

Paragraph
UG-95
Paragraph
UG-96(b)

B. Welds

1. Prepared edge
for welding
2. Back chipped
surface of root
pass
3. Pressure
retaining welds

Dimensional
Inspection

Paragraph
UG-81

Paragraph
UG-93(b)(3)

Subsection
8.3.
8.3.
Paragraph
UG-93(b)(3)
Subsection
8.3.
Subsection
8.5.

Subsection
8.3.
8.3.

Subsection
8.5.
Paragraph
UW-50

Subsection
8.4
Paragraph
UG-96(a)

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Notes:

(1)
(2)
(3)

Items which OWNER may witness during VENDORs inspection.


Items to be witnessed by OWNER.
The subsection references are to be found in this specification and the paragraph references are to be found in the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1.

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4
Appendix 2 (1/4)

PRESSURE VESSEL TOLERANCES

FIGURE 2
(The numbers shown in boxes on this sketch
correspond to the numbered notes as follows)

August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Appendix 2 (2/4)

Notes for Figure 2:


1. The tolerance on dimensions not specified herein or specifically shown on the drawings shall be
6mm.

2. Items not covered by notes 16, 17, and 18 which have been located on the drawings or Data
Sheets by elevation or by a dimension from a tangent or reference line shall be located from the
reference plane, within a tolerance of + 12 mm or + 1.3 mm per linear meter of length, whichever is
greater.
3. The tolerance on orientation from the reference centerline to the centerline of a nozzle or manhole is
+
1 degree, except the circumferential measurement shall have a maximum tolerance of + 25 mm.
4. The tolerance on the distance from the face of a nozzle to the vessel surface is + 6 mm.
5. The tolerance on the distance from the inside vessel wall to downcomer support bars or weirs is as
shown on tray VENDORs tower attachment drawing.
6. The tolerance on the height of downcomer bolting bars above tray support rings is as shown on the
tray VENDORs tower attachment drawing.
7. The tolerance on the length of downcomer bolting bars is as shown on the tray VENDORs tower
attachment drawing.
8. The tolerance on the alignment of a nozzle flange face with the indicated plane is + 1/2 degree in any
direction.
9. The tolerance on the distance from the face of a manhole flange to the vessel surface is

12 mm.

10. The maximum deviation of the actual circumference (as determined by strapping )from the nominal
circumference is as shown in Column A, Table 1.
11. The tray support rings shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis within the limits given in Column
B, Table 1.
12. The top surface of tray support rings shall be perpendicular to the vessel shell within 1.5 mm in the
width of the ring.

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Appendix 2 (3/4)

13. The top of weld-attached weir plates shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vessel
within the limits given in Column C, Table 1.
14. The tolerance on the distance between adjacent tray supports is + 3 mm.
15. The maximum deviation in elevation between each adjoining clip, bracket, and similar structural
attachment located in the same plane is +3 mm. The tolerance on location from the tangent or
reference line for each individual clip, bracket, or attachment is shown in Note 2.
16. The tolerance on the distance from the reference plane to support lug is + 6 mm, -0.
17. The tolerance on the distance from the reference plane to the base is +0, -6 mm.
18. The tolerance on the distance from the reference plane to horizontal vessel support (saddle) is +6
mm, -0.
19. The tolerance on the distance from the vessel surface to the bottom of horizontal vessel support
saddles is +6 mm, -0.
20. The reference plane shall be located 50 mm above the root land in a vertical vessel bottom course
and 50 mm from the root land in a horizontal vessel end course at the side from which dimensions
are run. The plane shall be punch marked inside and outside at 0, 90, 180, and 270 degree points.
Punch marks shall be circled with paint.
21. The tolerance on the specified dimension between two nozzles, connections, or clips is + 3 mm.
22. The maximum deviation from a straight line perpendicular to the reference plane of any cylindrical
element of the vessel shell (including cylindrical or similar supports extending beyond the shell of
vertical vessels) shall be 3 mm for each 3 m of length.
23. The tolerance on the distance from the face of a hillside shell nozzle to the vessel centerline is
mm.

24. The tolerance on nozzle bolt hole orientation is + 1.5 mm measured at the bolt circle diameter.
25. The tolerance for external clip orientation and clip face alignment is as shown in Notes 3 and 8.
August, 1999

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

Appendix 2 (4/4)

TABLE I
VARIABLE TOLERANCES
COLUMN/TOWER
DIAMETER MM
1220 & less
Over 1220 to 2440
Over 2440 to 4570
Over 4570

August, 1999

A
10
13
25
38

TOLERANCES, MM
B
3
6
8
10

C
3
5
6
8

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GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4
Appendix 3
Materials Sheet 1 of 4

TABLE 1
MATERIAL
Carbon Steel
Carbon Silicon Steel

TEMP. RANGE (F)


-20 to + 775

PLATE AND SHEET


Under 1 Thk. Use
A-285, Gr C
1Thk. & Over Use
SA-516 Gr. 55,60, 65 & 70

PIPE
SA-53 Gr A or B
Smls. or Welded
A-106 Gr. A or B
Smls.

FORGINGS
SA-105 150# 300# Flanges
SA-105 600# Flanges
A-105 Couplings
A266 Cl. 2

TUBING
SA-179
Seamless
Normalized and
Straightened

Charpy Impact
Tested Carbon Steel
Charpy Imp act
Tested C-Mn-Si
5% Cr. -1/2 Mo.
1-1/4 Cr. -1 Mo
2-1/4 Cr. -1/2 Mo.
11-13% Cr.
Type 405
11-13% Cr.
Type 410
17% Cr. Type 430
Type 304 or 304L

-50 to -20

SA-516 Gr. 70N

SA-333 Gr.1 or 6

SA-334 Gr. 1 or 6

-70 to -50

SA-333 Gr. 3

-20 to +1100
-20 to +1100
-20 to +1200
-20 to +1000

SA-537 CL1 *
Impact Tested
SA-387
SA-387 Gr. 11
SA-387 Gr. 22
A-240 Type 405

SA-350 Gr. LF2


A266 Cl. 2
SA-350 Gr. LF3

SA-335 Gr. P5
SA-335 Gr P11
SA-335 Gr. P22

SA-182 Gr F5
SA-182 Gr. F11
SA-182 Gr. F22

-20 to +1200

SA-240 Type 410

-20 to +1200
-320 to +1000

SA-240 Type 430


SA-240 Type 304 or 304L

Type 316 or 316L

-320 to +1000

304 H
316 H

SA-182 Gr. F6

CLADDING

SA-249 Type 304


SA-213 T5
SA-213 T11
SA-213 T22
SA-268 Type 405

SA-263

SA-268 Type 410

SA-263
SA-263
SA-264 Type
304 or 304L

SA-312 Type 304


or 304L
Smls. or Welded

SA-182 Gr. F304 or F304L

SA-240 Type 316


or 316L

SA-312 Type 316


or 316L
Smls. or Welded

SA-182 Gr. F316 or F316L

-20 to +1250

SA-240 Type 304H

SA-182 Gr. F304H

-20 to +1250

SA-240 Type 316H

SA-312
Type 304H
SA-312
Type 316H

SA-268 Type 430


SA-213 Type 304 or
304 L Smls
SA-249 Type 304 or 304L
Welded
SA-213 Type 316 or 316L
Smls.
SA-249 Type 316
or 316L Welded
SA-213 Type 304H

SA-182 Gr. F316H

SA-213 Type 316H

SA-264 316 or
316L

SA-264 Type
304H
SA-264 Type
316H

* Maximum temperature limit 650F

August, 1999

Page 50 of 53

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4
Appendix 3
Materials Sheet 2 of 4
TABLE 1

MATERIAL
Type 347

TEMP. RANGE (F)


-20 to +1500

PLATE AND SHEET


SA-240 Type 347H

PIPE
SA-312 Type 347H
or 321H
Smls. or Welded

FORGINGS
SA-182 Gr. F347H
or 321H

Type 310

-20 to +1500

SA-240 Type 310

SA-312 Type 310


Smls. or Welded

SA-182 Gr F310

-20 to +450
-20 to +450
-20 to +350
-200 to +900

SB-171 Cold Rolled


SB-171 Cold Rolled
SB-29 Chemical Lead
SB-127 Hot Rolled
SB-265

-90 to -50

SA203 Gr. B

-120 to -50

SA203 Gr E

Non-Ferrous
Alloys
Admiralty Brass
Muntz Metal
Lead
Monel
Titanium
Copper Alloys
Nickel Alloys
2-1/2 Nickel (if
permitted)
3-1/2 nickel (if
permitted)

August, 1999

TUBING
SA-213 Type 347H or
321H
Smls.
SA-249 Type 347H or
321H
Welded
SA-213 Type 310
Smls.
SA-249 Type 310
Welded

CLADDING
SA-264 TYP
347H or 321H

SA-264
TYP 310

B-111
B-111
SB-165 Annealed
SB-337

Special Order (not


recommended)
Special Order (not
recommended)

SB-164 Class A
SB-381

SB-165 Annealed
SB-338

SA-265
SB-265

not recommended
SA350LF3

not recommended

Page 51 of 53

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4
Appendix 3
Materials
Sheet 3 of 4

TABLE 2
VESSEL MATERIAL GUIDE
PROCESS FLUID
Hydrocarbons, Steam, Air
Water, Non-Corrosive Gases
Process
Additives
Hydrocarbons with
Hydrogen Sulphide or
Sulphur Compounds
Hydrocarbons with
Chloride Compounds
Brine-Sod. Chloride
Caustic Solution
MaOH or KOH
Mercaptans
Sulphuric Acid
Neutralized Caustic
Seal Oil, Lube Oil
Demineralized H20
Control Oil
Hydrogen and Hydrogen
Mixes
Chlorine
Hydrogen & Hydrogen
Hydrocarbon, H2S Mix
Hydrogen

August, 1999

SERVICE CONDITIONS
Minus 320F to Minus 50F
Minus 50F to Minus 20F
Minus 20F to Plus 750F
Plus 750F to Plus 1250F
Plus 1250F to Plus 1500F
Ambient
Elevated Temps. to plus 300F

MATERIAL PER TABLE 1 FOR UNFIRED PRESS. VESSELS


Stainless Steel (Type 304 or 316 etc.)
Charpy Impact Test Carbon Steel/Stainless Steel Type 304 or 304L
Carbon Steel
Alloy Steel/Stainless Steel (Type 304 or 316)
321/347 Stainless Steel
Carbon Steel/Stainless Steel Tube Bundles (Exchangers)
Stainless Steel Lined Carbon Vessels (Lining Type 304 or 316)

Small Amount of Water Present


No Water Present, Minus 20F. to plus 200F
No Water, Minus 200F to Minus 20F
Saturated Solution Minus 20F to plus 100F
50% or less conc. minus 20F to plus 130F
50% or less conc. plus 130F to plus 500F
100% Conc. - Ambient Temp
93% Conc. 100F
260F
No Contamination Allowable

Carbon Steel with Extra Corrosion Allowance /Monel


Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
Carbon Steel/Plastics
Carbon Steel with stress relief
Monel
Carbon Steel
Carbon Steel
Monel
Stainless Steel Type 304 or 304 L

Below 450F (max. partial pressure per API 941)


To 750F (max. partial pressure per API 941)
160F or less
0F to 950F

SA516 Gr. 60 or 70 (KCS)


1-1/4 CR 1/2 Moly
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel Type 321

Temp 450F partial pressure 75 psig

SA516 Gr. 60 or 70

Page 52 of 53

Petrokemya

GES-003-01
Pressure Vessels
Rev. 4

APPENDIX 3
Materials
Sheet 4 of 4
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
COLD SERVICE (Note 3)
(DO NOT APPLY TO PIPING)
Carbon Steel
per ASME Code
(Note 1)
15.6oC
Killed Carbon Steel
(Charpy impact test; is not required by code)
(Note 1)
-29oC
Killed Carbon Steel
(With Charpy V-Notch Impact Test)
(When required per code)
(Post Weld Heat Treated)
(Note 1)
-46oC
2-1/2% Nickel (Note 2)
(with Charpy Impact Test)
(Post Weld Heat Treated)
-68oC
3-1/2% Nickel (Note 2)
(With Charpy Impact Test)
(Post Weld Heat Treated)
-101oC
(No Postweld Heat Treatment)

Stainless Steel
-198oC

(No Postweld Heat Treatment)

Stainless Steel 304, 304L, 347


Aluminum (wrought)
-254oC

Fig. 1
Note (1) C.S. materials may be used down to -46C without impact testing if exempted by Paragraph UCS-66 Section
VIII, Division 1. (Latest Addenda)
Note (2) 2-1/2% and 3-1/2% Ni steels have an intermittent history of welding problems (weld metal solidification
cracking at forgings). High nickel or austenitic stainless steels should be chosen instead of the low Ni
steels, provided proper welding and fabrication controls are implemented.
Note (3) Materials specified for lower temperatures may be substituted for higher temperature materials. Such
substitutions must be approved by the OWNER.

August, 1999

Page 53 of 53