Anda di halaman 1dari 29

The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate Histor y

Volume 1 volume 1

Article 5

10-1-2013

Constructing the Wicked Witch: Discourses


of Power in the Witch-Hunts of Early
Modern Germany
Sharon Hanna
University of Windsor, hannas@uw indsor.ca

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/gljuh


Part of the Histor y Commons
Recommended Citation
Hanna, Sharon (2013) "Constructing the Wicked Witch: Discourses of Power in the Witch-Hunts of Early Modern Germany," The
Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History: Vol. 1, Article
5. Available at:
http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/gljuh/vol1/iss1/5

This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Department of History at Scholarship at UWindsor. It has been accepted for inclusion
in The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History by an authorized administrator of Scholarship at UWindsor. For more information, please
contact scholarship@uwindsor.ca.

62

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

62

Constructing the Wicked Witch:


Discourses of Power in the Witch-Hunts
of Early Modern Germany
Sharon Hanna
University of Windsor

For the people of early modern Germany, the witch was


not the cackling menace of fairytales or myth, but a real-life scourge
on society that needed to be purged from their lives. As humans
who had succumbed to the devils seduction, witches were the
manifesta- tion of demonic presence that had infiltrated everyday
experience.
It became societys mission to eradicate these insidious influences
through aggressive witch-hunts, which at times reached such a
furor that this period is remembered as a witch-craze.1 However,
these hunts were not driven by indiscriminate mass hysteria.
Instead, the female sex was systematically identified as the threat.

63

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

63

In Germany, women made up over two-thirds of those prosecuted


or executed.2

Thus, womens historians have argued that the witch-hunts cannot


be understood without using gender as a category of analysis, in
addi- tion to other perspectives of race, class, or culture. Using this
frame- work, it becomes obvious that these witch-hunts were less
about magic or heresy and more the expression of a contested
power rela- tionship between the sexes.3 In a public display of male
dominance, the witch-hunts turned female exertions of power into
criminal be- haviour creating a social construction that exploited
fears over the supernatural to ensure gender conformity.
I argue that the witch hunts of sixteenth and seventeenthcentury Germany evolved into the manifestation of a gendered power struggle as the male hierarchy attempted to re-assert their
authority in a context of religious upheaval and class conflict.
Contemporary texts such as Malleus Maleficarum, trial records, and
letters between religious elites demonstrate that women were
targeted as witches
due to the fact that their societal roles were perceived as threats to
the established power relationship between the sexes. The portrayals of witches as malevolent mothers, heretics, and sexual deviants
were accusations levied by an insecure patriarchal structure to subjugate women who were not conforming to increasingly conservative
paradigms of femininity. I ground my arguments in historiographical
context, followed by exploring the general atmosphere in which the
witch-hunts started. I show that an anxious German male hierarchy
used the pretext of the language and values around witchcraft as a
way to exert social control over male-female power relationships
and reinforce conventional domestic ideals in a context of sociopolitical uncertainty.
There is a significant body of literature on early modern
witchcraft. Yet, as Anne Barstow and Elspeth Whitney argue, most

historians have neglected to adopt gender as a category of analysis


to

understand the witch-hunts until more recently. Barstow suggests


that scholars have dismissed gender in favour of other analytical
frame- works that explained the witch-hunts exclusively in terms of
class, religious upheaval, or rising nationalism.4 Whitney further
argues
that these historians excused the fact that witches were women as
unproblematic due to an ancient paradigm of misogyny that was
prevalent in Western societies.5 She refutes this explanation by demonstrating that women in early modern Europe faced
unprecedented persecution due to a newfound association of the
female sex with deviance from the natural order.6 Early historians
did not fully ac- knowledge the centrality of gender to witchcraft or
explore womens experiences within the socio-political context that
created the hunts.
Due to the rising influence of womens history, scholars in
the mid-1980s began to examine the female characterization of the
witch as a central component to the European witch-hunts.7
However, the exploration of the interaction between witchcraft,
gender, and power is in its early stages and lacks in-depth analysis or
focus. For example, Brian Levacks work, The Witch-Hunt in Early
Modern Europe only brief- ly discusses male anxiety over female
sexual prowess.8 E. Monters study of French and Swiss witchcraft
suggests that witchcraft accusa- tions were the projections of male
fears over the social capabilities of atypical women, but does not
explore the concept further.9 Similarly, Robert Muchembled
highlights womens importance as transmitters
of culture a position that afford them societal influence, but fails to
discuss its implications on male-female relationships in witchcraft.10
However, feminist historians like Marianne Hester are advancing
research towards greater focus on power relationships as she sees the

hunts as eroticized domination of men over women.11 Scholars, like


Hester, have begun to recognize that inter-gender power was an important dimension to the witch-hunts. I too follow suit, by
examining

65

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

65

how the patriarchy constructed the character of the witch with


the purpose of subordinating non-conformist women.
The witch-crazes of sixteenth and seventeenth-century
Germany arose in a context of political flux and religious
instability. Germany was not a unified state, but rather a loose
conglomeration of independently ruled duchies and kingdoms
with poorly defined political and legal boundaries. It was a violent
era, with the German peasants revolt in the early 1520s to the
bloody Thirty Years War from 1618 to 1648.12 Economically,
society faced agricultural crisis, rising inflation, and disease
epidemics which destabilized the work- force.13 This situation was
exacerbated by high religious passions
in the wake of the Reformation, as territories were divided between
Catholic and Protestant factions. Clearly, this was a society in crisis.
Historian Lyndal Roper argues that this chaotic landscape prompted a conservative backlash in the Counter-Reformation of the late
sixteenth century. The lands with the most violent witch-crafts were
ruled by Catholic prince-bishops, who were militantly trying to
regain authority. Leaders recognized that their traditional bases of
power were being challenged; thus, they sought to invent a tangible
internal threat that would mobilize and unite citizens to protect
society.14 The female witch was constructed as the enemy, but really
she was the embodiment of male anxiety over their seceding grip on
power.
Considering the destabilized political context, the dynamics
within the male power structure itself had important implications
for the witch-hunts. Letters between famous inquisitor Heinrich
Institoris and monk Wolfgang Heimstckl reveal that leaders of the
male power structure were not immune to gender anxiety. After
being commissioned to witch-hunting by his superiors Institoris and

66

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

66

the Bishop, Heimstckl acts upon his new holy vocation by rebuking
his male subordinate, a local priest in Abensberg, for his lack of
action

against female witches in his parish. Interestingly, Heimstckl ridicules the priest, suggesting that he was intimidated by the witches
potential retaliations and berating him for being more afraid of
elderly women than God.15 Not only did the male hierarchy disseminate the female definition of the witch, but also they used
accusations of deficient masculinity to motivate their members. I
propose that
the strongly gendered language within these texts support the idea
that early modern men were experiencing a crisis of masculinity. An
occurrence not uncommon in historical record, this crisis saw the
context of social change exacerbate inherent male insecurities over
the definition of their sexuality and their gender roles in society.
One result was the need to vilify the female sex as being more
susceptible to witchcraft, as a way to reaffirm their paradigm of male
gender superiority. It is interesting to note that one of the authors,
Heinrich Institoris, is actually a pseudonym. His real name, Heinrich
Kramer, reveals that he is a co-author of the infamous Malleus
Maleficarum.16
This benchmark text defined witches as women and associated the
female gender with negative sexuality. Thus, Kramer is important
not only as a cultural disseminator in Europe but a key member of
the German patriarchy whose chauvinistic views permeated down
even
to the local parish. The influence of leaders like Kramer and their
sexually-charged messages further evidences an atmosphere of male
sexual fear and female scapegoating.
In order to understand why the witch was seen as such a
threat to society, I consider womens lived experience in early
modern Germany. The roles for women were dictated by leading
human-

ists, scientists, and religious thinkers who believed that women were
biologically inferior, relegating them to a life of domesticity.
Historian Margaret Sommerville calls this the basis of subjection
that mani- fested in everyday relationships between husbands, wives,
children,

and society at large, as well as in sex, marriage, and reproduction.17


Even in the private sphere, a man held ultimate authority which was
a divine right given to his gender by God. Women were intended to
be mothers and housewives; work outside the home was
discouraged and devalued.18 However, not all women conformed to
these values. Historian Eugene Bever argues that despite the
oppressive context, some women began to make active assertions of
power within their social realms by using poison, exacting revenge,
or even resorting to domestic violence. While it is important to note
that these acts were uncommon, Bever characterizes these were
everyday forms of aggression. Women lacked real power or influence in the maledominat- ed legal system, leaving them within the domestic sphere to
execute their own justice within their means.19 These disorderly
women, though outliers of society, signaled a development that male
author- ity feared. Women were breaking out of their conventional
feminine roles, creating a potential challenge to their power
monopoly.
The last important context to consider is that of witchcraft
itself on the question of how women became witches. Scholar
Sigrid Brauner claims that only after the watershed publication of
the Malleus Maleficarum by papal inquisitors Heinrich Kramer and
Jakob Sprenger in 1487 did witchcraft become gender-specific.20
Malleus elevated the folk-based medieval narrative of witchcraft by
Kramers religious-charged claims to know the identity of the witch
through
his personal experiences with hunts and trials. In short, witchcraft
was a sin of the female sex and the source of societal degradation. A
widely read treatise on witchcraft, the Malleus asserted that all women
had the potential to be witches due to their weak minds, slippery

tongues, feeble bodies, and innate moral failings. Most importantly,


they concluded that all witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which in
women is insatiable.21 By arguing that all women had the potential
to

68

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

68

be witches, men were encouraged to perceive women as the weaker


sex and exert power over them if they appeared to be succumbing
to their natural vice of witchcraft. It rationalized male domination
over all women, witch or not. Furthermore, the text provides
instructions for female witch trials, most notably details on strip
searches, torture, and ways to recognize a witch such as her
inability to cry.22 It can be seen that the objective was to diminish the
power of women through violence and humiliation, while
establishing the male judiciary as the rightful supreme authority. The
Malleus Maleficarum was a strongly misogynistic text that became the
standard guide for witch-hunting and provided the ideological
foundation for the patriarchys actions towards women.
Each of the different portrayals of the witch indicates an area
where the male hierarchy perceived a potential for female power that
needed to be suppressed. First, discourses reinforcing the role of the
witch as a malevolent mother were dominant in village trials. Changing religious paradigms had reinvigorated the idea of motherhood
as womens special vocation from God. Thus, early modern society directly connected the health and wellbeing of children with the
quality of the mothers care. This new social construction of
mother- hood led to renewed male fears over maternal power,
particularly the possibility of malevolent nurture to corrupt or
damage children.23
They were alarmed at the fact that women had primary control over
impressionable male youth, from suckling to early childhood. The
male power structure portrayed the witch as the antithesis of a
good Christian wife, as she would care for her demonic imps but
murder human children at the bidding of the devil.24 The witch as a
mother became the fixation of many trials, as men tried to regulate
the one area of life that women, by nature, had a role of power.

69

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

69

The fears of the patriarchal authority over this dangerous

female responsibility is evidenced in the witch trials, as many witches


were indicted on charges relating to motherhood. For example, a trial
transcript from 1637 records the confessions, extracted by torture, of
a woman identified as N.N. She admits to poisoning her own daughter at the bidding of the Devil. Furthermore, she exhumed her
childs body many years later, taking the remains and having stirred
them
for two days and nights...pounded them into a powder, and gave it
to the Devil.25 Other trials indicate an obsessive level of attention
paid to the witchs teat, signaling male apprehension over the
possibility
of contaminated milk affecting vulnerable male infants.26 This trial
evidence indicates that the witch was the projection of male anxiety
over female influence in child-bearing and mothering. Women were
only supposed to be the vessel for mens seed. They were to bear his
children without influence or interference. Though grinding up bones
is extreme, these examples illustrate that men were propagating the
message that women did not always act in their childs best interest.
Overall, the witch as a mother was identified as a source of female
power and the male hierarchy responded by using crime and punishment to warn good Christian mothers to fulfill their duties under the
dominion of their husbands.
The second portrayal of the witch by the male hierarchy was
the heretic. The Malleus Maleficarum introduced witchcraft as synonymous with heresy, claiming that the witchs primary sin was her
renunciation of God as her master.27 Thus, even on the spiritual
level, female-male power relationships are obvious. Female witches
were disrupting the established order by denying God himself,
leading to the conclusion that they would also usurp divinely ordained
male leadership on earth. However, a witch was paradoxically seen

as both a weak woman seduced by the Devils wiles and as a heretic


who knowingly and deliberately entered into an active demonic
pact.28 In

70

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

70

the spiritual realm, the witch was powerless and powerful at the same
time. Regardless, the male hierarchy took advantage of a context of
heightened religious sensitivities by painting the witch as the enemy
of God. For example, in the afore mentioned trial, N.N. is said to
have stolen a consecrated wafer, and stabbed it until it bled.29 This
reported desecration would have horrified the faithful of Germany
and in their minds, justified the brutal suppression of these supposed
blasphemous witches. As evidenced by the letters between Institoris
and Heimstckl, witch-hunters presented themselves as acting as
Gods representatives to rid the earth of the power of the ancient
serpent who had persuaded those of the female sex to worship
him. Heimstckl was given the full powers of religious law even
excommunication to use against any suspected witch.30 For the
German people, this meant that male religious leaders had the power
to punish them for witchcraft not only in this life but eternally. Since
women could be branded as heretic witches for being nonsubmissive wives or using birth control methods, this was an
especially effective form of social control.31 Thus, the male power structure used
a context of religious anxiety and tensions to send mixed messages
about female power and reinstate themselves as the divinely
ordained leaders and punishers.
Lastly, witches were portrayed as sexual deviants who performed erotic acts with the devil and were slave to their wild sexual
appetites. Historian Hans Broedel argues that the Malleus Maleficarum
not only gendered witches as women, but set a societal precedent
by constructing an explicitly sexualized female witch. For Kramer
and Sprenger, it was not enough for the witch to just worship the
devil; instead, their relationship had to be established through
sexual intercourse.32 Consistent with their weak nature and

71

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

propensity for carnality, female witches would excite themselves


with the devil for

71

the sake of quenching their lust.33 As a result, Broedel proposes a


power system where men viewed women strictly as sexual beings
with a set hierarchy. Thus, any perception of feminine deviance was
extrapolated to be a threat against the established social order.34 As
men portrayed the witch as a highly sexualized being, this advocated
for the control of womens bodies. They concluded that due to the
weakness of their bodies and minds, women were inevitably susceptible to seduction by the devil and unbridled promiscuity. As a
result, it was deemed a mans responsibility, as the stronger sex, to
control and punish women.35 The sexual dominance of husband
over wife was a microcosm of the larger social order with proper
male-female power relationships.
Witches personified bad sexuality.36 Instead of submissive, matrimonial intercourse, these women had sex with the devil to
fulfill their passions and gain demonic power over men. Witches
were notoriously blamed for causing male impotence, not only by
prevent- ing erections but often by the entire disappearance of the
member.37
Historian Gerhild Williams suggests that this action held particular
significance due to early modern scientific thinking. Many believed
that without a sexual organ positioned externally, a man faced the
ter- rifying prospect of having being turned into a woman.38 Clearly,
the eroticized power of the witch signifies male anxiety over their
own sexuality. If it could be so easily disrupted by a womans magic,
it fol- lows that masculine sexuality was fragile and easily disturbed.
How- ever, using the excuse of witches perversion, men used the
witch- trials to assert their dominion over womens bodies and
compensate for their own sexual anxiety. For example, a common
practice was to conduct a highly invasive, public strip search for the
witchs mark

a teat where her imps would suck which was usually located in
private areas. 39 Through this humiliating sexual assault, men
proved

72

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

72

their dominance over female sexuality. Thus, in this realm, women


had no rights to privacy and no power, not even over their own
bodies.
The purpose of the gendered witch-hunts in sixteenth and
seventeenth-century Germany were for the patriarchal order to reaffirm their position of power in male-female relationships. Men and
women faced an uncertain future, as their lives were fraught with
reli- gious conflict, bloody wars, and economic uncertainty. With
their bas- es of power destabilized, the male power structure
constructed the female witch as the scapegoat for societal problems.
Nonconformist women were targeted due to male anxiety over the
usurping of their traditional roles. In all her manifestations as a
malevolent mother, a depraved heretic, or a sexual deviant, the witch
was meant to repre- sent the negative extremes of womanhood. In
actuality, these were areas where women could exert some form of
power. Yet, since by nature all women were susceptible to witchcraft,
men could use the witch-hunts as a reign of terror over their female
counterparts, weed- ing out atypical women and reinforcing male
authority and traditional sex roles through fear of punishment. The
people of early modern Germany were urged to view witches as
more than the old hags of
the folklore and legend, but as a threat to their way of life. In
reality, witches were women who had threatened mens established
power.

Notes
1.
Anne Barstow, Witchcraze: A New History of the European
Witch Hunts (San Francisco: Pandora, 1994), 2, 49.
2.
Anne Barstow, On Studying Witchcraft as Womens
History: A Historiography of the European Witch Persecutions,
Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 4 (1988): 7.
3.
See Barstow, Witchcraze; Sigrid Brauner, Fearless Wives &
Frightened Shrews: The Construction of the Witch in Early Modern Germany
(Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995), 5; Lyndal Roper,
Stealing Manhood: Capitalism and Magic in Early Modern Germany, Gender & History 3 (1991): 17; Charles Zika, Fears of
Flying: Representations of Witchcraft and Sexuality in Early
Sixteenth-Cen- tury Germany, Gender and Witchcraft (2002).
4.
Barstow, On Studying Witchcraft as Womens History, 7,
9- 10, 12. See the work of C. LEstrange Ewen, Witchcraft and
Demoni- anism (London: Heath, Cranton, 1933); Alan MacFarlane,
Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A Regional and Comparative Study
(New York: Harper & Row, 1970); Richard A. Horsley, Who Were
the Witches? The Social Roles of the Accused in the European Witch
Trials, Jour- nal of Interdisciplinary History 9 (1979); Erik Midlefort,
Witch-Hunting in South-Western Germany: 1562-1684 - The Social and
Intellectual Foundations (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972).
5.
Elspeth Whitney, The Witch She/The Historian He:
Gender and the Historiography of the European Witch-Hunts, Journal of Womens History 7, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 78-79.
6.

Whitney, The Witch She/The Historian He, 78 -80

7.

Barstow, On Studying Witchcraft as Womens History, 9.

8.

Whitney, The Witch She/The Historian He, 81-82.

9.
E. William Monter, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland: The
Borderlands during the Reformation (Ithaca, Cornell University Press,

74

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

74

1976).
10.
Robert Muchembled, Satanic Myths and Cultural Reality,
in Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centers and Peripheries, ed. Bengt
Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen (Oxford, Clarendon Press,
1990),
151, 153.
11.

Whitney, The Witch She/The Historian He, 80-82, 86.

12.
Lyndal Roper, Witchcraze: Terror and Fantasy in Baroque
Ger- many (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 15-17.
13.
Jonathan B. Durrant, Witchcraft, Gender, and Society in Early
Modern Germany (Leiden: Brill, 2007), xv.
14.

Roper, Witchcraze, 16, 18, 29.

15.
Heinrich Institoris and Wolfgang Heimstckl, Wolfgang
Heimstckl is Commissioned, in Witch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the
Middle Ages: Documents and Readings, ed. and trans. P.G. MaxwellStuart (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011),
168170.
16.
Martin Antoine Del Rio, Investigations in Magic (Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 2000), vii.
17.
Margaret Sommerville, Sex and Subjection: Attitudes to Women in
Early-Modern Society (London: Arnold, 1995), 8.
18.
Sommerville, Sex and Subjection, 11, 14, 23, 34. See also
Brauner, Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews; Merry E. Wiesner, Working Women of Renaissance Germany (New Brunswick: Rugters
University Press, 1986); Lyndal Roper, The Holy Household: Women
and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1989).

75

ConstruCting the WiCked WitCh

Sharon hanna

75

19.
Eugene Bever, Witchcraft, Female Aggression, and Power
in the Early Modern Community, Journal of Social History 35
(2002):
959, 968-970.

20.

Brauner, Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews, 1, 31.

21.
Heinrich Kramer and Jakob Sprenger, Malleus Maleficarum, in Witchcraft in Europe, 1400-1700: A Documentary History, ed.
Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters (Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 181, 183, 188.
22.
Kramer and Sprenger, Malleus Maleficarum, 212- 213,
215-217.
23.
Deborah Willis, Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal
Power in Early Modern England (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995),
18-19.
24.
The Witch-Hunt at Eichsttt, 1637, in The Witchcraft
Source- book, ed. Brian Levack (New York: Routledge, 2004), 34.
25.

The Witch-Hunt at Eichsttt, 1637, 206, 209.

26.

Willis, Malevolent Nurture, 10.

27.
Durrant, Witchcraft, Gender, and Society in Early Modern Germany, 50.
28.

Willis, Malevolent Nurture, 74.

29.

The Witch-Hunt at Eichsttt, 1637, 208.

30.
Institoris and Heimstckl, Wolfgang Heimstckl is
Com- missioned, 168.
31.

Barstow, Witchcraze, 60 64, 134 135.

32.
Hans Peter Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief (Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 2003), 183 184.
33.
Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft, 177.

34.
Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft, 178 179.
35.

Barstow, Witchcraze, 130.

36.
Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft, 183.
37.
Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft, 177-178, 181 183.
38.
Gerhild Scholz Williams, Defining Dominion: The Discourses of
Magic and Witchcraft in Early Modern France and Germany (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1995). 73.
39.
Barstow, Witchcraze, 129 131; Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft, 181.
Bibliography
Primary Sources:
Institoris, Heinrich, and Wolfgang Heimstckl.Wolfgang
Heimstckl is Commissioned to Suppress All Forms of Magic
and Divina- tion and Undertakes the Task, 1491 1499. In
Witch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the Middle Ages: Documents and
Readings, edited and translated by P.G. Maxwell-Stuart, 168
170. London: Contiu- um International Publishing Group,
2011. Originally published in Joseph Hansen, ed., Quellen und
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte
des Hexenwahns und der Hexenverfolgung im Mittelalter (1901).
Kramer, Heinrich, and Jacob Sprenger. Malleus Maleficarum. In
Witchcraft in Europe, 1400 1700: A Documentary History, edited
by Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters, 180 229.
Philadel- phia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
Originally pub- lished in Montague Summers, trans., Malleus
Maleficarum (Lon- don, 1928).

The Witch-Hunt at Eichsttt, 1637. In The Witchcraft Sourcebook,


edited by. Brian P. Levack, 203 209. New York:
Routledge,
2004. Originally published in George L. Burr, ed., The Witch
Persecutions (Philadelphia: 1902).
Secondary Sources:
Antoine Del Rio, Martin. Investigations in Magic. Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 2000.
Barstow, Anne Llewellyn. On Studying Witchcraft as Womens History: A Historiography of the European Witch
Persecutions. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 4 (1988): 7
19.
. Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts. San
Francisco: Pandora, 1994.
Bever, Eugene. Witchcraft, Female Aggression, and Power in the
Early Modern Community. Journal of Social History 35 (2002):
955 988.
Brauner, Sigrid. Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews: The Construction
of the Witch in Early Modern Germany. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 1995.
Broedel, Hans Peter. The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of
Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief. Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 2003.
Durrant, Jonathan B. Witchcraft, Gender, and Society in Early Modern
Germany. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
Horsley, Richard A.. Who Were the Witches? The Social Roles of
the Accused in the European Witch Trials. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 9 (1979): 689 715.
MacFarlane, Alan. Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A Regional and
Comparative Study. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Midlefort, Erik. Witch-Hunting in South-Western Germany: 1562 1684


- The Social and Intellectual Foundations. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972.
Monter, E. William. Witchcraft in France and Switzerland: The
Borderlands during the Reformation. Ithaca: Cornell University
Press, 1976.
Muchembled, Robert. Satanic Myths and Cultural Reality. In
Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centers and Peripheries, edited
by Bengt Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen, 139 160.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
Roper, Lyndal. Stealing Manhood: Capitalism and Magic in Early
Modern Germany. Gender & History 3 (1991): 1- 17.
. The Holy Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg.
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989.
. Witch Craze: Terror and Fantasy in Baroque Germany. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
Sommerville, Margaret R. Sex and Subjection: Attitudes to Women in
Early-Modern Society. London: Arnold, 1995.
Whitney, Elspeth. International Trends: The Witch She/The Historian He: Gender and the Historiography of the European
Witch-Hunts. Journal of Womens History 7 (1995): 77-97.
Wiesner, Merry E.. Working Women of Renaissance Germany. New
Brunswick: Rugters University Press, 1986.
Williams, Gerhild Scholz. Defining Dominion: The Discourses of Magic
and Witchcraft in Early Modern France and Germany. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Willis, Deborah. Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal Power in
Early Modern England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Zika, Charles. Fears of Flying: Representations of Witchcraft and
Sexuality in Early Sixteenth-Century Germany. Gender and