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Structure and Written Expression

Bagian ke-2 ini merupakan bagian yang paling sulit dari keseluruhan tes TOEFL,
meskipun jumlah soal yang diujikan relatif sedikit.
Pertama-tama kita harus mengetahui tentang bagaimana cara mengerjakan
masing-masing bagian itu. Section II ini terdiri dari 2 bagian, yakni Part A yang
disebut Sentence Completion (melengkapi kalimat), dan Part B yang lazim disebut
Error Identification (mengidentifikasi kesalahan gramatikal)
.

Part A: Sentence Completion


Pada bagian ini terdapat 15 pertanyaan, masing-masing terdiri dari 1 buah
kalimat dengan kata dan/atau frasa yang dihilangkan. Kita diminta untuk memilih
salah satu pilihan (a), (b), (c), atau (d) yang jika dimasukkan kalimat di atasnya
menjadi benar secara gramatikal. Jadi dengan kata lain kita harus memilih MANA
YANG BENAR.

Part B: Error Identification


Pada bagian ini, terdapat 25 pertanyaan. Di masing-masing kalimat terdapat
kata atau kelompok kata yang digarisbawahi ditandai dengan (a), (b), (c), dan (d).
Kita diminta untuk mengidentifikasi bagian yang ditandai tersebut mana yang TIDAK
tepat secara gramatikal. Dengan kata lain kita diminta untuk memilih MANA YANG
SALAH.
Hati-hati!!! Jangan keliru mengerjakan dua bagian ini. Pahami instruksinya,
sehingga ketika tes yang sesungguhnya, Anda TIDAK PERLU lagi membaca
instruksi. Langsung saja kerjakan nomor 1!

Apa itu "Stucture"? (Ind. 'struktur')


Apa pun bidang ilmu yang Anda geluti, Anda pasti mengenal konsep tentang
"stuktur". Di dalam disiplin ilmu teknik, sosiologi, antropologi, seni, matematika,
ekonomi, geografi, dan semua cabang ilmu pasti dikenal konsep dan istilah 'struktur'
dengan definisi yang berbeda-beda. Namun jika kita perhatikan dengan seksama,
ada satu benang merah dari semua definisi konsep yang berbeda-beda tersebut.
Sebuah 'struktur' pasti mengandaikan adanya 3 hal utama, yakni:
1) bagian/unsur/elemen pembentuk struktur
2) keterkaitan/hubungan antarelemen/unsur/bagian tersebut
3) hukum/keteraturan/pola tertentu yang mengikat seluruh elemen/unsur/bagian
Oleh karena 'struktur' mengimplikasikan ketiga hal tersebut di atas, maka dengan
cara yang sama pertanyaan-pertanyaan pada bagian Structure & Written
Expression ini juga mengandaikan ketiga hal tersebut. Oleh karena yang menjadi
satuan terkecil yang diujikan adalah kalimat (bukan paragraf seperti pada bagian ke3), maka kita harus mampu mengenali:
1) elemen-elemen pembentuk kalimat
2) hubungan antarelemen kalimat
3) pola yang mengikat semua elemen tersebut.

Strategi Umum untuk Mengerjakan Part A


Pada bagian ini, ada sebuah kalimat yang bagian dari kalimat tersebut hilang. Dari
'paradigma struktural' yang saya uraikan di atas, maka cara yang paling tepat untuk
mengerjakan bagian ini adalah dengan mengetahui komponen mana yang
dihilangkan pada kalimat, apakah komponen Subject, Verb, Complement, Object,
Conjunction, Appositive, atau gabungan dari sebagian komponen-komponen
tersebut. Jika ini pun tidak bisa dilakukan, maka kenalilah terlebih dahulu mana
komponen yang ada, baru nanti terlihat komponen mana yang dihilangkan. Dengan
mengetahui komponen apa yang dihilangkan, maka paling tidak kita akan mencari
ke bagian pilihan yang memang kita perlukan dan mengeliminasi pilihan-pilihan yang
salah.
Contoh:
A camel ______________ 30 gallons of water in ten minutes.
(a) it can drink
(b) a large drink of
(c) can drink
(d) with a drink of
Soal di atas adalah tipikal soal Part A (sentence completion), di mana kita diminta
untuk menentukan jawaban yang benar dari keempat pilihan yang diberikan.
Langkah 1: baca secara sangat sekilas kalimat tersebut
Langkah 2: tentukan secara cepat komponen apa yang dihilangkan
Langkah 3: eliminasilah pilihan-pilihan jawaban yang tidak mungkin dipilih (salah)
Langjah 4: jawablah pertanyaan tersebut
Jika dilihat, kalimat di atas memuat komponen Subject ('A camel') namun tidak ada
komponen Verb-nya (dalam Bahasa Indonesia kita mengenal komponen ini sebagai
Predikat). Jadi kita harus mencari Verb di dalam pilihan yang disediakan. Dari
keempat pilihan, ada 2 pilihan yang BUKAN Verb, yakni pilihan (b) dan (d), sehingga
secara otomatis kita akan mengabaikan dua pilihan ini. Pilihan jawaban (a)
mengandung Verb, namun masih memuat Subject, yaitu 'it'. Karena kalimatnya
sudah mengandung Subject, pilihan (a) oleh karenanya juga salah. Jawaban atas
soal di atas adalah (c), mengingat hanya pilihan inilah yang memuat verb. Ingat, di
dalam bagian ke-2 TOEFL (Structure) jawaban atas pertanyaan harus secara pas
menjawab pertanyaan, Jika yang dihilangkan Verb, maka carilah Verb, tidak boleh
kurang (tidak memuat Verb) atau lebih (mengandung komponen lain yang tidak
diperlukan).

Tentang Subject dan Verb


Komponen utama sebuah kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris adalah Subject (S) dan

Verb (V). Namun istilah Verb (kata kerja) di sini sepadan dengan Predikat dalam
Bahasa Indonesia. Mari kita lihat ilustrasi berikut ini:
Kalimat: Saya lapar.
Subjek: Saya
Predikat : lapar
Kalimat di atas hanya terdiri dari dua kata, 'saya' dan 'lapar'. Di dalam Bahasa
Indonesia kalimat tersebut berterima secara gramatikal. Dilihat dari jenis katanya,
komponen Subjek 'Saya' adalah kata ganti (Pronoun atau Pronomina), dan
Predikatnya terdiri dari kata sifat (adjective) 'lapar'. Sebuah kalimat yang hanya
memuat satu Subjek berbentuk kata ganti dan satu Predikat berbentuk kata sifat
atau kata benda (N) sangat dimungkinkan di dalam Bahasa Indonesia.
Namun berbeda halnya dalam Bahasa Inggris. Kalimat 'Saya lapar.' dalam Bahasa
Indonesia tidak sama dengan "I hungry', meskipun saya = I, dan lapar = hungry.
Kalimat Bahasa Inggrisnya harus "I am hungry." Sekarang, kalimat itu memuat 'am'
antara I (saya) dan hungry (lapar). Dengan kata lain, ada tambahan komponen
dalam Predikat Basa Inggris.
Selama ini kita mengenal 'am' sebagai salah satu dari 'to be'. Namun jika dilihat di
kamus, lema 'be' dikategorikan sebagai kata kerja (verb). Oleh karena itu,
perbedaan mencolok antara predikat Bahasa Indonesi dan Bahasa Inggris adalah
bahwa predikat dalam Bahasa Inggris harus memuat kata kerja (verb), dan oleh
karenanya kita akan menyebut komponen dasar kalimat Basa Inggris sebagai
Subject & Verb (S + V), bukan lagi S + P.
Sekarang mari kita lihat, ada berapa jenis verb yang dapat mengisi komponen
'Predikat' dalam Bahasa Inggris:
1) To be: is, am, are, was, were, be, been, being.
2) Finite verb: drive, walk, write, say, dan varian lainnya seperti says, walks, writes,
drives, sleeps, dan lain-lain. Termasuk dalam kelopok ini adalah bentuk ke-2 dari
verb (V2/ past), yakni, drove, slept, wrote, said, walked, dll.
3) Modals: can, may, must, should, would. shall, will
4) Auxiliary verb: do, does, did, serta varian lainnya seperti have, had, has.
Tidak ada kalimat biasa dalam Bahasa Inggris yang tidak memuat salah satu dari
kelompok di atas atau gabungannya. Ingat: Verb bentuk -ing (sleeping, driving,
walking, writing, dll) tidak dimasukkan ke dalam kelompok di atas mengingat
penggunaan kata ini ada aturannya tersendiri.
Sekarang cobalah soal berikut ini:
The President ______________ the election by a landslide.
(a) won
(b) he won
(c) yesterday
(d) fortunately

S - V Agreement, Appositive, dan Object of Preposition

Tidak seperti dalam Bahasa Indonesia, di dalam Bahasa Inggris Subject harus
berkesesuaian dengan Verb. Misal, dalam kalimat 'She is writing a letter' subject
"She' dan verb 'is writing' berkesesuaian, karena jika saya menggantinya dengan
'are writing', maka antara subject dengan verb tidak berkesesuaian. Pertanyaan
yang berkaitan dengan kesesuaian ini cukup banyak ditemukan dalam soal TOEFL.
Pada umumnya, dalam konteks Present Tense dan beberapa Simple Past, S dan V
harus berkesesuaian. Misalnya:
We are students.
We have been waiting for him for more that five hours.
She was eating dinner when I arrived.
Perhatikan contoh yang lain:
The value of precious gems is determined by their hardness and brilliance.

Meskipun letak S dan V berjauhan seperti pada contoh kalimat di atas, mereka tetap
harus berkesesuaian.
Pada umumnya cara singkat untuk menghafalkan konsep ini adalah:
S+s + V-s
S-s + V+s
Artinya jika S-nya mengandung huruf 's' (jamak, misal Brothers) maka V-nya
tidak menggunakan huruf 's' (misalnya work, bukan works). Begitu pula sebaliknya.
Contoh.
My brothers work at the post office.
My brother works at the post office.
Aposisi (Appositive) adalah kata atau kelompok kata yang biasanya tidak
mengandung S dan V, yang maknanya sama dengan S, atau menerangkan S. Ia
bisa diletakkan antara S dan V yang diapit dengan dua tanda koma, atau bisa juga
diletakkan sebelum S dan dipisahkan dengan satu tanda koma.
Contoh:
Influenza, a common disease, has no cure.
Aposisi-nya: 'a common disease'
atau bisa juga:
A common disease, influenza has no cure.
Sementara itu, sebuah S tidak boleh memuat kata depan (preposisi) seperti 'at, on,
in, of, with' dll. Jika pada sebuah S kita menemukan kata depan, maka bagian
tersebut tidak dimasukkan sebagai S. Misal, jika S-nya adalah: 'The value of
precious gems' maka yang dihitung sebagai S untuk disesuaikan dengan V (lihat S-V
Agreement) adalah bagian sebelum preposis, yakni 'The value' saja, mengingat
kata-kata setelahnya diawali dengan preposis yaitu 'of'.
Jadi jika S 'The value of precious gems' memiliki V 'determines' maka S dan V
tersebut TIDAK berkesesuaian. Jangan terkecoh dengan bentuk jamak setelah
preposis. Awas, seringkali peserta terjebak.

Perlu pula diperhatikan bahwa ada ada beberapa S yang menghendaki V yang
tunggal atau jamak. Hal tersebut adalah beberapa pengecualian. Misal:
The number of.........
menghendaki V yang tunggal
The number of female doctors is..... (bukan 'are')
A number of.............
menghendaki V yang jamak
A number of students are...... (bukan 'is')
Kata-kata serapan dari Bahasa Latin dan Yunani berikut ini juga memiliki pola yang
irregular:
Tunggal: medium ---> media (jamak)
bacterium ---> bacteria
datum ---> data
alumnus --> alumni
radius ---> radii
alga --> algae
vita --> vitae
phenomenon --> phenomena
criterion --> criteria
index --> indeces

TENSES
Materi tentang tense adalah materi paling 'menyeramkan' ketika kita SMP atau SMA,
mengingat ada banyak sekali pola dan rumus yang harus dihafal. Namun mari kita
sederhanakan: Tense itu berkaitan dengan waktu. Secara logis, waktu yang dialami
manusia hanya ada DUA saja, yakni MASA LAMPAU dan MASA SEKARANG!
Bagaimana dengan MASA YANG AKAN DATANG? Wallahu 'alam bi murodih! Tidak
seorang pun yang tahu apa yang akan terjadi esok! Itu sudah domainnya Yang
Mahakuasa. Apa buktinya: misalnya bentuk waktu Future Tense Simple: 'I will go to
Semarang next week' PASTI diucapkan pada masa sekarang! Jadi bentuk future itu
akan diucapkan dalam kerangka waktu sekarang atau masa lampau.
Oleh karena bentuk waktu itu hanya 2 saja, PAST dan PRESENT, maka di dalam
TOEFL pertanyaan tentang Tenses hanya berkutat di dua tenses ini saja. Mengapa
demikian? Dari empat bentuk kata kerja, V1, V2, V3, dan V-ing, hanya V1 dan V2 lah
yang berkaitan dengan waktu!! Contoh:
1) She is writing a letter (PRESENT)
2) She was writing a letter (PAST)
Penjelasan: dalam kalimat 1): kata dalam V yang menunjukkan Present adalah 'is'
(V1) bukan 'writing'; dalam kalimat 2): kata dalam V yang menunjukkan Past adalah
'was' (V2) bukan 'writing'. Coba perhatikan apakah bentuk -ing 'writing' mengalami
perubahan dikarenakan waktu? Jawabnya: TIDAK!! Sejujurnya, kita sering terjebak
mengatakan bahwa V yang ada -ing nya (apalagi memakai salaitu tidak ah satu dari
to be) itu adalah PRESENT. Mulai sekarang marilah kita pahami bahw V-ing itu tidak
ada kaitannya apa pun dengan PRESENT!!!
Contoh lain:
1) She has written her thesis.
2) She had written her thesis.
Penjelasan: dalam kalimat 1) kata 'has' (V1) menunjukkan PRESENT, bukan
'written'; dalam kalimat 2) kata 'had' (V2) menunjukkan PAST, bukan 'written'. Sekali
lagi, kita kadang terjebak memahami V3 sebagai PAST, padahal V3 TIDAK ada
urusannya dengan PAST!!!

Di dalam TOEFL, pertanyaan seputar Tenses hanya berkisar pada masalah apakah
bentuk V-nya sudah sesuai dengan konteks kalimatnya ataukah belum; dan itu
hanya tentang bentuk PAST dan PRESENT saja. Contoh:
In the Milkyway Galaxy, the most recently observed supernova has appeared in
1604.
Verb 'has appeared' dalam kalimat di atas tidak tepat, mengingat penanda waktunya
adalah lampau, yakni 1964.

RUMUS yang berkaitan dengan PENGGUNAAN VERBS


Setiap Verb memiliki 4 bentuk, yakni V1, V2, V3, dan V-ing. Masing-masing verb ini
jika digunakan sebagai Predikat, artinya verb tersebut memiliki S di samping kiri atau
kanannya, ada rumus tertentu yang perlu untuk dipahami dan, tentu saja, dihafalkan:

S + V1/s

S + V2

: She wrote a letter last week.

They write letters every week.


She writes a letter every week.
Penggunaan V1 langsung setelah S, tidak boleh memakai to be atau has, have,
had!!

Penggunaan V2 juga langsung setelah S!

S + to be + V-ing

: She is writing a letter.

Penggunaan V-ing harus selalu disertai salah satu dari bentuk to be jika digunakan
sebagai Predikat. Ingat: jika TIDAK sebagai Predikat, maka V-ing tidak boleh
menggunakan to be!!!
Contoh: The boy standing in the corner is naughty.
Kata 'standing' dalam kalimat di atas BUKAN-lah sebuah Predikat,

S + has/have/had/to be + V3

: She has written a letter.

Penggunaan V3 harus selalu disertai dengan Has/have/had/ to be jika digunakan


sebagai Predikat! Ingat: jika TIDAK sebagai Predikat, maka V3 harus 'sendirian'!!!
Contoh: The letter written last week arrived today.
Kata 'written' dalam kalimat di atas BUKAN Verb, melainkan hanya sebuah
Adjective. Verb (Predikat) kalimat di atas adalah 'arrived'.

Tips Cara Menjawab Soal Listening Tes TOEFL Dengan Benar


Bagian listening comprehension pada tes TOEFL sering menjadi momok yang menakutkan
bagi peserta tes. Bagian pertama dalam tes TOEFL ini sering membuat pesert gagal lulus tes.
Meskipun sudah merasa pintar berbahasa inggris banyak juga yang tidak lulus. Ketika belajar
bahasa inggris disekolah atau ditempat kursus jarang mempelajari bagai mana cara
pengucapan (pronunciation) bahasa inggris yang benar, sehingga ketika mendengan native
speaker jadi susah memahami apa yang diucapkannya.
Walaupun sulit tidak harus patah semangat dalam mengerjakan karena selain dengan
kemampuan bahsa inggris, strategi yang tepat juga bisa membantu dalam menjawab soal-soal
tersebut :
Ada 3 bentuk soal listening yang akan diujikan yaitu Short Conversation, Longer
Conversation, dan Talk (Pidato). Sebelum masuk ke tips cara menjawab tiap bagian-bagian
soal. Berikut adalah tips umum dalam mengerjakan semua bagian soal listening
1. Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (Direction pada masing-masing bagian (part) dengan
baik sebelum hari H)
2. Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban masing-masing soal ketika narrator sedang membacakan
direction dan contoh soal (Directio sudah di baca sebelum hari H)
3. Dengarkan penuh konsentrasi dan fokus perhatian Anda pada percakapan yang sedang
anada dengarkan
4. Maksimalkan kemampuan listeing pada soal-soal pertama masing-masing part
Seteleh Tips Umum Diatas, berikut ini adalah Tips Khusus pada tiap bagian soal :
PART A : Short Conversation
5. Fokus mendengar pada pembicara kedua
6. Janganpanik bila tidak memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan secara kompliy, hanya
perlu meangkap ide dan isi percakapan
7. Bila tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapakan pembicara kedua, pilihlah jawaban yang
paling berbeda dari yang anda dengar
8. Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression(agreement, suggestion, suprice,dll),
idiomatic expression dan situasi ketika pembicaraan dilakukan
PART B : Longer Conversation
9. Ketika narrator membicarakan direction par B sebaiknya membaca pilihan jawaban secara
sekilas kemudian merekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa yang akan diperbincangkan

10. Ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui tema/topic yang dibicarakan
11. Waspadalah pada masing-masing pertanyaan
12. Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung yakni
menyangkut dengan tempat dan waktu pembicaraaan, apa dan siapa yang dibicarakan
PART C : TALK
13. Bila anda memiliki banyak waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawaban yang tertera pada
lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya
14. Waspada pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena biasanya menjadi topic bagi
kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya
15. Fokus mendengarkan pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pertanyaan 5-WH (What, Why,
Who, When, Where) dan How
16. Buatlah kesimpulan atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan dilakukan.

READING COMPREHENSION
Section 3 dalam ujian TOEFL adalah Reading comprehension. Ini digunakan untuk
mengukur kemempuan peserta ujian dalam memahami teks tertulis dalam bahasa inggris.
Bagian ini mengujikan setidaknya 5 bacaan, dimana masing-masing bacaan biasanya terdiri
dari sepuluh pertanyaan. Sehingga pertanyaan pada bagian ini berjumlah limapuluh
pertanyaan. Anda harus menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan dalam waktu limapuluh menit.
Bagian ini hanya mengujikan teks bacaan saja, tanpa gambar, diagram, atau alat Bantu visual
lainnya.
Tema bacaan yang diujikan dalam bagian ini cukup bervariasi, namun secara umum berkaitan
dengan materi perkuliahan yang diajarkan oleh universitas-universitas di Amerika Serikat.
Misalnya, sejarah, sastra, seni, arsitektur, geologi, biologi, kesehatan, astronomi, geografi,
dan seterusnya. Adapun pertanyaan pada section 3 bisa dikategorikan ke dalam dua bentuk
pertanyaan sebagai berikut:
1. Reading comprehension
Pada section 3 ini anda akan diminta untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan
dengan informasi yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Mulai dari main idea, bagian bacaan yang
lebih rinci, sampai inferasi atau penyimpulan atas informasi yang terdapat pada bacaan.
2. Vocabulary
Section 3 juga meminta anda untuk menjawab arti dari kata-kata tertentu yang terdapat pada
teks bacaan. Namun apabila anda sama sekali tidak tahu arti kata-kata tertentu, anda masih
tetap bias mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dengan memahami konteks bacaan. Dengan
demikian anda bias memperkirakan arti dari kata-kata yang ditanyakan dalam soal.
Permasalahan yang biasa dihadapi oleh peserta tes TOEFL dalam ujian Reading
Comprehension adalah batasan waktu yang singkat. Banyak peserta tes yang tidak bias
menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan ketika waktu yang disediakan telah habis. Untuk itu
Berbagai kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam reading harus anda kuasai sebelum benar-benar
menjalankan ujian TOEFL. Sekalipun demikian, Anda masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan
skor TOEFL yang lebih tinggi apabila menguasai trik-trik taktis. Berikut disajikan beberapa
kunci yang bisa membantu anda berkompetisi dengan waktu yang ketat sekaligus untuk
mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.
1. Kunci umum
Kunci 1: Jangan terlalu lama membaca teks bacaan.
Harus diingat bahwa anda tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca teks bacaan secara
mendalam. Pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes reading ini umumnya dpat dijawab secara
tepat dengan tanpa langsung membaca bacaan secara rinci. Anda dapat mengalokasikan satu
atau dua menit untuk membaca main idea pada masing-masing paragraph dari sebuah bacaan
sebelum mulai membaca pertanyaan. Dengan demikian anda sudah mendapatkan gambaran
sekilas tentang informasi yang disampaikan oleh bacaan.
Kunci 2 : Perhatikan semua pertanyaan yang terdapat pada sebuah bacaaan dan ingat-ingat
kata kuncinya.
Setelah membaca sekilas main idea masing-masing paragraph, selanjutnya anda harus segera
membaca pertanyaan pada soal-soal yang terdapat pada bacaan tersebut. Rekamlah kata-kata
kunci pada masing-masing pertanyaan pada pikiran anda sehingga anda dapat mencari
jawabannya pada bacaan dengan sekali tempo untuk beberapa pertanyaan. Anda juga dapat
memeberi tanda pada kata kunci di lembar soal, karena anda tidak dilarang memberikan

coretan. Cara ini sangat efektif untuk menghemat waktu, sehingga pandangan anda tidak
bolak-balik antara teks bacaan dengan pertanyaaan.
Kunci 3 : Jangan panic apabila tema bacaan bukan merupakan disiplin yang anda kuasai..
Ujian TOEFL sudah didisai sedemikian rupa sehingga peserta ujian tidak dipersyaratkan
untuk menguasai tema-tema dari disiplin ilmu tertentu. Semua informasi yang ditanyakan
dalam soal section 3 sudah tersedia dalam teks bacaan. Sehingga apapun latar belakang
keilmuan yang anda kuasai anda akan tetap dapat menjawab soal-soal pada bacaan yang sama
sekali berbeda dari disiplin anda.
KUNCI KHUSUS
Materi yang diujikan dalam tes reading biasanya memiliki pola-pola dan standar tertentu.
Biasanya anda diminta untuk mengetahui tema bacaaan, menentukan main idea, mengetahui
arti dari kosakata tertentu, mengetahui informasi tertentu, melakukan penyimpulan,
melakukan identifikasi ats pengecualian-pengecualian dan mengetahui rujukan dari pronoun
tertentu.
Untuk membekali diri anda dalam mengahadapi are apersoalan yang diujikan dalam reading
tes, perhatikan kunci-kunci berikut ini :
Kunci 4 : Lakukan previewing untuk mengetahui topic bacaan..
Topik merupakan salah satu item yang hampir dapat dipastikan keluar pada setiap tes
TOEFL. Untuk mengetahui topic sebuah bacaan, anda tidak perlu membaca secara detail dan
mendalam. Anda cukup membaca kalimat pertama dan terakhir pada tiap-tiap paragraph
bacaan. Anda tidak dituntut untuk memahami bacaan secara rinci melainkan hanya untuk
menentukan topic, oleh karena nya anda harus membaca secepat mungkin.
Kunci 5 : Perhatikan kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph untuk mengetahui main idea.
Tes reading sering kali mengujikan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan main idea.
Main idea biasanya terdapat pada kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph. Dengan
mengetahuinya, anda dapat memahami pesan apa yang ingin disampaikan oleh penulis. Main
Idea dari sebuah bacaan biasanya terdapat pada dua kalimat pertama.
Kunci 6 : Pahamilah konteks yang terdapat pada bacaan untuk mengetahui arti kata tertentu.
Konteks dalam bacaan bahasa Inggris adalah kombinasi dari kosakata dan grammar yang
digunakan pada sebuah kata. Ia dapat berupa sebuah kalimat, paragraph, atau bacaan. Dengan
memahami sebuah konteks anda akan dapat memperkirakan arti sebuah kata. Karena dengan
mengetahui arti secara umum dari sebuah kalimat berarti anda juga memahami arti kata-kata
yang terdapt pada kalimat tersebut.
Kunci 7 : Lakukan scanning untuk menemukan informasi tertentu yang berkaitan dengan
permintaan soal.
Sebuah teks bacaan dalam ujian TOEFL biasanya diikuti dengan sepuluh pertanyaan, karena
batasan waktu yang sangat mendesak sebaiknya anada membaca kesepuluh pertanyaan
tersebut. Ketika membaca semua pertanyaan anda harus menemukan kata kunci dari sebuah
pertanyaan dan merekamnya dalam pikiran. Bacalah secara cepat dengan cara scanning untuk
menemukan kata-kata tertentu yang menjadi kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan. Hal ini sngat
berguna dalam melakukan klarifikasi pada teks bacaan untuk menemukan informasi yang
ditanyakan. Dengan mengingat semua kata kunci pertanyaan, pandangan, dan focus anda
tidak perlu terpecah untuk mencocokkan pertanyaan dengan teks. Karena biasanya urutan
nomor soal tidak menanyakan kalimat atau bagian dari teks secara berurutan. Sehingga bila
anda hnaya membaca satu pertanyaan kemudian mencarinya di teks bacaan akan
menghabiskan banyak waktu karena anda perlu melakukan hal yang sama berkali-kali.
Kunci 8 : Kumpulkan fakta dan data dalam bacaan untuk melakukan inferasi atau
penyimpulan

Tidak semua jawaban dari sebuah pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL dapat ditemukan secara
langsung dalam teks bacaan. Hal ini karena informasi yang dimaksud tidak secara eksklusif
disebutkan dalam sebuah pernyataan langsung. Sering kali dlam ujian reading anda diminta
untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai informasi tertentu. Untuk itu ketika membaca teks
sebaiknya anda memberikan perhatian khusus terhada data atau fakta tertentu yang mengarah
pada sebuah kesimpulan yang informative. Lagi-lagi dalam hal ini mengetahui kata kunci
dari sebuah pertanyaan terlebih dahulu merupakan sebuah keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan
berbekal kata kunci anda akan menentukan data dan fakta apa yang patut and apilih dan
kump[ulkan untuk membuat sebuah kesimpulan.
Kunci 9: Berkonsentrasi selama membaca teks bacaan.
Konsentrasi sangat diperlukan dan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan yang paling
menentukan dalam readng test. Sering kali peserta ujian lupa dengan apa yang telah
disampaikan oleh kalimat atau paragraph sebelumnya ketika ia mula membaca kalimat atau
paragraph baru. Akhirnya ia membaca ulang lagi kalimat tersebut. Apabila ini juga terjadi
pada anda, langlah berikut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk meminimalisasi kek\salahan tersebut.
Ketika anada membaca sebuah kalimat, latihlah didri anda untuk menerka atau
memperkirakan apa isi atau informasi yang akan disampaikan oleh kalimat selanjutnya.
Perhatikan kesesuaian sebuah teks dengan judul atau main idea yang sudah anda ketahui
sebelumnya, dengan cara ini anda tetap dapat menangkap pesan untama yang diasampaikan
oleh masing-masing kalimat sekalipun anda sudah beranjak pada kalimat-kalimat berikutnya.
Kunci 10 : Tingkatkan kecepatan membaca anda.
Dengan keterbatasan waktu ujian yang singkat, maka kemampuan anda untuk membaca
secara cepat dan singkat sangat penting dalam ujian TOEFL. Memang kecepatan membaca
ini tidaklah sesuatu yang instant. Melainkan ia harus dilatih secara terus menerus apalagi
membaca teks yang bukan bahasa asli kita. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan memilih katakata yang paling penting dalam sebuah kalimat, yang mana hal ini akan memberikan anda
ringkasan atas arti sebuah bacaan.
2. RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS
Dalam tes reading seringkali akn ada pertanyaan tentang pengorganisasioan ide-ide dalam
teks pada jenis pertanyaan ini anda akan diminta untuk menentukan bagaimana ide-ide dalam
paragraph berhubungan dengan ide-ide lain dalam paragraph lain.
Example
The passage :
f asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply that it was
Abher Doubleday. At the beginning of this century, there was some disagreement over how
the game of baseball had actually originated, so sporting-goods manufacturer Spaulding
inaugurated a commission to research the question. In 1908 a report was published by the
commission in which Abner Doubleday, a U.S Army officer from Cooperstown, New York,
was given credit for the invention of the game. The National Baseball Hall of Fame was
established in Cooperstown in honor of Doubleday., most sports historians are in agreement
that Doubleday really did not have much to do with the development of baseball. Instead,
baseball seems to be a close relation to the English game of rounders and probably has
English rather than American roots.
The question
The second paragraph
(A) provides examples to support the ideas in the first paragraph
(B) precedes the ideas in the first paragraph
(C) outlines the effects of ideas in the first paragraph
D) refuses the ideas in the first paragraph

TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (QUESTIONS 1-2)
Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable, various managers have
widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have.
According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization. Managers
with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization to rid the
organization of any possible sources of conflict.
The interactionist view of conflict on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an
important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing
positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of conflict may actually
take steps to stimulate within the organization.
1. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented.
(B) Contrasting views of conflicts are presented.
C) Two theorists discuss the strength and weaknesses of their views on conflict.
(D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented
2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph?
(A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict
(B) A discussion of the weaknesses of the interactionist view of conflict
(C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict
(D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)
IQ, or intelligence Quotient as the radio of a patrons mental age to chronological age, with
the radio multiplied by 100 remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined;
mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define.
In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individuals ability to perform
intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations
are considered to represent intelligence.
In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus at to which types of intellectual
operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test
without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to
reflect the culture of the test makers. Test makers from that culture would, it follows, score
higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence.
3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph
(A) An argument
(B) A definition
(C) An opinion
(D) A theory
4. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph?
(A) It presents a contrasting point of view.
(B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.
(C) It presents real information rather than a premise.
(D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph
PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)
The largest lake in the western United sates in the Great Salt Lake, an island saltwater lake in
northwestern Utah, is just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers and streams feed
into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it, this has a major influence on both the salt

content and the size of the lake.


Although the Great Lake was fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans
of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals that flow into
the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and chloride-the
components of salt- comprise the large majority of the lakes mineral content.
The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles,
depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the size of the
lake can swell tremendously from the huge amount of water flowing into the lake from its
Feeder Rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of 2,400 square miles.
During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases, sometimes drastically, due to
evaporation.
5. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Lake are discussed.
(B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lakes salt levels are presented.
(C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined.
(D) The reasons for the variation in the Great Salt Lakes size are given.
6. The third paragraph contains information on
(A) how the size of the lake affects weather conditions
(B) the effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake
(C) the effects of changes in the size of the lake
(D) the causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake
Common types of calendars can be based on the Sun or on the Moon. The solar calendar is
based on the solar year. Since the solar year is 362.2422 days long, solar calendars consist of
regular years of 365 days and have an extra day every fourth year, or leap year, to make up
for the additional fractional amount. In a solar calendar, the waxing and waning of the moon
can take place at various stages of each month.
lunar calendar is synchronized to the lunar month rather than the solar year. Since the lunar
month is twenty-nine and thirty days. A twelve-month lunar year thus has 354 days, 11 days
shorter than a solar year.
Solar eclipse
Lunar eclipse
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) All calendars are the same.
(B) The solar calendar is based on the sun.
(C) Different calendars have dissimilar bases.
(D) The lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days long.
2. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) Characteristics of the solar calendar are outlined.
(B) Two types of calendars are described.
(C) The strengths and weakness of the lunar calendar are described.
(D) The length of each existing calendar is contrasted.
Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients to
provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are classified according
to the method by which they are derived.
The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms that have
been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of vaccine, the
microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease; however, the antigens found in
and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the formation of antibodies. Examples of this
type of vaccine are the ones that fight influenza, typhoid fever, and cholera.

A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms rather than the
microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when the microorganism itself
does little damage but the toxin within microorganism is extremely harmful. For example, the
bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive without much harm, but when toxins are released
from the bacteria, muscles can become paralyzed and death can ensue.
A final type of toxin contains living microorganisms that have been rendered harmless. With
this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are produced and the immunity that
results is generally longer lasting than the immunity from other types of vaccines. The Sabin
oral antipolio vaccine and BCG vaccine against tuberculosis are examples of this type of
vaccine.
3. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases.
(B) Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms.
(C) Vaccines are derived in different ways.
(D) New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed.
4. How many types of vaccines are presented in the passage?
(A) two
(B) three
(C) four
(D) five
3. FIND UNSTATED DETAILS
Dalam tes reading anda seringkali akan diminta untuk menentukan jawaban yang tidak
disebutkan atau tidak benar dalam teks. Jenis pertanyaan ini berarti bahwa ada tiga pilihan
yang disebutkan atau benar dalam teks, sementara satu pilihan tidak. Jadi tugas anda adlah
menemukan tiga pilihan yang benar kemudian memilih satu pilihan yang tersisa yang
menjadi jawaban pada soal.
Anda harus memperhatikan bahwa ada dua macam pilihan atas pertanyaan ini :
1. Tiga pilihan benar dan satu tidak dibahas dalam teks.
2. tiga jawaban benar dan satu salah menurut teks.
The passage:
In English there are many different kinds of expressions that people use to give a name to
anything whose name is unknown or momentarily forgotten. The word gadget is one such
word. It was first used by British sailors in the 1850s and probably came from the French
word gachette, which was a small hook. In everyday use, the word has a more general
meaning. Other words are also used to give a name to something, unnamed or unknown and
these words tend to be somewhat imaginative. Some of the more commonly used expressions
are a what-dye-call-it, a whatsis, a thingamabob, a thingamajig, a doodad, or a doohickey.
1. Which of the following is NOT true about the word gadget ?
(A) It is used to name something when the name is not known
(B) It was used at the beginning of the nineteenth century
(C) It most likely came from a word in the French language.
(D) Its first known use was by British sailors.
1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an expression for something
that is not known?
2. (A) a thingamabob
3. (B) gadget
4. (C) A doohickey
5. (D) A what-is-it
6. Passage one (question 1-2)

7. Blood plasma is a clear, almost colorless liquid. It consists of blood from which the red and
white blood cells have been removed. It is often used in transfusions because a patient
generally needs the plasma portion of the blood more than the other components.
8. Plasma differs in several important ways from whole blood. First of all, plasma can be
mixed for all donors and does not have to be from the right blood group, as whole blood does.
In addition, plasma can be dried and stored, while whole blood cannot.
.
1. All of the following are true about blood plasma EXCEPT
2. (A). it is a deeply colored liquid
3. (B). blood cells have taken out of it
4. (C). patients are often transfused with it
5. (D). it is generally more important to the patient than other part of whole blood
6. 2. Which of the following is NOT stated about whole blood?
7. (A). it is different from plasma
8. (B). it cannot be dried
9. (C). it is impossible to keep in storage for a long time.
10. (D). it is a clear, colorless liquid.
11. Passage two (question 3-4)
12. Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman was an American journalist at the turn of the century who
wrote for the newspaper New York World under the pen name Nellie Bly, a name which was
taken from the Stephen, Foster song Nellie Bly. She achieved fame for her exposes and in
particular for the bold and adventuresome way that she obtained her stories.
13. She felt that the best way to get the real story was from the inside rather than as an
outside observer who could be treated to a prettified version of reality. On one occasion she
pretended to be a thief so that she would get a nested and see for herself how female prisoners
were really treated. On another occasion she faked mental illness in order to be admitted to a
mental hospital to get the real picture on the treatment of mental patients.
14. 3. Which of the following is NOT true about Nellie Bly?
15. (A). Nelly Blys real name was Elizabeth Cochrane seaman.
16. (B). Nellie Bly was mentally ill
17. (C). The name Nellie Bly came from a song.
18. (D). The name Nellie Bly was used on articles that Seaman wrote.
19. 4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that Nellie Bly did to get a
good story?
20. (A). she acted like a thief
21. (B). she got arrested by the police.
22. (C). she pretended to be ill.
23. (D). she worked as a doctor in a mental hospital.
4. FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS
Dalam tes reading seringkali anda diminta untuk menentukan sebuah pronoun mengacu pada
noun yang mana?
Cara menjawab pertanyaan ini adalah dengan melihat kalimat /kata-kata sebelum pronoun.
Anda akan mendapatkan noun yang dimaksud disana.
Example
The passage
Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the Venus Flytrap are generally found in the
humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In order to survive,
these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage. They have
digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. These plants trap the insects

in a variety of ways. The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these
leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself around the insect. The
leaves of the Venus-Flytrap function more like a trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut
around an insect.
The questions :
1. The pronoun they in line 4 refers to
2. (A) humid areas
3. (B) these plants
4. (C) insects
5. (D) digestive fluids
6. 2. The pronoun it in line 6 refers to
7. (A) a variety
8. (B) the sundew
9. (C) An insect
10. (D) the leaf
5. INDIRECTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS
Beberapa pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL akan meminta jawaban yang tidak secara langsung
disebutkan dalam teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini anda harus menarik kesimpulan dari
informasi yang di berikan dalam teks.
Pertanyaan jenis ini meliputi dua : (1) implied detailed questions and (2) transitions
questions.
ANSWER IMPLIED DETAILED QUESTIONS CORRECTLY
Example
The passage
The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from an
Alphabet of only twelve letters, the five vowels, A,E,I,O,U and the seven consonants
H,K,L,M,N,P,W. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel, and two consonants never
appear together, so vowels have a much higher frequency in the Hawaiian language than they
do in English.
This musical sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands. Most
Hawaiians speak English, but it is quite common to hear English that is liberally spiced with
words and expressions from the traditional language of the culture. A visitor may be greeted
with the expression aloha, and may be referred to as a malihini because he is a new comer to
the island. This visitor may attend an outside luau where everyone eats too much and be
invited afterwards to dance the hula.
The questions :
1. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word?
(A) mahalo
(B) mahimahi
(C) meklea
(D) moana
2. It is implied a luau is
(A) a dance
(B) a feast
(C) a concert
(D) a language

TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)
Eskimos need efficient and adequate means to travel across water in that the areas where they
live are surrounded by oceans, bays, and inlets and dotted with lakes and seas. Two different
types of boats have been developed by the Eskimo, each constructed to meet specific needs.
The Kayak is something like a canoe that has been covered by deck. A kayak is generally
constructed with one opening in the deck for one rider, however, some kayaks are made for
two, Because the deck of a kayak is covered over except for the hole (or holes) for its rider
(or riders), a kayak can tip over in the water and roll back without filling with water and
sinking. One of the primary uses of the kayak is for hunting.
The umiak is not closed over, as is in the kayak, instead it is an open boat that is built to hold
ten to twelve passengers. Eskimos have numerous uses for the umiak which reflect the size of
the boat; e.g. the umiak is used to haul belongings from campsite to campsite, and it is used
for hunting larger animals that are too big to be hunted in a kayak.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that an example of the animal mentioned in lines 12-13
might be
(A) a kangaroo
(B) a snake
(C) a whale
(D) a salmon
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5)
Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as the most
impressive of trees. Both evergreen conifers, the California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendrom gigantteum) are found growing natively only in the
state of California. The California redwood is found along the northern coast of the state,
while the giant sequoia is found inland and at a higher elevations, along the western slopes of
the Sierra Nevadas.
The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing on the
face of the earth; the height of the tallest redwood on the record is 385 feet (120 meters).
Though not quite as tall as the California redwood, with the height of 320 feet ( 100 meters),
the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and the most massive of living things ; giant
sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet (30 meters) around the base, with weights
of more than 6,000 tons.
3. It is implied in the passage that
(A) the leaves of only California redwood turn brown in the autum
(B) the leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter
(C) the leaves of both types of trees in the passage turn brown in the winter
(D) the leaves of neither types of tree in the passage turn brown in the winter
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Siera Nevadas are
(A) a type of giant redwood
(B) a coastal community
(C) a group of lakes
(D) a mountain range
5. Which of the following is implied in the passage?
(A) The giant sequoia is taller than the California redwood.
(B) The California redwood is not as big around as the giant sequoia.
(C) The California redwood weighs more than the giant sequoia.
(D) Other living things are larger than the giant sequoia.

TRANSITION QUESTION CORRECTLY


You will sometimes be asked to determine what a probably came before the reading passage
(in the preceding paragraph) or what probably comes after the reading passage (in the
following paragraph). Of course, the topic of the preceding or following paragraph is not
directly stated, and you must draw a conclusion to determine what a probably in these
paragraph.
This type of question. It asks you to demonstrate that you understand that good writing
contains transition from one paragraph to the next. A paragraph may start out with the idea of
the previous paragraph as a way of linking the ideas in the two paragraphs. A paragraph may
also end with an idea that will be further developed in the following paragraph.
Example
The passage:
Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones, who in folklore is the mean-spirited
sovereign of the oceans depths. The name Jones is thought by some etymologists to have
been derived from the name Jonah the Hebrew prophet who spent three days in a whales
belly.
According to tradition, any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of the ocean is
said to have gone to Davy Joness locker, the ocean sized, mythical receptacle for anything
that falls into the water, needless to say, any sailor on the seas is not so eager to take a tour of
Davy Joness locker, although it might be a rather interesting trip considering all the treasures
located there.
The questions:
1. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses
1. The youth of Davy Jones
2. Davy Jones career as a sailor
3. A different traditional story from the sea
4. Preparing to travel on the ocean
1. The topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is
1. valuable items located of the bottom of the ocean.
2. Where Davy Jones is found today
3. Jonah and the whale
4. Preventing objects from failing overboard
6. VOCABULARY QUESTIONS
Dalam tes reading akan ada sejumlah soal tentang vocabulary. Jawaban atas soal ini
seringkali sudah ada dalam teks itu sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa macam jenis soal vocab.
FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES
(Menemukan definisi dari kata kunci yang ada dalam teks :)
Ketika anda diminta untuk menemukan kata dalam tes reading kemungkinannya:
1. Teks memberikan informasi tentang kata itu
2. Ada tanda-tanda trtentu yang mengarahkan kita pada kata tersebut
Example
The passage ;
One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the
twentieth century is behaviorism the belief that the role of the
psychologist is to study behavior, which is observable, rather than conscious and unconscious
thought, which is not. Probably the best known proponent of behaviorism is B.E Skinner,
who is famous for his research on how rewards and punishment influence behavior. He came

to believe that positive reinforcements such as praise, food, or money were more effective in
promoting good behavior than negative reinforcement or punishment.
The questions
1. In behaviorism In line 2, a psychologist is concerned with
(A) unconscious thought patterns
(B) observable actions
(C) unobservable actions
(D) unobservable actions
2. What is positive reinforcement in line 7
A) a gift
B) A reward
C) A bribe
D) A penalty
3. What is negative reinforcement in line 9?
(A) A promotion
(B) A reward
(C) A surprise
D) A punishment
To answer the first question, you should look at the part of the passage following word
behaviorism. The dash punctuation (-) gives extra or further information about behaviorism.
In the information following the dash you should see that the behaviorist in behavior which is
observable, so the best answer to this question is answer (C).
To answer the second question, you should look at the part of the passage following the
expression positive reinforcements. The expression such as indicate that examples of positive
reinforcement are going to follow. Your job is to look at the examples of positive
reinforcement and draw a conclusion about what positive reinforcement might be. Since
price, food, or money might be given in return for a job well done, then positive
reinforcement must be a reward. The best answer to this question is therefore answer
(B).To answer the third question, you should look at the part of the passage following the
expression negative reinforcement. The word or following negative reinforcement tells you
that the idea is going to be restated in different words. You can see in the passage that another
word for negative reinforcement is punishment, so answer (D) is the best answer to this
questions
DETERMINE MEANINGS FROM WORD PARTS
When you are asked to determine the meaning of long words but you do not know THE
MEANING in the reading comprehension section of the TOEFL test, it is sometimes possible
to determine the meaning of the word by studying the word part.
Example
The Passage
Ring lardner himself was born into a wealthy, educated, and cultured family. For the book of
his carrier, he worked as a reporter for newspapers in South Bend, Boston, Santa Louis, and
Chicago. However, it is for his short stories of lower middle clash Americans that ring
lardner is perhaps best known. In these stories, Lardner vividly creates the language and the
ambiance of this lower class, often using the misspelled words, grammatical errors and
incorrect diction that typified the language of the lower middle class.
The questions
1. The word vividly in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A) in a cultured way
(B) in a correct way
(C) in a lifelike way

(D) in a brief way


2. The word misspelled in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) highly improper
(B) vulgar
(C) incorrectly written
(D) slang
1. The word diction in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) Writing
(B) Sentence structure
(C) Form
(D) Speech
In the first question, the word vividly contains the word part viv, which means life, so the best
answer is answer (C).
In the second question, the word misspelled contains the word part mis, which means error or
incorrect, so the best answer is answer (C).
In the third question, the word diction contains the word part dic, which means speak, so that
answer is answer (D).
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS
On the TOEFL test you will sometimes be asked to determine the meanings of a difficult
word, a word that you are expected to know. In this case, the passage will give you a clear
indication of what the word means.
Example
Line in the passage :
The barges headed across the lake
The question :
A barge is probably, which of the following?
A) A trai
(B) A plane
C) A bicycle
(D) A boat
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF SIMPLE WORDS
You will sometimes be asked to determine the meaning of a simple word, a word that you see
often in everyday English. In this type of question, you should not give the normal everyday
meaning of the word, instead, the TOEFL test wants you to know the meaning of the word in
this situation.
Example
A line from the passage :
He put his answer this way
The question :
The word put is closest meaning to which of the following?
A) Placed
(B) Set
(C) Expressed
D) handed
She always helps many people. She, however, is bad with her mother.
Cardamon is not as widely used as a spice in the United States as it is in other parts of the
world. This fruit of the ginger plant provides an oil that basically has been used solely as a
stimulant in American and English medicines. Other cultures have recognized the
multipurpose benefits of this aromatic fruit. In Asia it is used to season sauces such as curry;
in Middle Eastern countries it is seeped to prepare a flavorful golden colored tea; in parts of

northern Europe it is used as spice in various types of pastry.


1. The word solely in line 2 could best be replaced by
A) initially
B) only
C) reportedly
D) healthfully
2. The word multipurpose in line 3 is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4?
(A) Health
(B) Singular
(C) Recognized
(D) varied
3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4?
(A) Divide
(B) Forecast
(C) Spice
(D) Put a time limit
4. Curry in line 4 is
(A) the fruit of ginger plant
(B) A spicy type of sauce
(C) A culture in the area of the Middle East
(D) A type of golden-colored tea
5. The word seeped in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) Steamed
(B) Dried
(C) Stored
(D) grown
The life-span of an elephant that dies from natural causes is about sixty-five years. Of course,
an elephant can perish from a number of unnatural causes; e.g it can be killed by hunters,
most probably for the valuable ivory in its tusks; it can die from deases that spread
throughout an elephant herd; or it can die from drought or from the lack of food that almost
certainly accompanies the inadequate supply of water.
If, however, an elephant survives disasters, it falls prey to old age in its mid-sixties. Around
this age, the cause of death is attributed to the loss of the final set of molars. When this last
set of teeth is gone, the elephant dies from malnutrition because it is unable to obtain
unadequate nourishment. In old age, elephant tend to search out a final home where there is
shade for comfort from the sun and soft vegetation for cushioning; the bones of many old
elephants have been found in such places.
1. The word perish in line 2 means
2. (A) fall ill
3. (B) shoot
4. (C) die
5. (D) get rich
1. The word unnatural in line 2 is closest meaning to
2. (A) wild
3. (B) violent
4. (C) domesticated
5. (D) abnormal
1. The word drought in line 4 means
2.
3. (A) a drowning

4. (B) a lack of food


5. (C) an inadequate supply of water
6. (D) an overabundance of animals
1. Which of the following could be used to replace the word survives in line 6?
2.
3 (A) Rises to
4 (B) Succumbs to
5 (C) Denies
6 (D) Lives through
1. Molars in line 7 are
2. (A) germs
3. (B) old-age characteristics
4. (C) types of food
5. (D) teeth
1. In line 8, malnutrition is used to describe someone who
2. (A) is in good health
3. (B) has an illness
4. (C) suffers from poor eating
5. (D) experiences dental problems
1. The expression a final home in line 9 is closest in meaning to
2. (A) a place to die
3. (B) a comfortable house
4. (C) a place for sale
5. (D) the only remaining place to live
1. The word shade in line 9 is closest in meaning to
2. (A) color
3. (B) heat
4. (C) diminished light
5. (D) a front porch
6. GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE
NORMAL SENTENCE PATERN
IN ENGLISH
Subject Verb Complement Modifier
(predicate) (object) (adverb)
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.
Learn the following sentences and their sentence patterns!
They smile.
They smile.
Subject Verb / predicate
We sleep.
We sleep.
Subject Verb / predicate
My father drinks coffee.

My father drinks coffee.


Subject Verb / predicate Complement
/ object
The lady writes a letter.
The lady Writes A letter.
Subject Verb/ predicate Complement / object
The man lives in a village.
The man lives in a village.
subject Verb/ predicate Modifier/ adeverb
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
The man makes Handicrafts in a village.
Subject Verb / predicate Complement / object Modifier
/ adverb
She can dance.
She can dance.
Subject verb phrase
Mr. Joko has gone.
Mr.Joko Has gone.
Subject Verb phrase
He is shopping.
He is shopping.
Subject verb phrase
Linking verb : am, is, are
Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb modifier complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement modifier
Urutannya subject + Verb + complement + modifier, tidak bisa dibalik antara complement
dengan modifier
. Identify the subject, verb, and modifier
1. George is cooking dinner.
2. Henry and Marcia have visited the president.
3. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.
4. Pat should have visited the president.
5. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.
6. Trees grow
7. It was raining at seven oclock this morning.
8. Jill is buying a new hat in the store.
9. Harry is washing dishes right now.
10. She opened her book.
B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives
My car is new.
He has a house.
His house is old
And so on.
I have a car.

Aku dalam bahasa Inggris ketika sebagai subjek = I, ketika sebagai objek = me..
Selanjutnya ketika aku berfungsi menyatakan kepunyaan berubah menjadi my, kemudian
you menjadi your, dst.
Rumusnya
Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives
I my
You your
They their
We our
He his
She her
It Its
C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.
My hat is red and yours is blue.
Your hat is blue and mine is red.
Ketika kita mau mengatakan topiku bahasa Inggrisnya = my hat. Lantas apa bahasa
inggrisnya milikku? Yaitu mine.. milik mereka = theirs, mikik kami ours, dst.Rumusnya
Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns
My mine
Your yours
Their Theirs
Our Ours
His His
Her Hers
Its Its
D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns
He cooked for me yesterday.
He cooked for himself last night.
Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.
Joan bought herself a new hat.
Rumus ini digunakan ketika sebuah subjek melakukan perbuatan yang terarah pada dirinya
sendiri. Misalnya, Aku membeli makanan untuk diriku, maka bahsa inggrisnya I buy food
for myself. Dia menyakiti dirinya = He hurts himself. Jadi ada penambahan self/selves pada
pronounya.
Rumusnya
Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns
Me myself
You yourself
yourselves
Them themselves
Us ourselves
Him Himself
Her Herself
It Itself
Do the following exercises!
1. I go to school with (he/him) yesterday.

2. I see (she/her/herself) at the union everyday.


3. She speaks to (we/us/ourselves) every morning.
4. (He/Him) is going to New York on vacation.
5. (She/her) and John gave the money to the boy.
6. I hurt (my/mine/the) leg.
7. John bought (he/him/ hisself /himself) a new hat.
8. (Your/yours) record is scratched and (my/mine) is too.
9. (We/us) girls are going camping over the weekend.
10. We like (our/ours) new car very much.
11. Marry and (I/me) would rather go to the movies.
12. Monday is a holiday for (we/us) teahers.
VERBS AS COMPLEMENTS
Verbs as Complements, artinya kata-kata kerja sebagai pelengkap. Maksudnya sering kali
kata kerja itu berfungsi sebagai pelengkap, yaitu pelengkap dari kata-kata kerja lain. Contoh :
1. He agrees to meet.
2. He enjoys sitting there.
3. Kata meet adalah sebagai pelengkap kata agrees, tapi coba perhatikan meet ditulis dengan
to meet. Bukan meet saja atau ditambah ing meeting.
4. Sedangkan kata enjoys diikuti verb ing sitting, bukan sit saja, atau to sit.
5. Jadi materi ini mengajarkan bahwa ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti to verb, dan ada
daftar kata kerja yang diikuti verb-ing.
6. Dalam tes TOEFL materi ini sangat sering diujikan.
A. Verbs yang diikuti infinitives (to verb)
Agree : setuju
Desire : ingin
Intend : ingin
Prepare : menyiapkan
Tend : cenderung
Attempt : berusaha
Fail : gagal
Learn : belajar
Pretend : berpura-pura
Try : mencoba
Claim : mengklaim
Forget : melupakan
Need : membutuhkan
Refuse : menolak
Want : menginginkan
Decide : memutuskan
Hesitate : ragu-ragu
Offer : menawarkan
Seem : kelihatan
Wish : berharap
Demand : menuntut
Hope : berharap
Plan : berencana
Agree : setuju
Contoh

Marry learned to swim when she was very young.


The soldiers are preparing to attack the village.
The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting.
B. Verbs diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Admit : mengakui
Appreciate : menghargai
Delay : menunda
Miss : ketinggalan / rindu
Regret : menyesal
Risk : mengambil resiko/beresiko
Deny : menyangkal
Postpone : menunda
Report : melaporkan
Suggest : menyarankan
Avoid : menolak
Enjoy : menikmati
Practice : berlatih
Resent : marah, benci, merasa tersinggung
Cant help : tidak betah
Finish : menyelesaikan
Quit : berhenti
Resist : menahan, menolak
Consider : mempertimbangkan
Mind : keberatan
Recall : mengingat
Resume : melanjutkan, mulai lagi
Object to : keberatan
Look forward to : mengharap-harap
Confess to : mengakui
Approve of : setuju dengan
Give up : menyerah
Worry about : merasa cemas dengan
Be better off : lebih baik
Insist on : bersikeras
Succeed in : berhasil
Count on : mengharapkan
Keep on : terus , tetap
Think about : depend on
Put off : menunda
Think of : berpikir terhadap
Contoh :
John admitted stealing the money.
We enjoyed seeing them again.
Michael was considering buying a new car.
John gave up smoking
Marry insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.
Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.
We are not looking forward to going back to school.
C. Verbs yang dapat diikuiti oleh gerund = verb-ing atau infinitives = to verb tanpa

perubahan makna.
Begin : mulai
Like : suka
Cant stand : tidak betah
Love : cinta
Continue : melanjutkan
Prefer : lebih suka
Dread : takut kepada
Start : mulai
Hate : benci
Contoh :
He started to study TOEFL. OR He started studying TOEFL.
Joan hates to ride her bicycle. OR Joan hates riding her bicycle to school.
He dreads meeting the headmaster. OR He dreads to meet the headmaster.
D. Be berapa verbs yang dapat diikuti baik oleh infinitive = to verb atau gerund = verbing, tapi maknanya berubah.
stop
remember
forget
For examples
John stopped studying. (John sedang belajar kemudian berhenti, dan tidak melanjutkan lagi)
John stopped to study. (John sedang melakukan suatu pekerjaan, kemudian berhenti unuk
belajar)
I remember meeting him in a seminar last year. (Aku ingat peristiwa ketika bertemu dia di
sebuah seminar tahun lalu.)
I remember to meet him today. (Aku ingat bahwa aku harus / berencana untuk menemui dia
hari ini.)
Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat yang diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Accustomed to : terbiasa dengan
Intent on : bermaksud sungguh-sungguh untuk
Afraid of : takut pada
Interested in : tertarik pada
Capable of : mampu untuk
Successful in : sukses dalam
Fond of : senang pada
Tired of : lelah dengan
For examples
Mitch is afraid of getting married now.
I am accustomed to smoking
We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends.
Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year.
Crag is fond of dancing.
Tambahan* Daftar kata benda yang diikuti oleh the gerund (verb ing)
Choice of : pilihan terhadap/atas
Possibility of : kemungkinan terhadap
Excuse for : alasan untuk
Intention of : keinginan untuk
Reason for : alasan untuk
Method for / method of : metode.
Contoh :

George has excuse for dropping out of school.


There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.
There is no reason for leaving this early.
Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.
Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat diikuti oleh infinitive (to verb)
Anxious : khawatir
Eager : ingin tahu
Pleased : senang
Usual : biasa
Boring : membosankan
Easy : mudah
Prepared : siap
Common : umum
Dangerous : berbahaya
Good : bagus
Ready : siap
Difficult : sulit
Hard : keras
Strange : aneh
Able : dapat
For Examples
Muhammad is anxious to see his family.
It is dangerous to drive in this weather.
We are ready to leave now.
It is difficult to pass this test.
Do the following exercise
1. The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper.
2. They appreciate (to have/ having) this information.
3. We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision)
4. Dona is interested in (opening/to open a bar).
5. Marry regrets (to be/ being) the one to have to tell him.
6. George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday.
7. He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on.
8. Henry shouldnt risk (to drive/driving) so fast.
9. There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition.
10. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to their country.
THE VERB NEED
The boy needs cutting his hair or The boy needs to cut his hair?
Kata kerja need diikuti infinitive / to verb hanya jika subjeknya benda hidup. Tapi jika
subjeknya benda mati maka kata kerja need diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) atau diikuti oleh
to be + past participle (Verb 3)
A. Subjek benda hidup + infinitive
John and his brother need to paint the house.
My friend needs to learn Spanish
He will need to drive
B. Subjek benda mati + verb ing (to be+ past participle)
The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be painted.
The television needs repairing. OR The television needs to be repaired.

The composition needs rewriting. OR The composition needs to be written.


Perhatikan, kita menggunakan in need of dengan aturan berikut.
subject + be + in need of + noun
For examples
Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money)
The roof is in need of repairing. (The roof needs to be repaired.)
The organization is in need of volunteers. (The organization needs volunteers.)
Exercise
1. Its too hot and my hair needs (cut).
2. The computer needs (repair).
3. James needs .. (see) a doctor.
4. Marry will need (make) a new dress for the party.
5. His car needs (tune).
6. You will need to be here at night.
7. The house needs (paint) soon.
QUESTIONS
Dalam pertanyaan selalu digunakan kata kerja Bantu atau to be sebelum subjek.
Contoh :
Are you sad?
Is he tall?
Why are they angry?
What do you eat?
What will we get?
Etc
Selalu beriringan to be / kata kerja Bantu + subject
Penting*Embedded Questions : Adalah sebuah pertanyaan yang terdapat dalam sebuah
kalimat lain ; kalimat positive, negative, atau interrogative. Pelajari susunannya.
Rumusnya :
Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + verb
Pelajari contoh-contoh berikut !
Question : Where will the meeting take place?
Embedded question : We havent ascertained where the meeting will take place.
Q.word Subject verb phrase
Question : Why did the plane land at the wrong airport?
Embedded Questions : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the
Q.word subject verb
wrong airport.
Embedded Questions :
Do you know where he went?
Could you tell me what time it is?
The professor didnt know how many students would be in her afternoon class.
I have no idea how long the interview will take.
Tambahan (perkecualian)* Apabila kalimat Tanya nya seperti berikut (question word
berfungsi sebagai subject) maka dalam embedded question kalimat Tanya tersebut tidak
mengalami perubahan.
Question : Who will paint that picture?
Embedded question : They cant deide who will paint the picture.
Question : Whose car is parked in the lot?
Embedded Questions : The police cant determine whose car is parked in the lot.

Question tag* Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita sering mengatakan kamu lapar kan?..Dia
tinggal di Jogja kan?.. dst. Berikut caranya, pelajari baik-baik!
You are sick, arent you?
He likes tea, doesnt he?
You helped him, didnt you?
You were at home, werent you?
He can swim, cant he?
Berikut ini beberapa contoh tipe soal dalam tes TOEFL, pelajari baik-baik!
Tipe soal 1
Penggunaan to be
Find the incorrect word/words!
Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes
ABC
that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah A. To be are yang ditulis disana salah, seharusnya to be nya
adalah is.
Nah dari sini seharusnya kita kita kritis bertanya, mengapa yang benar is bukan are?
Kapan digunakan is, kapan digunakan are?
Pertama, to be is digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah he, she, atau it atau orang ketiga
tunggal (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu tunggal).
Contoh The boy is handsome. The cat is funny.
Kedua, to be are digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah you, they, we atau orang ketiga
jamak (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu jamak)
Contoh : The boys are handsome. The cats are funny.
Adapun untuk soal di atas to be yang benar adalah is karena subjeknya adalah buying
clothes (membeli pakaian). Buying clothes disini dianggap tunggal karena sama maknanya
dengan kata it (sesuatu yang kita bicarakan, dan itu tunggal).
Perhatikan kalimat berikut!
Membeli banyak pakaian tidak baik. (Buying clothes is not good.)
Coba kita perhatikan frase membeli banyak pakaian itu termasuk subjek tunggal. Jangan
terkecoh pada kata banyak pakaian (clothes)! Frase buying clothes tetap itu dianggap tunggal
karena frase itu merupakan sebuah topic/ issue tunggal.
Tipe soal 2
Penggunaan many atau much, a few atau a little
Find the incorrect word/words!
Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students
ABC
lost their opportunity to lease the appartment.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Karena too many time.. adalah salah. Seharusnya too much time.
Mengapa yang benar pakai much bukan many? Bagaimana aturannya?
Rules
Diikuti kata benda terhitung
/countable nouns Diikuti kata benda tak terhitung /uncountable nouns
a, the, some, any

some chairs the, some, any


some water
this, that, these, those this, that
none, one, two, three None
Many
a lot of
a large number of
a great number of
(a) few
(b) fewer than
(c) more than much (usually in negatives or questions)
a lot of
a large amount of
(a) little
(b) less than
(c) more than
Tipe soal 3
Penggunaan pronoun kata ganti; my/me, they/them, himself/hisself?
Find the incorrect word/words!
These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we
ABCD
will return later.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah C.
..all too expensive for we to buy. Kata for we disini salah, yang benar
seharusnya for us.
Mengapa?
Karena kata kita disini berposisi sebagai object of preposition/complement of
preposition(objek preposisi)
Contoh mudahnya sebagai berikut, mana yang benar?
I buy an apple for. (he/him).tentu yang benar adalah him
He builds a house for (they/them.)
Berikut teori lengkapnya:
A. Subject pronouns Vs Object/complement pronouns
I like him.
He likes me.
They like us.
We like them.
I write a letter for her.
And so on..
Subject pronouns Object pronouns
(Complement pronouns)
I Me
You You
They Them
We Us
He Him
She Her
It It
B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives

I have a car.
My car is new.
He has a house.
His house is old
And so on.
Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives
I My
You Your
They Their
We Our
He His
She Her
It Its
C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.
My hat is red and yours is blue.
Your hat is blue and mine is red.
Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns
my Mine
your Yours
their Theirs
our Ours
his His
her Hers
its Its
D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns
He cooked for me yesterday.
He cooked for himself last night.
Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.
Joan bought herself a new hat.
Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns
me Myself
you yourself
yourselves
them themselves
us ourselves
him Himself
her Herself
it Itself
Tipe Soal 4
Embedded question
Find the incorrect word/words!
The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the
ABCD
proposal.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pilihan C.
Seharusnya kalimat itu adalah The next important question we have to decide is when we
have to submit the proposal.

Jadi tidak pakai do.


Untuk lebih memahaminya perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut;
When do you go?
Then question is when you go.
Penggunaan do dihilangkan manakala kalimat tersebut berfungsi sebagai objek/complement
dari sebuah kalimat (noun clause)
Contoh lain :
Where do you live?
I know where you live.
Where is your house?
He told me where your house is.
Tipe soal 5
Penggunaan either dan neither
Find the incorrect word/words!
George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasnt neither.
ABCD
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pada pilihan D.
Seharusnya yang benar adalah Maria hasnt either, atau Maria has neither.
Kata either artinya juga.
Sama, kata neither artinya juga.
Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk kalimat bermakna negatif.
Anda mau mengatakan :
Dia tidak makan, dan aku juga.
Anda dapat mengatakan :
He does not eat, and neither do I.
Atau
He does not eat, and I dont either.
Jadi rumusnya :
Neither + auxiliary verb + subject
Subject + auxiliary verb + not + either
Tipe soal 6
Susunan modifier dan complement yang dibalik
John decided to buy in the morning a new car, but in the afternoon
ABC
he changed his mind.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Seharusnya kalimat diatas John decided to buy a new car in the morning, but ..
Jadi masalah di atas terkait dengan posisi complement(objek) dengan modifier (keterangan)
yang di awali preposis yang terbalik. Seharusnya complement dulu, baru modifier yang
diawali preposisi.
Pelajari teori berikut.
Normal Sentence Pattern in English
Subject Verb Complement Modifier
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.

They smile.
They smile.
Subject verb
We sleep.
We sleep.
Subject verb
My father drinks coffee.
My father drinks coffee.
Subject verb complement
The lady writes a letter.
The lady writes a letter.
Subject verb complement
The man lives in a village.
The man lives in a village.
Subject verb modifier
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
Subject verb complement modifier
She can dance.
She can dance.
Subject verb phrase
Mr. Joko has gone.
Mr.Joko Has gone.
Subject Verb phrase
He is shopping.
He is shopping.
Subject verb phrase
Linking verb : am, is, are
Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement
Tipe soal 7
Penggunaan kata other
Some of the plants in this store require very little care, but this one needs
AB
much more sunlight than the others ones.
CD
Tipe soal 8
Penggunaan tenses dalam adverbial clause yang menggunakan kata after dan before
After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book.
ABCD
After + s + had + v3s + v2
After I had taken a bath, I prayed.
After I had taken a bath, I was sleepy.
Before I ate , I had taken a bath.

Tipe A Tipe B
Predikat Kata kerja Predikat selain kata kerja
We sleep.
He drinks tea.
I go home.
I do not stand.
We do not walk.
She does not sing.
We do not have money.
Do you smoke?
Do I sleep?
Does she sing?
Do you eat rice?
What do you eat?
Does she drink milk?
What does she drink?
Who do you go with?
What do you work for?
Last night I met a ghost.
Yesterday they walked.
Yesterday I did not eat.
Yesterday he did not smile.
Did you go to the beach yesterday?
What did you write last night?
Tomorrow I will meet the director.
Tomorrow I will go to Bali.
Will you fly?
Will you sleep?
Will she cry?
What will you eat?
Who will you go with?
I have eaten.
She has gone.
They have left jogja.
Has she gone?
Have they left jogja?
Have I eaten?
What have I eaten?
I am sitting.
He is reading.
They are talking.
Are they studying?
What are they studying?
They are not playing.
I have eaten now.
At that time I had eaten.
At that time she had gone.
At that time she had not gone.
Now we are studying English.

At that time we were studying.


At that time I would call you. She is beautiful.
They are rich.
My mother is pretty.
I am not hungry.
She is not famous.
She is not angry.
We are not at home.
Are you crazy?
Am I beautiful?
Why are you sad?
Why am I tired?
Why are they sad?
Last night I was afraid.
Yesterday they were angry.
Yesterday I was not healthy.
Yesterday they were not sick.
Were you happy last night?
Was crazy last night?
Why were you sad last night?
Next year I will be happy.
Will she be happy?
Will she be mine?
Why will you be here?
They have been here.
He has been satisfied.
Why has he been satisfied?
Why have you been disappointed?
Tipe soal 9
Subject-verb agreement
Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed,
AB
but no one has been as widely accepted as this one.
CD
The girls .are/isin bad condition.
The boy playing toys..naughty.
They boys are
I eat.
You eat.
They eat.
He eats.
She eats.
The lady eats.
The ladies eat.
The lady ..has/have.. a car.
The ladies ..has/have.. a car.
Tipe soal 10
Beberapa kata yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam bentuk continuous
The food that Mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious.

ABCD
Know
Understand
Have
Believe
Hate
Need
Hear
Love
Appear
See
Like
Seem
Smell
Want
Taste
Wish
Sound
Own
Tipe soal 11
Pemahaman tenses dasar
After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.
ABCD
Tipe soal 12
Keterangan waktu pada tenses dasar
The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will
ABC
begin to write the other proposal.
D
I have eaten now.
I have eaten two hours ago.
S + v2
S + have/has + v3
I have eaten now.
I ate two hours ago.
I have bought a dictionary today.
I have bought a dictionary this morning.
Tipe soal 13
Masalah pronoun
Because Sam and Michelie had done all of the work theirselves., they were
ABC
unwilling to give the results to Joan.
D
Tipe soal 14
Masalah conditional sentence
Daniel said that if he had to do another homework tonight, he would not be able
AB
to attend the concert.
D
TIPE 1

If I meet Mr. Yanto, I will address him.


If I get money , I will treat you.
If it rains, I will wear a raincoat.
TIPE 1
If I am hungry, I will buy some food.
If you are sick, I will take care of you.
If he comes, I will be happy.
Tipe 2
If I brought money, I would treat you.
If he met me, I would be happy.
If they helped me, I would thank them.
TIPE 2
If I were healthy, I would work.
If I were rich , I would build a villa
Tipe 3
If I had brought money , I would have given you some food.
If I had passed, I would have studied abroad.
If they had come, they would have helped us.
If I had been healthy, I would have helped you.
If I had been rich, I would have built a villa.
Tipe soal 15
Prepositions + gerunds (Verb-ing)
After to take the medication the patient became drowsy and more manageable.
ABCD
Tipe soal 16
Verbs + prepositions followed by gerund
We insist on you leaving the meeting before any further outburst take place.
ABCD
Approve of
Give up
Rely on
Worry about
Be better off
Insist on
Succeed in
Count on
Keep on
Think about
Depend on
Put off
Think of
Tipe soal 17
Question tag
It has been a long time since we have talked to John , isnt it?
ABCD
You are sick, arent/isnt you?
You will go, wont you?
He sleeps, doesnt he?
Tipe soal 18
Verbs + prepositions followed the word to as preposition

(object to, look forward to, confess to)


Henry objects to our buying this house without the approval of our attorney, and
ABC
John does so.
D
I want to go.
He comes to sleep.
Tipe soal 19
Verbs that are followed by gerund / verb ing
Rita enjoyed to be able to meet several Congress members during her vocation.
ABCD
Admit
Delay
Miss
Regret
Risk
Appreciate
Deny
Postpone
Report
Suggest
Avoid
Enjoy
Practice
Resent
Cant help
Finish
Quit
Resist
Consider
Mind
Recall
Resume
Tipe soal 20
Verbs that are always followed by infinitive (to + verb)
After being indicted for his part in a bank robbery , the reputed mobster decided find
ABCD
another attorney.
Agree
Desire
Intend
Prepare
Tend
Attempt
Fail
Learn
Pretend
Try
Claim
Forget

Need
Refuse
Want
Decide
Hesitate
Offer
Seem
Wish
Demand
Hope
Plan
Strive
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
KUNCI UMUM
Kunci 1 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (direction) pada masing-masing bagian (part)
dengan baik sebelum hari- H ujian.
Kunci 2 : Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban pada masing-masing soal sebanyak mungkin ketika
narrator sedang membacakan directions dan contoh soal (example)
Kunci 3 : Dengarkan dengan penuh konsentrasi dan fokuskan perhatian Anda pada
percakapan yang sedang Anda dengarkan.
Kunci 4 : Maksimalkan kemampuan listening Anda pada soal-soal pertama pada masingmasing part.
Kunci 5 : Fokuskan pendengaran Anda pada pembicara kedua.
Kunci 6 : Jangan panik bila tidak bisa memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan secara
komplit. Anda hanya perlu menangkap ide atau isi percakapan.
Kunci 7 : Bila Anda sama sekali tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapkan pembicara kedua,
pilihlah jawaban yang paling berbeda dari apa yang telah Anda dengar.
Kunci 8 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression (agreement, uncertainty,
suggestion, surprise), idiomatic expression, dan situasi ketika pembicaraan dilakukan.
LONGER CONVERSATION
Kunci 9 : Ketika narrator membacakan direction part B anda sebaiknya membaca pilihan
jawaban secara sekilas kemudian mrekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa yang akan
menjadi perbincangan.
Kunci 10 : ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui apa tema/topic yang
dibicarakan
Kunci 11 : waspadalah terhadap masing-masing pertanyaan.
Kunci 12 : Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung, yakni
menyangkut tempat dan waktu pembicaraan, apa dan siapa yang dibicarakan.
Kunci 13 : Bila anda memiliki waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawban yang tertera pada
lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya.
Kunci 14 : Waspadailah pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena biasanya akan
menjadi topic bagi kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya.
Kunci 15 : Fokuskan pendengaran anda pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pertanyaan 5-wh
(what, who, when, where, why) dan how.
Kunci 16 : buatlah kesiompulan\inferasi atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan dilakukan.
PENTING!!!

(PELAJARI EXPRESI-EXPRESI BERIKUT)


Turned out well : sangat baik
Watch your step : hati-hati
Take it easy : santai aja
Thats it : ya itu / beres
Youve got to be kidding : menyatakan keterkejutan
Make ones own mind : berpikir sendiri
Stand on ones own foot : mandiri
Thanks for the attention and forgive me any of my lacks! Good Luck!

Aturan pencarian verbnya sebabagi berikut:


1. Jika terdapat 1 verb saja maka tidak ada conjungtion (kata penghubung)
2. Jika terdapat 2 verb maka ada 1 conjungtion (ingat! conjuntion itu menghubungkan
antara kalimat dan kalimat)
3. Jika ada 3 verb maka ada 2 conjangtion, dan begitu seterusnya
4. Aturan pencariaan ini berlaku untuk verb pada tenses, baik kalimat aktif maupun
passif
ini juga beberapa hal yang harus kalian perhatikan:
1. Ingat! Selalu ingat bahwa sentence (kalimat) itu terdiri dari subject dan predikat (verb)
Contohnya: _______ was backed up for miles on the freeway
a. Yesterday
b. In the morning
c. Traffic
d. Cars
Jawabannya adalah Traffic. Karena kalimat diatas sudah terdapat verb (was backed) dan tidak
ada conjungtion, sehingga berdasarkan aturan maka kita hanya membutuhkan subject.
Jawaban (a) dan (b) merupakan kata keterangan, sedangkan jawaban (d) tidak sesuai dengan
kalimat.
2. Hati-hati dengan present participles (V-ing)
Verb + ing akan berfungsi sebagai verb jika to be + V-ing
Contoh: The man is talking to his friends (verb)
The man talking to his friends has a bread (adjective), verb-nya adalah has
3. Hati-hati dengan past participle (V3)
V3 akan berfungsi sebagai verb jika to be + V3
Contoh: The family has purchased a television (verb)
The television purchased yesterday was expensive (adjective), verbnya adalah was
Contoh soal:
The packages ______ mailed at the post office will arrive Monday
a. Have

b. Were
c. Them
d. Just
Jawabannya adalah (d) Just. Karena jika kita telusuri kalimat dalam soal terdapat verb (will
arrive) dan tidak ada conjungtion. Jadi, kita hanya membutuhkan pelengkap. Jawaban (a) dan
(b) merupakan verb, sedangkan jawaban (c) merupakan subject. Jika jawaban (c) dimasukkan
dalam kalimat maka akan terjadi double subject dan them tidak memiliki fungsi dalam
kalimat.
4. Hati-hati dengan Appositive (menjelaskan kata sebelumnya)
Appositif (App) memiliki bentuk sebagai berikut:
APP,___________ (jika ada (,) di depan maka di depan koma adalah App)
____,App,__________ (Jika berada ditengah maka akan diapit oleh 2 tanda (,))
______________,App (Jika ada (,) dibelakang maka App berada setelah tanda (,))
Contoh soal:
__________,George, is attending the lecture
a. Right now
b. Happily
c. Because of the time
d. My Friends
Jawabannya adalah (d) my friends. Karena pada kalimat tersebut memiliki 1 verb (is
attending) dan tidak ada conjungtion, sedangkan George merupakan Appositife. Jadi, kalimat
tersebut membutuhkan subject yaitu My friends. Untuk jawaban (a) merupakan keterangan,
(b) merupakan Adverb, (c) merupakan preposisi.
nah, itu tadi tips and trict menjawab soal structure pada test TOEFL. Selamat menikmati dan
semoga bermanfaat bagi kita semua.
Oh, iya.. sudah baca kan? Apa komentarmu? Jangan lupa tinggalkan jejakmu ya di comment.
OK!
Thanks for attention