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Azeotrope (data)

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This page contains tables of azeotrope data for various binary and ternary mixtures of solvents. Data includes composition of mixture by weight (in binary
azeotropes when only one fraction is given, it is the fraction of the second component), boiling point (b.p.) of components, boiling point of mixture, and
specific gravity of mixture. Boiling points are at 760 mm Hg unless otherwise stated. Where the mixture separates into layers, values are shown for upper
(U) and lower (L) layers.
Data is obtained from Lange's 10th edition[1] and CRC 44th edition[2] unless otherwise noted (see color code table).

Binary azeotropes
Data source color code
CRC & Lange's CRC only Lange's only other (see references)

Azeotropes of water, b.p.=100C


b.p. of
% by spef.
b.p. of
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
with various alcohols
ethanol
78.4
78.1
95.5
0.804
[3]
methanol
64.7
No azeotrope
n-propanol
97.2
87.7
71.7
0.866
iso-propanol
82.5
80.4
87.9
0.818
55.5
n-butanol
117.8
92.4
U 79.9 U 0.849
L 7.7 L 0.990
sec-butanol
99.5
88.5
67.9
0.863
70.0
iso-butanol
108.0
90.0
U 85.0 U 0.839
L 8.7 L 0.988
tert-butanol
82.8
79.9
88.3
allyl alcohol
97.0
88.2
72.9
0.905
benzyl alcohol
205.2
99.9
9
furfuryl alcohol
169.4
98.5
20
[4]
cyclohexanol
161.1
97.8
20
[4]
benzyl alcohol
205.4
99.9
9
with various organic acids
formic acid
100.8
107.3
77.5
[3][5]
acetic acid
118.1
No azeotrope
propionic acid
141.1
99.98
17.7
1.016
butyric acid
163.5
99.94
18.4
1.007
iso-butyric acid
154.5
99.3
21
with mineral acids
nitric acid
86.0
120.5
68
1.405
perchloric acid
110.0
203
71.6
hydrofluoric acid 19.9
120
37
hydrochloric acid 84
110
20.24 1.102
hydrobromic acid 73
126
47.5
1.481
hydroiodic acid
34
127
57
sulfuric acid
290
338
98
with various alkyl halides
ethylene chloride 83.7
72
91.8
propylene chloride 96.8
78
89.4
97.0
chloroform
61.2
53.3
U 0.8 U 1.004
L 99.8 L 1.491
95.9
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
66.8
U 0.03 U 1.000
L 99.97 L 1.597
99.6
methylene chloride 40.0
38.8
U 2.0 U 1.009
99.9
L 1.328
with various esters
91.9
ethyl acetate
77.1
70.4
U 96.7 U 0.907
L 8.7 L 0.999
methyl acetate
57.0
56.1
95.0
0.940
[4]
n-propyl acetate
101.6
82.4
86
2nd Component

Azeotropes of ethanol, b.p.=78.4C


b.p. of
b.p. of
comp. mixture
(C)
(C)
with various esters
ethyl acetate
77.1
71.8
methyl acetate
57.0
56.9
ethyl nitrate
87.7
71.9
[4]
isopropyl acetate
88.4
76.8
with various hydrocarbons
benzene
80.2
68.2
[7]
cyclohexane
80.7
64.9
toluene
110.8
76.7
n-pentane
36.2
34.3
n-hexane
68.9
58.7
n-heptane
98.5
70.9
n-octane
125.6
77.0
with various alkyl halides
ethylene chloride
83.7
70.5
chloroform
61.1
59.4
carbon tetrachloride
76.8
65.1
allyl chloride
45.7
44
n-propyl chloride
46.7
45.0
isopropyl chloride
36.3
35.6
n-propyl bromide
71.0
62.8
isopropyl bromide
59.8
55.6
n-propyl iodide
102.4
75.4
isopropyl iodide
89.4
71.5
methyl iodide
42.6
41.2
methylene chloride
40.1
39.85
ethyl bromide
38.0
37.0
trichloroethylene
87
70.9
trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC
47.7
43.8
113)
tetrachloroethylene
121.0
76.75
with various other solvents
methyl ethyl ketone
79.6
74.8
acetonitrile
82.0
72.9
nitromethane
101.3
75.95
[8]
tetrahydrofuran
65.6
65.4
P = 100 kPa
thiophene[7]
84.1
70.0
[4]
carbon disulfide
46.2
42.4
2nd Component

% by spef.
weight grav
69.2
97
56
47

0.863

67.6
69.5
32
95
79
51
22

0.848

63
93
84.2
95
93
97.2
79.5
89.5
56
73
96.8
95.0
97.0
73.0
96.2

0.815
0.687
0.729

1.403
1.377

1.197
1.517

37.0
60
43.0
26.8

0.802
0.788

3.3
55.0
92

Azeotropes of methanol, b.p.=64.7C


b.p. of b.p. of
2nd Component
comp. mixture
(C)
(C)
with various esters
methyl acetate
57.0
53.8
ethyl acetate
77.1
62.3
ethyl formate
54.1
51.0

% by spef.
weight grav
81.3
56
84

0.908
0.846

87.7
74.4
78
with various other solvents
[3][5]
acetone
56.5C
No azeotrope
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
73.5
89
0.834
pyridine
115.5
92.6
57
1.010
91.1
benzene
80.2
69.3
U 99.94 U 0.880
L 0.07 L 0.999
79.8
toluene
110.8
84.1
U 99.95 U 0.868
L 0.06 L 1.000
91.5
cyclohexane
80.7
69.8
U 99.99 U 0.780
L 0.01 L 1.00
diethyl ether
34.5
34.2
98.7
0.720
[3]
tetrahydrofuran
66
65
95
anisole
153.9
95.5
59.5
acetonitrile
82.0
76.5
83.7
0.818
chloral
97.75
95.0
93.0
[6]
hydrazine
113.5C 120.3C
68.5

with various hydrocarbons


80.2
58.3
110.8 63.8

ethyl nitrate

CRC 44th ed. lists azeotropes for acetic acid/water and acetone/water, Lange's 10th ed. as well as
numerous web sources indicate no azeotrope for these pairs.

Azeotropes of allyl alcohol, b.p.=97.0C


b.p. of
% by spef.
b.p. of
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
with various solvents
methyl butyrate
102.7
93.8
45
n-propyl acetate
101.6
94.2
47
benzene
80.2
76.8
82.6 0.874
toluene
110.8
92.4
50
cyclohexane
80.8
74
80
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
72.3
88.5 1.450
ethylene chloride 83.7
79.9
82
2nd Component

Azeotropes of n-propanol, b.p.=97.2C


b.p. of
b.p. of
2nd Component comp.
mixture
(C)
(C)
with various solvents
methyl butyrate 102.7
94.4
n-propyl formate 80.8
80.65
n-propyl acetate 101.6
94.7
benzene
80.2
77.1
toluene
110.8
92.4
n-hexane
68.9
65.7
carbon
76.8
73.1
tetrachloride
ethylene chloride 83.7
80.7
n-propyl bromide 71.0
69.7

% by spef.
weight grav
51
97
49
83.1
47.5
96
88.5

0.833
0.836
1.437

81
91

Azeotropes of acetic acid, b.p.=118.5C


b.p. of
b.p. of
2nd Component comp. mixture
(C)
(C)
with various solvents
benzene
80.2
80.05
[4]
cyclohexane
80.8
79.7
toluene
110.8
105.0
m-xylene
139.0
115.4
n-heptane
98.5
92.3
n-octane
125.8
109.0
isopropyl iodide
89.2
88.3
carbon
76.8
76.6
tetrachloride
tetrachloroethylene 121.0
107.4
ethylene bromide 131.7
114.4
1,1-dibromoethane 109.5
103.7

% by spef.
weight grav
98
98
72
27.5
70
50
91
97
61.5
45
75.0

0.882
0.905
0.908

benzene
toluene
cyclohexane

80.8

54.2

n-pentane
n-hexane
n-heptane
n-octane

36.2
30.8
68.9
50.6
98.5
59.1
125.8 63.0
with various alkyl halides
ethylene chloride
83.7
61.0
chloroform
61.1
53.5
carbon tetrachloride
76.8
55.7
ethyl bromide
38.4
35.0
n-propyl chloride
46.6
40.5
isopropyl chloride
36.4
33.4
n-propyl bromide
71.0
54.5
isopropyl bromide
59.8
48.6
isopropyl iodide
89.4
61.0
[4]
trichloroethylene
87.2
60.2
[8]
tetrachloroethylene
121.1 63.5
trichlorotrifluoroethane
47.7
39.9
(CFC 113)[4]
with various other solvents
nitromethane
101.2 64.6
acetone
56.5
55.7
acetonitrile
82.0
63.45

60.4 0.844
31
0.813
62.8
U 97.0
L 39.0
91
72
48.5
72.0
68
87.4
79.4
95.5
90.5
94
79
85.0
62
64
40.6

1.342
1.322

94

carbon disulfide

46.2

37.7

isopropanol[4]
tetrahydrofuran[9]
P = 984 mBar

88.5

64.0

9
87.9 0.796
19.0
86.0
U 50.8 U 0.979
L 97.2 L 1.261
20

65.6

60.7

69.0

Azeotropes of isopropanol, b.p.=82.5C


b.p. of
b.p. of
% by spef.
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
with various esters
ethyl acetate
77.1
75.3
75
0.869
isopropyl acetate
91.0
81.3
40
0.822
with various hydrocarbons
benzene
80.2
71.9
66.7 0.838
[7]
toluene
110.8
80.6
42
cyclohexane
81.0
68.6
67.0 0.777
n-pentane
36.2
35.5
94
n-hexane
68.9
62.7
77
n-heptane
98.5
76.3
46
with various alkyl halides
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
69.0
82
1.344
chloroform
61.1
60.8
95.8
ethylene chloride
83.7
74.7
56.5
ethyl iodide
83.7
67.1
85
n-propyl chloride
46.7
46.4
97.2
n-propyl bromide
71.0
66.8
79.5
isopropyl bromide 59.8
57.8
88
n-propyl iodide
102.4
79.8
58
isopropyl iodide
89.4
76.0
68
[7]
tetrachloroethylene 121.1
81.7
19.0
with various other solvents
methyl ethyl ketone 79.0
77.5
68
0.800
diisopropyl ether
69
66.2
85.9
nitromethane
101.0
79.3
70
2nd Component

CRC and Lange's disagree on this azeotrope, but web source


corroborates CRC

methylene bromide 98.2


pyridine
115.3

94.8
139.7

84.0
65.0

1.024

Azeotropes of formic acid, b.p.=100.8C

Azeotropes of ethylene glycol, b.p.=197.4C

b.p. of
b.p. of
% by spef.
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
with various hydrocarbons
benzene
80.2
71.7
69
toluene
110.8
85.8
50
m-xylene
139.0
94.2
29.8
n-pentane
36.2
34.2
90
n-hexane
68.9
60.6
72
n-heptane
98.5
78.2
56.5
n-octane
125.8
90.5
37
with various alkyl halides
chloroform
61.2
59.2
85
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
66.7
81.5
methyl iodide
42.6
42.1
94
ethyl bromide
38.4
38.2
97
ethylene chloride 83.6
77.4
86
ethylene bromide 131.7
94.7
48.5
n-propyl chloride 46.7
45.6
92
isopropyl chloride 34.8
34.7
98.5
n-propyl bromide 71.0
64.7
73
isopropyl bromide 59.4
56.0
86
with various other solvents
carbon disulfide
46.3
42.6
83

b.p. of
b.p. of
% by spef.
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
with various solvents
ethyl benzoate 212.6
186.1
53.5
diphenyl
254.9
192.0
36
mesitylene
164.6
156.0
87
naphthalene
218.1
183.9
49
toluene
110.8
110.2
93.5
m-xylene
139.0
135.6
85
o-xylene
144.4
139.6
84.0
ethylene bromide 131.7
129.8
96
nitrobenzene
210.9
185.9
41
chlorobenzene 132.0
130.1
5.6
benzyl chloride 179.3
167.0
70
benzyl alcohol 205.1
193.1
44
anisole
153.9
150.5
89.5
acetophenone
202.1
185.7
48
aniline
184.4
180.6
76
o-cresol
191.1
189.6
73

2nd Component

2nd Component

Azeotropes of glycerol, b.p.=291.0C


2nd Component
diphenyl
naphthalene

Azeotropes of benzene, b.p.=80.1C


b.p. of
% by spef.
b.p. of
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
cyclohexane
81.4
77.8
45.0 0.834
ethyl nitrate
88.7
80.03
12.0
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
78.4
37.5 0.853
nitromethane
101.0
79.15
14.0
acetonitrile
82.0
73.0
34.0
[4]
n-heptane
98.5
80.0
1
2nd Component

b.p. of
b.p. of
% by spef.
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
254.9
243.8
45
218.1
215.2
90

Azeotropes of acetone, b.p.=56.5C


b.p. of
% by spef.
b.p. of
comp. (C) mixture (C) weight grav
carbon disulfide
46.3
39.3
67.0 1.04
chloroform
61.2
64.7
80.0 1.268
cyclohexane
81.4
53.0
33.0
n-hexane
68.8
49.8
41
ethyl iodide
56.5
55.0
40.0
[7]
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
56.2
11.9
2nd Component

Miscellaneous azeotrope pairs


component 1

b.p.
comp. 1 (C)

acetaldehyde

21.0

acetamide

222.0

acetonitrile

82.0

acetylene
aniline

86.6
184.4

carbon disulfide

46.2

chloroform

61.2

carbon tetrachloride 76.8

cyclohexane

81.4

diethyl ether

34.6

nitromethane

101.0

tetrahydrofuran[9]

65.6

b.p.
comp. 2 (C)
diethyl ether
34.6
[7]
n-butane
0.5
benzaldehyde
179.5
nitrobenzene
210.9
o-xylene
144.1
ethyl acetate
77.15
[8]
toluene
110.6
ethane
88.3
o-cresol
191.5
diethyl ether
34.6
1,1-dichloroethane 57.2
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
ethyl acetate[4]
77.1
[4]
methyl acetate
57.0
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
n-hexane
68.7
methyl ethyl ketone 79.9
ethylene dichloride 84.0
ethyl acetate
77.1
ethyl acetate
77.15
ethyl nitrate
88.7
methyl formate
31.50
[3]
methylene chloride 40
toluene
110.8
chloroform
61.2
n-hexane
69
component 2

b.p.
% wt % wt spec.
azeo. (C) comp. 1 comp. 2 grav.
20.5
76.0
24.0
0.762
7.0
16.0
84.0
178.6
6.5
93.5
202.0
24.0
76.0
142.6
11.0
89.0
74.8
23.0
77.0
81.1
25.0
75.0
94.5
40.7
59.3
191.3
8.0
92.0
34.4
1.0
99.0
0.719
46.0
94.0
6.0
45.9
84.7
15.3
1.157
46.1
97
3
40.2
73
27
79.9
17.0
83.0
0.877
60.0
72.0
28.0
1.101
73.8
71.0
29.0
1.247
75.3
78.0
22.0
1.500
74.8
57.0
43.0
1.202
72.8
46.0
54.0
74.5
64.0
36.0
28.2
44.0
56.0
40.8
30
70
96.5
55.0
45.0
72.5
34.5
65.5
63.0
46.5
53.5

toluene

110.63

pyridine
aniline
o-xylene
toluene

propylene glycol[10] 188.2

115.3
184.4
144.4
110.6

110.2
179.5
135.8
110.5

78.0
43
10
1.5

22.0
57
90
98.5

Ternary azeotropes
Tables of various ternary azeotropes (that is azeotropes consisting of three components). Fraction percentages are given by weight.
Data source color code
CRC & Lange's CRC only Lange's only other (see references)

Ternary azeotropes of water, b.p.=100C


2nd component

b.p.
2nd comp. (C)

ethanol

78.4

n-propanol

97.2

isopropanol

82.5

allyl alcohol

97.0

benzene

80.1

b.p.
b.p.
% wt % wt % wt spec.
3rd comp. (C) azeo. (C) 1st
2nd 3rd
grav
ethyl acetate
77.1
70.3C
7.8
9.0
83.2 0.901
cyclohexane
80.8
62.1
7
17
76
18.5 74.1
7.4
benzene
80.2
64.9
U 1.3 U 12.7 U 86.0 U 0.866
L 43.1 L 52.1 L 4.8 L 0.892
4.0
92.5
3.5
chloroform
61.2
55.5
U 80.8 U 18.2 U 1.0 U 0.976
L 0.5 L 3.7 L 95.8 L 1.441
4.3
9.7
86.0
3.4
10.3 86.3
carbon tetrachloride 86.8
61.8
U 44.5 U 48.5 U 7.0 U 0.935
L <0.1 L 5.2 L 94.8 L 1.519
ethylene chloride 83.7
66.7
5
17
78
acetonitrile
82.0
72.9
1.0
55.0 44.0
12.0 37.0 51.0
toluene
110.6
74.4
U 3.1 U 15.6 U 81.3 U 0.849
L 20.7 L 54.8 L 24.5 L 0.855
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
73.2
11.0 14.0 75.0 0.832
12.0 85.0
3.0
n-hexane
69.0
56.0
U 0.5 U 3.0 U 96.5 U 0.672
L 19.0 L 75.0 L 6.0 L 0.833
6.1
33.0 60.9
n-heptane
98.4
68.8
U 0.2 U 5.0 U 94.8 U 0.686
L 15.0 L 75.9 L 9.1 L 0.801
carbon disulfide
46.2
41.3
1.6
5.0
93.4
cyclohexane
80.8
66.6
8.5
10.0 81.5
benzene
80.2
68.5
8.6
9.0
82.4
5
11
84
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
65.4
U 84.9 U 15.0 U 0.1 U 0.979
L 1.0 L 11.0 L 88.0 L 1.436
diethyl ketone
102.2
81.2
20
20
60
n-propyl acetate
101.6
82.2
21.0 19.5 59.5
64.3
7.5
18.5 74.0
cyclohexane
80.8
66.1
7.5
21.5 71.0
66.5
7.5
18.7 73.8
8.2
19.8 72.0
benzene
80.2C
65.7C
U 2.3 U 20.2 U 77.5 U 0.855
L 85.1 L 14.4 L 0.5 L 0.966
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
73.4
11.0 1.0
88.0 0.834
13.1 38.2 48.7
toluene
110.6
76.3
U 8.5 U 38.2 U 53.3 U 0.845
L 61.0 L 38.0 L 1.0 L 0.930
5
5
90
n-hexane
69.0
59.7
U 0.5 U 3.6 U 95.9 U 0.668
L 64.4 L 34.8 L 0.8 L 0.964
8.6
9.2
82.2
benzene
80.2
68.2
U 0.6 U 8.7 U 90.7 U 0.877
L 80.9 L 17.7 L 0.4 L 0.985
cyclohexane
80.8
66.2
8
11
81
5
11
84
carbon tetrachloride 76.8
65.2
U 71.7 U 25.6 U 2.7 U 0.777
L 0.8 L 10.1 L 89.1 L 1.464
acetonitrile
82.0
66.0
8.2
68.5 23.3
8.8
65.1 26.1
methyl ethyl ketone 79.6
68.2
U 0.6 U 71.3 U 28.1 U 0.858
L 94.7 L 0.1 L 5.2 L 0.992
3rd component

carbon tetrachloride 76.8

65.7

cyclohexane

81.0

63.6

methanol

64.65

52.6

acetone

56.5

60.4

methyl ethyl ketone 79.6

chloroform

61.2

3.0
22.2 74.8
U 94.4 U 5.5 U 0.1 U 0.993
L 0.1 L 22.6 L 77.3 L 1.313
5.0
60.0 35.0
U 0.6 U 37.0 U 62.4 U 0.769
L 89.9 L 10.0 L 0.1 L 0.98
4.0
81.0 15.0
U 27.0 U 32.0 U 41.0 U 1.022
L 3.0 L 83.0 L 14.0 L 1.399
4.0
57.6 38.4

Saddle azeotrope

Ternary azeotropes of methanol, b.p.=64.65C


2nd component
acetone

methyl acetate

b.p.
b.p.
3rd component
2nd comp. (C)
3rd comp. (C)

chloroform
61.2
56.5
methyl acetate 57.0
cyclohexane
81.4
carbon disulfide 46.2
57.1
cyclohexane
81.4
n-hexane
69.0

b.p.
% wt % wt % wt spec.
azeo. (C) 1st 2nd 3rd grav
57.5
23.0 30.0 47.0
53.7
17.4 5.8
76.8 0.898
51.5
16.0 43.5 40.5
37.0
50.8
17.8 48.6 33.6
45.0
14.0 27.0 59.0 0.73

Saddle azeotrope

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp1496-1505


^ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. pp 2143-2184
^ a b c d e "What is an Azeotrope?". B/R Corporation. http://www.solvent--recycling.com/azeotrope_1.html. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l John Durkee (November 2000). "Binary Organic Azeotropes Useful for Solvent Cleaning". metalfinishing.com.
http://www.metalfinishing.com/_virtual/article-downloads/Table%201_a2648.pdf. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
^ a b Hilmen, Eva-Katrine (November 2000). "Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures: Tools for Analysis and Studies on Batch Distillation Operation". Norwegian
University of Science and Technology, dept. of Chemical Engineering. http://www.chemeng.ntnu.no/thesis/download/2000/hilmen/Thesis_Hilmen.pdf. Retrieved
24 March 2007.
^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed. monograph 4653
^ a b c d e f Ponton, Jack (September 2001). "Azeotrope Databank" (Queriable database). The Edinburgh Collection of Open Software for Simulation and Education,
Edinburgh University. http://eweb.chemeng.ed.ac.uk/chem_eng/azeotrope_bank.html. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
^ a b c "Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center.
http://www.cheric.org/research/kdb/hcvle/hcvle.php.
^ a b "Tetrahydrafuran (THF) Storage and Handling". BASF. http://www.basf.com/diols/pdfs/thf_brochure.pdf. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
^ "1,2-Propanediol". ChemIndustry.ru. http://chemindustry.ru/1,2-Propanediol.php. Retrieved 2007-12-28.

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