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PAPER 3 : QUESTION 1

The following scientific skills are tested in Question 1:

1. OBSERVATION

QUESTION : State two observations.

ANSWER : Write down what can be observed only. Do not do any analysis, comparison or
conclusion. For most

experiments, the observation can be written in the form:

The .(responding variable) .. at ..(manipulated variable) is (state reading of measuring


instrument)

( Write the observation for the highest and lowest value of the responding variable.)

Example:

The time taken for the starch to be completely hydrolysed at

5 oC is 45 minutes.

The time taken for the starch to be completely hydrolysed at

40 oC is 5 minutes.

2. INFERENCE

State one inference which corresponds to each observation. An inference is a brief explanation of
the observation, based on scientific knowledge which you already know.

Example:

The time taken for starch to be completely hydrolysed at 5 oC is 45 minutes because the low temperature causes
the enzymes to react slowly with the substrate.

The time taken for starch to be completely hydrolysed at 5 oC is 5 minutes because the higher
temperature causes the enzymes to react quickly with the substrate.

3. MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS

Record the reading of thermometer, stopwatch, ruler etc. from the given diagram.

4. COMMUNICATING

Construct the table with the manipulated variable as the first column and the responding variable
as the second column. Data derived or calculated from the second column can be added to the
third column. Show the calculations in the third column itself. Units of measurements should be
written together with table titles, not with readings.

Example

Temperature /
oC

Time for starch to be


completely hydrolysed /

Rate of reaction
/ min -1

min

10

1/10 = 0.1

15

1 / 5 = 0.2

30

1 / 2 = 0.5

5. INTERPRETING DATA

Explain / state the relationship between manipulated and responding variables as obtained from a
graph of the results.

Example: As the temperature increases from 5 oC to 45 oC, the time taken for the complete
hydrolysis of starch decreases from 45 minutes to 5 minutes.

6. CONTROLLING VARIABLES

Variables
State the variable

Describe how you control the variables


Use action words and name the instruments used

MANIPULATED
Temperature

Use / .
Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of
the water bath and add ice or warm water to
maintain the temperature of the water bath. Place
the test tubes in the different water baths.

RESPONDING
Time taken for
complete

Record / measure using .


Record the time taken for the enzyme substrate
mixture to lose its blue colour.

hydrolysis of
starch

CONTROLLED
Concentration of
enzyme

Use the same/ Maintain


Use the same amount of enzyme ( 1 ml) in each of
the experiment.

7. MAKING HYPHOTHESIS

Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria:

State the manipulated variable

State the responding variable

Relate the manipulated variable and the responding variable (do not use vague relationships like
affects or influence or changes with). Commit to using terms like: increases with / decreases
with .

8. PREDICTING

QUESTION : If the experiment is repeated .., predict the observation

ANSWER : Give a value or relevant statement e.g. the (responding variable) will be higher / lower
than (the value in the first experiment) followed by a the reason

EXAMPLE: What will the rate of transpiration be at fan speed

3, if the experiment is repeated in the dark?

The transpiration rate at fan speed 3 will be less then (value recorded) because the stomata is
closed in the dark and less water will be loss through them.

9. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY

Give a definition based on the context of the experiment. EXAMPLE 1: An experiment is carried out
to investigate

photosynthesis and the number of bubbles released is counted. The operational definition of
photosynthesis would then be:

Photosynthesis is the process where green plants release bubbles in the presence of light, carbon
dioxide and water.

EXAMPLE 2: An experiment is carried out to investigate photosynthesis and leaves are tested with
iodine solution for the presence of starch. The operational definition of photosynthesis would be:

Photosynthesis is the process where green leaves in the presence of light, carbon dioxide and
water, produce starch which turns iodine solution dark blue.

EXAMPLE 3: An experiment is carried out to investigate transpiration under different fan speeds.
The operational definition of transpiration would be:

Transpiration is the process where a plant loses water to the surrounding which is indicated by the
movement of water or air bubble in the capillary tube and is affected by speed of the air current.

(You should include the variables in the context of the experiment / experimental conditions and .)

10. CLASSIFYING

Group the materials or apparatus listed using a table with the headings provided. Group them
according to their function in the experiment.

11. USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP

State the changes of the responding variable with time. Use relationship words like increases with /
decreases with / remains constant with / increases proportionately with / etc. Do not use neutral
relationship terms like affects / influences/ changes with.