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ABSTRACT

Energy harvesting from ankle boot using polymer by piezoelectric


mechanism. Day to day mankind is utilizing some kind of energy from the
available environment like sun rays, wind, water, etc. likewise even from the
actions of shoes itself we can harvest energy and make it useful for some
applications.
Day to day inventions teach us that even that small amount of energy can be
utilized for the existing actions. This project describes about the energy harvesting.
Harvest maximum energy from the shoes and at the same time without affecting
the green environment. I am developing the boot which could enable us to harvest
the energy by mechanical actions like running, bending, walking. This energy can
be stored in a battery and used for some us applications like charging smartphones,
also for activating GPS systems.
Key words: shell patterns, stuck on construction, polymer based sensors, abaqus
finite element analysis.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
ENERGY HARVESTING
Energy harvesting also known as power harvesting is the process by which energy
is derived from external sources (e.g. solar power, thermal energy, wind energy,
salinity gradients, and kinetic energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless
autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor
networks.
Energy harvesters provide a very small amount of power for low-energy electronics.
Energy harvesting devices converting ambient energy into electrical energy have
attracted much interest in both the military and commercial sectors. Energy can
also be harvested to power small autonomous sensors such as those developed
using MEMS technology. These systems are often very small and require little power,
but their applications are limited by the reliance on battery power.
There are many small-scale energy sources
Photovoltaics is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar
radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the
photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed
of a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material.
Micro wind turbine are used to harvest wind energy readily available in the
environment in the form of kinetic energy to power the low power electronic devices
such as wireless sensor nodes.
Piezoelectric crystals or fibers generate a small voltage whenever they are
mechanically deformed. Vibration from engines can stimulate piezoelectric
materials, as can the heel of a shoe, or the pushing of a button.
Electroactive polymers (EAPs) have been proposed for harvesting energy. These
polymers have a large strain, elastic energy density, and high energy conversion
efficiency. The total weight of systems based on EAPs is proposed to be significantly
lower than those based on piezoelectric materials.
PIEZOELECTRIC CONCEPT
DEFINITION: piezoelectricity, also called the piezoelectric effect, is the ability of
certain materials to generate an AC (alternating current) voltage when subjected to
mechanical stress or vibration, or to vibrate when subjected to an AC voltage, or
both. The most common piezoelectric material is quartz. Certain ceramics, Rochelle
salts, and some conductive polymers also exhibit this effect.

Piezo buzzer exploits the piezoelectric property of the piezo electric crystals. The
piezoelectric effect may be direct piezoelectric effect in which the electric charge
develops as a result of the mechanical stressor reverse or indirect piezoelectric
effect (Converse piezoelectric effect) in which a mechanical force such as vibration
develops due to the application of an electric field.
Piezoelectric materials have the ability to transform mechanical strain energy into
electrical charge. Piezo elements are being embedded in walkways to recover the
people energy of footsteps.
Example for piezoelectric

EXISTING PIEZOELETRIC MATERIALS

PIEZOELECTRIC POLYMERS
A piezoelectric polymer is a material having piezoelectricity. It is the ability of
materials, which is the property that the polarization of a material change by
applying stress and/or strain generated by changing polarization.
POLYMERS THAT EXIHIBIT THE PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTY

CHAPTER 2

LITRETURE STUDY
Pawel Zylka-Current progress in ambient energy harvesting using piezoelectric
materials and electro active polymers. This paper describes about the properties of
the piezoelectric material and its working process while in swing and stance phase
and also the values of the voltage impulse developed during the process.
Jacob Munk-Stander(2006) Evaluation of Piezoelectric Film Sensors for In-Shoe
Pressure Measurement. His paper describes about the shape, design and size of the
piezoelectric material which is used in the project and also shows the sensor
position in the bottom soles.
Jin-rae cho (2009)Landing impact analysis of sports shoes using 3-D coupled footshoe finite element model. Implantation of the analytical approach gives the better
results when compare to the trial and error method . so by using the finite element
analysis software like ANSYS and ABAQUS gives the precise value when compared
to the trial and error method.

CHAPTER 3
SELECTION OF RAW MATERIALS
There are several types of raw materials available for the different parts of the
shoes.
They are
Outsole
Polyurethane(pu)
Polyviniylchoride(pvc)
Thermoplastic rubber(tpr)
Ethyl vinyl acetate(eva)
Micro cellular rubber(mcr)
Insole
Polyurethane(pu) foam
Polyviniylchoride(pvc)
Ethyl vinyl acetate(eva)
Upper
Leather material
Synthetic fibre
MICRO CELLULAR RUBBER(MCR) OUTSOLE

Cellular rubbers are porous rubber qualities with all-round closed cells. They are
manufactured in accordance with the expansion process using gas-developing
agents. The cellular structure distinguishes cellular rubber (left picture) from sponge
rubber skin/skin (right picture), which contains partly opened cells, and sponge
rubber, consisting of completely opened cells. Thus cellular rubber in contrast to
sponge rubber skin/skin does not require an outer skin in order to use it as a gasket
or lining.

POLYURETHANE INSOLE
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined
by carbamate (urethane) links.
Chemical structure of PU

Polyurethane polymers are traditionally and most commonly formed by reacting a


di- or polyisocyanate with a polyol. Both the isocyanates and polyols used to make
polyurethanes contain on average two or more functional groups per molecule.

POLYURETHANE FOAMS

LIST OF PU FOAM APPLICATION


Low-density flexible foam used in upholstery, bedding, and automotive and truck
seating
Low-density rigid foam used for thermal insulation and RTM cores
Soft solid elastomers used for gel pads and print rollers
Low density elastomers used in footwear
Hard solid plastics used as electronic instrument bezels and structural parts
Flexible plastics used as straps and bands
ETHYLVINYL ACETATE INSOLE
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), also known as poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), is
the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The weight percent vinyl acetate
usually varies from 10 to 40%, with the remainder being ethylene.

Chemical structure of EVA

It is a polymer that approaches elastomeric materials in softness and flexibility, yet


can be processed like other thermoplastics. The material has good clarity and gloss,
low-temperature toughness, stress-crack resistance, hot-melt adhesive waterproof
properties, and resistance to UV radiation. EVA has a distinctive vinegar odor and is
competitive with rubber and vinyl products in many electrical applications.
EVA INSOLE

PRESSURE SENSORS AND FLEX FORCE SENSORS


PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE SENSOR
Piezoelectric Pressure Sensors measure dynamic pressures. They are generally not
suited for static pressure measurements. Dynamic pressure measurements
including turbulence, blast, ballistics and engine combustion under varying
conditions may require sensors with special capabilities. Fast response, ruggedness,
high stiffness, extended ranges, and the ability to also measure quasi-static
pressures are standard features associated with PCB quartz pressure sensors.

FLEX FORCE PIEZOELETRIC SENSOR


PVDF FILMS
The piezo film sensors elements are rectangular elements of piezo film with pvdf
screen printed electrodes. They are available in a variety of different sizes and
thicknesses. The film element produces more than 10 millivolts per microstrain,
about 60 dB higher than the voltage output of a foil strain gage. The capacitance is
proportional to the area and inversely proportional to the thickness of the element.
The series sensors are the simplest form of piezo film sensors, used primarily as
dynamic strain gages and contact microphones for vibration or impact detection.
They can be readily adhered to a surface with double-sided tape or epoxy. Lead
attachment can be achieved by compressive clamping, crimps, eyelets, conductive

epoxy or low temperature solders. These elements are supplied with a thin urethane
coating over the active sensor area; the lead attachment legs are free of the
insulating urethane coating.
Pvdf coated flex sensors

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) exhibits piezoelectricity several times greater than


quartz. Unlike ceramics, where the crystal structure of the material creates the
piezoelectric effect, in polymers the intertwined long-chain molecules attract and
repel each other when an electric field is applied.
PVDF is a specialty plastic material in the fluoropolymer family

Chemical formula for pvdf

Some properties about pvdf


It is used generally in applications requiring the highest purity, strength.
Resistance to solvents, acids, bases and heat and low smoke generation during a
fire event.
It has low density (1.78 g/cm3)
It has relatively low melting point around 177 C.
Flexing angle of the sensor

CHAPTER 4
BOOT DEVELOPMENT
Two major portions of the boot development are upper construction and customized
outsole.

OUTSOLE DESIGN

SHELL PATTERNS AND UPPER

ENERGY GENERATING INSERTS

These insert consist of series of layers combined with piezoelectric sensors to form
insole like material. The maximum thickness of the insert is upto 5mm.

Materials used in inserts are


Pu foam in different densities
MCR rubber
EVA INSOLES
Pvdf polymer films
pressure sensors
Cellulose board
Some wires
Tapes

Construction of energy generating inserts

Final view of the energy generating inserts

CHAPTER 5

Methodology
Gait analysis
To mark the position to place the sensor is important factor among these things. To
determine that position gait analysis is needed.
Gait analysis for walking

From the analysis, it is clearly seen that pressure distribution are mostly peak at
heel and metatarsal region for the normal walking person. Even though precise
position gives better output from sensors.
Therefore the major position to place sensor are
Heel region sudden impact region
Metatarsal region gradual flexing region

Heel region heel portion of the shoe receives the major heel strike or sudden
impact for samml amount of time. Piezoelectric pressure sensor is effective for this
region
Metatarsal region in this region flexing will occur which is gradual in nature when
compared to the heel strike. Duration of pressure distribution is lightly more
comparing to the heel region. Flex force sensor can be used.
Normal walking with foam materials
To ensure the protection of sensor, there certain things are followed
Considering the weight subjects and impact strength of sensors. Pu based foams are
used above the energy inserts in order to protect the sensor from physical damage
and also to distribute the pressure uniformly all over the area.
Trial and error method
Whole shoe flexing machine
Once the energy inserts are made and inserted in to the boot which can be tested
using the whole shoe flexing machine.
Whole shoe flexing machine

Footwear is clamped to the machine at the toe end using the appropriate toe clamp
from one of five pairs supplied. The heel end is secured to the flexing bar. A
predetermining counter is fitted and once the appropriate number of flexes has
been registered, it will stop the machine so that the shoe can be inspected.
The moving parts of the machine are covered by a hinged guard which is fitted with
the latest safety device to prevent access while the machine is still in use. The
machine is robust and non-corrosive materials are used where applicable in its
construction.

From this machine it can be tested how the sensor behaving as per the cyclic flexing
of the shoe and small battery or capacitor is fixed to store the electrical impulse for
the future charging.
Real time method
Walking with respective weight subject
Once trial and error method completed. Then the weight subject is chosen for the
real time experiment.
In which the subject is wear the boot with the energy generating inserts for the
particular period of time like upto 6 hours
During the 6 hours the boot is under constant impact loading, bending, flexing.

CHAPTER 6
TABULATON AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTAION
Measured values from the normal walking

Weight/thickn
ess
(MCR)

Minimum
voltage

~60/without
insert

1.9

5.2

~60/5mm insert

1.1

3.4

~60/10mm
insert

0.45

1.6

(V)

Maximum
voltage
(V)

Graphical representation of measured voltage

6
5
4
min

max
2
1
0
normal

5mm

Measured values from trial and error method

10mm

whole shoe flexing machine


shoe with energy harvesting inserts placed for flexing for the time period of 5
hours.
voltage measured before flexing - 3.2v
voltage measured after flexing

- 3.9v

rechargeable (li-ion battery) was used as the storage device for the further
application.

measured values from real time method


walking with respective weight subject
To perform real time experiment, the energy insert is implemented into security
boots.
subject weight

- ~70kg

shoe size

- 7EP

action performed

- walking, standing, bending

time taken

- 5hours approx.

current generation

- discharging 2000mAH

analysis
Voltage required for charging phones-3.7v
While manual loading
Voltage detected in pvdf film

-13v and above

Voltage detected in solid sensor

-9v and above

While walking
Voltage detected in pvdf film

-7v

Voltage detected in solid sensor

-4.5v

CHAPTER 7
Conclusion
It is clearly shows that the combined output of the pressure and flex sensors gives
enormous amount of output which can be used of various purpose.
But still this flex sensor is at high cost and low durability makes some barricade to
this project.
So using the pressure sensor on both heel and metatarsal region gives the better
life and also equivalent output comparing to the previous one.
From the generation of energy this can charge mobile phones, series of led light and
also 60 watts bulb.
Future scope
There are many number of modification can be proposed in future like.
Conducting polymers or electro active polymers which can be used as a
outsole material for larger requirement of power.
Increasing the area of the pvdf film can totally change the output.
It is also proposed that this exiting technology can be converted into wireless
charging concept.

CHAPTER 8
REFERENCE
Subramania. A., (2006) Structural and electrochemical properties of micro-porous
polymer blend electrolytes based on PVdF-co-HFP-PAN for Li-ion battery
applications,Journal of power sources vol.153 PP 177-182
Jason Tak-Man Cheung., (2006) Finite Element Modeling of the Human Foot and
Footwear, Abaqus users conference
Jin-Rae Cho,. (2009) Landing impact analysis of sports shoes using 3-D coupled
foot-shoe finite element model ,Journal of mechanical and technology vol.53 PP
2583- 2591
Weihua Pu, Xiangming He., Preparation of PVDFHFP microporous membrane for Liion batteries by phase inversion, ,Journal of power sources vol.272 PP 11-14