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Result

Uniform corrosion is
usually the result of
breakdown in
protective coatings

Example

-A piece of steel or
zinc immersed in
dilute sulfuric acid
will normally
dissolve at a
uniform rate over
its entire surface .
-Rust

Prevention

Environmental effect
(Factor effect)

1. Proper
material
selection
2. Change
the
environment
(add
inhibitors)
3. Cathodic
protection

1. pH Low pH accelerated
the cathodic reaction pH
affects the stability of
passive films
2. Dissolved gas
Dissolved oxygen
3. Velocity Higher
velocity increases mass
transfer rate Accelerates
erosion
4. Temperature Increased
temperature, will increase
reaction rate

Mechanism

In uniform corrosion the


electrochemical
reactions occur at the
same rate over the
entire surface (corrosion
occurs evenly over the
entire surface of the
corroding metal).

Cause

- Uniform corrosion proceeds by


a chemical / electrochemical
reaction uniformly over the
surface.

Characteristic

- This type of attack is


mostly found where a
metal is in contact
with an acid, a humid
atmosphere or a
solution in general.

Form of
corrosion

A-Uniform
(general)

-The metal becomes


thinner and
eventually fails .

1. Environment
Oxygen concentration
Chloride ion
concentration
pH
flow rate
2. Material
Inclusions
Different phases
Grain boundaries
3. mechanical
Static stress
Cyclic stress

B- Localised
corrosion

Drawing

Shape of apperance

Example

Dry Cell
battery

Prevention
1. Select combinations
of metals as close
together as possible in
the galvanic series.
2. Avoid the unfavorable
area effect of a small
anode and large
cathode.
3. If dissimilar metal
must be joined, Insulate
them electrically
wherever practicable.
4. Apply coatings with
caution.
5. Add inhibitors, if
possible, to decrease the
aggressiveness of the
environment. 6. Design
for the use of readily
replaceable anodic parts
or make them thicker for
longer life.
7. Install a third metal
which is anodic to both
metals in the galvanic
contact, i.e. cathodic
protection

1-Using material that


their Susceptibility is
less than other for
pitting corrosion
2- using inhibitors to
decrease pitting
corrosion

Environmenta
l effect
Mechanism
(Factor effect)

1- potential
reduction (E)
2- Distance
Effect
3-Area effect

-The more
active (anodic)
metal corrodes
faster
-The less
active (anodic)
metal corrodes
slower and will
be protected
-Driving force
for corrosion
the difference
in electrode
potential

- it is a unique
type of anodic
reaction
- it is
autocatalytic
process

Cause

Characteristic

Form of
corrosion

Difference in
potential
between
metals
(anode and
cathode) in
the galvanic
series

Occurs when 2
different metals
are electrically
connected in
the same
electrolyte

B1Galvanic
or Two
metal
corrosion

Pitting corrosion
is an intensive
localised attack
which results in
the
development of
cavities or
"pits" in the
metal surface

B2Pitting
corrosion

1- scratches
or other
defect such
than micro
flows
2- random
variation on
solution
composition
as PH
3- non
homogenousl
y in oxygen
concentration

*Pitting can be one of the most dangerous forms of corrosion because it is difficult to anticipate and prevent, relatively difficult to detect, occurs very rapidly, and penetrates a metal without
causing it to lose a significant amount of weight.

The crevice can be a hole,


a space between the
surface a poorly adherent
coating, another metal or
even a non-metal
(concrete, glass, rubber).

Examples
of such
crevices
are:
flanged or
threaded
connectio
ns,
shielded
areas on
metal
surfaces
(eg as a
result of
deposit
formation
)

1- The most effective


way of minimizing
crevice corrosion is the
elimination of the
crevice itself
2- Crevice corrosion can
be controlled by good
design geometry
(shape) to remove the
crevice itself
** method to minimizing
crevice corrosion
(Textbook Page 59)

Such
stagnant
microenviron
ments tend
to occur in
crevices
(shielded
areas) such
as those
formed under
gaskets,
washers,
insulation
material,
fastener
heads,
surface
deposits,
disbonded
coatings,
threads, lap
joints and
clamps.

- Corrosion
rate of
crevice is
higher than
that on bulk
-Crevice
corrosion
occurs mainly
on alloys
which
passivate
(e.g; stainless
steels)
-the same
mechanism
of pitting
corrosion but
here is
Crevice not
pit

* Crevice corrosion is a type of pitting corrosion that occurs specifically within the low flow region of a crevice.
*Condition to occur this type of corrosion :
1- crevice should be presented as wide enough to permit to enter the solution corrosive environment and narrow to maintain the stagnate
2- existence of corrosive environment

Liquid entry
but stagnant
(not flowing)

Crevice
corrosion
occurs at
shielded areas
that contain
small volume of
aqueous
solution

B3Crevice
corrosion

Like a filament has a head


and tail .
The head is responsible of
spreading a filament and
has a blue green color
Tail has red brown color
- the cause of blue green
color is Fe+2 and of red
brown color of Fe+3

grooves

1- Maintain low
humidity
2- increase the
thickness of proper
coating
3- brittle film of
covering surface

1- lowering carbon
content to below 0.03%
2- Adding stabilizes
material such as
titanium and nibonum
3- heat treatment
process such as
quenching

1- Humidity : if
humidity
increasing
more than
90% the
filament
become a
tunnel

-By existence
humidity H2O
and O2 are
penetration
under the
coating layer
and O2 is
reduction
O2+H2O+4e4OH- The head of
filament is
supplied with
water from
surrounding
by osmotic
phoneme due
to the high
concentration
of ferrous ions
(Fe+2) at the
same time
osmosis
remove water
from tail
because of
the lack of
concentration
of soluble salt.
So corrosion is
restricted in
area of
head .So the
process occur
is the
autocatalytic
phenomenon
It is the
corrosion
which occur
the grain
boundary of
solidified
material
*condition :
1-Cr>10%
2-C more
than 0.03%
3-Temp. (9501450C)
4- Tensile
stress

The cause of
this type is
differential
oxygen
concentration
and existence
of water

* The cause of
this type is
differences in
composition
1- impurities
on grain
boundary
2- depilation of
an element in
grain boundary
3- enrichment
of alloying
element

It is a special
form of
corrosion that
occur under a
thin coating
layers in the
form randomly
distributed
threads like
filaments

B4-Filiform
corrosion
(under film
corrosion)

It is a cracking
of material
that occur
along grain
boundary in
the presence
of tensile
stress
- it can be
seen by
microscopic of
magnification
rate =3X

B5Intergranul
ar
corrosion
(intercryst
aline)

Grooves and valleys

AL ,
Steel ,Cu
, Lead

1- material selection
not susceptible to this
kind
2- good design (shape,
geometry,)
3- alteration of
environment such as :
a-Deaeration badding inhibitors cheat treatment
d- type of flow must be
laminar not turbulent
4- coating
5-cathodic protection

At the initial
stage a
mechanical
removed the
film that
cover the
metal
(passive or
part of metal)
them the
corrosion
bare metal
occur by
flowing fluid
movement in
the surround

1- hot gases
oxides metal in
cyclic motion
at high velocity
2- slurries are
distractive to
most metals in
pumps and
impellers

To occur this
type must be
the following
condition :
mechanical+
chemical +
moving fluid

B6- Erosion
corrosion

Differential in
pressure and
mechanical
effect and
chemical
corrosion

it is a special
case form of
Erosion
corrosion
caused by
water bubble
produced by
high speed
impeller and
then collapse
and cause
sever
corrosion on
metal surface

B7Cavitation
damage

Penetration or
interaction
hydrogen with
metal

Localized
corrosion

B8Hydrogen
damage

- Erosion corrosion : it is acceleration or increase in rate of deterioration because the movement between corrosive fluid and surface of metal .
- the movement must be rapid motion and cyclic

(Shape like pits)

1- by design to
minimize hydro
dynamic pressure
difference
2- adding inhibitors
3- smooth finishes on
pump impeller
4- coating metallic
parts
5- cathodic protection