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2013 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP 2013)

A Compact Triband Fractal PIFA Antenna for


Mobile Handset Applications
Yuming Nie

Lizhong Song

Department of Electronics and Information Engineering

School of Information and Electrical Engineering

Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin,China 150001

Harbin Institute of Technology(Weihai) Weihai,China 264209

Abstract-A compact fractal planar inverted F antenna (PIFA)

literature by the year 1987 emerged as one of the most

The antenna covers GSM (O.89-0.96GHz), DeS (1.71-1.88GHz)

last three decades [10,20]. However it has a narrow bandwidth

for personal communication handset appfications is proposed.


and WLAN (2.445-2.455GHz) frequency bands. Overall size of

the antenna is less than 48mm*21mm*1.5mm (1.51 cm3) makes

promising candidate in this category of low profile antennas in


and needs a height from ground to substrate for matching and

it suitable for 4G handsets and can be easily designed inside

additional shorting pins near the feed to reduce the size of

commercial mobile handsets. The antenna is designed and opti

antenna [9,11]. Literature [2] presents a PIFA antenna for

mized by using commercially available software-High Frequency

mobile handsets. The proposed antenna has three resonant

Structure Simulator (HFSS) based on fiuite element method


algorithm. Simulated return loss and radiation performance of
the antenna meet the requirements of practical mobile phones
well.

Index Terms-Triband planar inverted-F antenna(PIFA); in

ternal mobile handset antenna; multiband antenna

I. I NT RODUCTION

frequencies including 0.92GHz, 2GHz and 2.33GHz. Limited


to the space, fractal technic is used to make the last two
frequencies lower in this paper.
In Section II and m, the entire structure of the proposed

antenna is described in detail and the simulated results are


shown. Finally, conclusions are briefly shown in Section IV.

The tremendous advancement in wireless communication

II. A NTENNA CONFIGURATION

technologies together with the growing on consumer are


The configuration of the proposed antenna is illustrated in

leading the creation of mobile handsets which are smaller,


lighter and more multifunctional [l,2].In order to satisfy the

Fig.1 which including two parts

various demands for wireless services,multiband antenna is

substrate part. For easy fabrication, commercially cheap FR4

a good candidate [3]. The types of internal antennas have

the copper patch and the

substrates with r=4.4, tan =0.019, and h=1.5mm are adopted

been proposed as ceramic chip antenna (CCA) with meander

in the antenna design. The length and width of the substrate

lines [4,5], monopole antennas [6]-[8] and planar inverted-F

are 60mm and 50mm respectively.

antenna (PIFA). Multiband antennas are required to support


multiple standards [4]. Owing to the advantages of low profile

III. A NTENNA DESIGN PROCEDURE

and compact size, designs compact and light-weighted PIFA


antennas are reported in many open literatures [9]-[17].
Thick radiation element with hole is used to reduce the size
of PIFA for personal communication services [9]. Varactor
diode is used to get tuning over the wide frequency range

In this section, the design procedures for the proposed


antenna are described. First of all, the basic resonant structure
without fractal part is analyzed, and then the affection of
fractal part is discussed.

for personal communication handsets [10].The application of


multiple folded radiator to independent frequency control of a

A. The effects of basic patch

compact tri-band planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) composed


of three resonant frequencies, global system for mobile com
munication (GSM900, 880-960 MHz)/digital communication
system (DCS1800, 1710-1880 MHz)/Satellite Digital Mobile
Broadcasting (Satellite DMB, 2605-2655 MHz) are treated
with the optimized parameter values [3].A compact PIFA
suitable for dual-frequency at 900 and 1800MHz has been
proposed [18].U-shaped slits are inserted within the antenna
radiating surface and a capacitive plate is loaded between the
radiating surface and the ground plane are illustrated to reduce
the antenna physical size [19].
The advantage of PIFA is compact, low profile and easy
to manufacture [9]. PIFA which first appeared in the IEEE

978-1-4799-2764-7/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

Fig.2 depicts the basic part of proposed antenna. The basic


part has two resonant frequencies which are 0.99Ghz and
2.24Ghz. The total length of patch decides the resonant fre
quencies. Fig.3 delineates the simulated reflection coefficients
relative to changes of Ld which affects the whole length
of basic antenna. As Ld lengthens, the resonant frequencies
decrease.

The Effects of the added regular part

B.

To introduce the third resonant frequency, a regualr part is


added in the middle as Fig.4. The simulated return loss with
variations of the length of added part is shown as Fig. 5.

1468

"IEEE

-5
-10

Ld

.......Ld

nun

-Ld

nun

-If-

-15

nun

--- -6

-.5----------1
.5----2--2.5 ----
Frequency (GHz)

(a) 3D structure of the proposed antenna

Figure 3.
Ld

Simulated reflection coefficients relative to changes in length of

(b) Top view of the antenna structure

Figure 4.

(c) Top view of the antenna substrate with microstrip


feed line
Figure 1.

The antenna with a regular part

----Wf

32mrn

--- -6 dB curve

- .5 ----------1
.5-----2-----2.5 ----

Antenna structure

Frequency

Figure 5.

(GHz)

Simulated return loss as a function of the length Wf

form Ansys HFSS( High Frequency Structure Simulator ). The


detail parameters are explained as table I.

D. Reflection coefficients relative to changes of different pa


rameters
Figs.7-9 depict simulated reflection coefficients as a func
Figure 2.

The main part of proposed antenna

tion of XcI, Xc2, and Hf respectively. Figs.7-9 show Xc2


is critical parameters to the antenna performance. The final
optimized length of Xc2 is 23.5 mm.

C.

The Antenna with fractal part

E. SIMULATED RESULTS

As discussed above, the reflection coefficients decrease

The simulated return loss is shown as Fig.10. At GSM and

as the Wf lengthens. Limited to the antenna space, fractal

DeS frequency bands 811 <-6 dB. At WLAN frequency band

technic is used to lengthen Wf. The antenna with fractal

811 <-10 dB. The simulated gain and the radiation patterns

part is shown as Fig.6. The parameters are optimized by

at the center frequencies of the bands of interest are shown in

commercial finite method solver for electromagnetic structures

Figs.11-19.

1469

-20

Hf =

mm

--- -6 dB curve

-2
Qi.5-----7------1.5----2------- 2.5----
Frequency

Figure 9.

Figure 6.

(GHz)

Sl1 relative to the length variation of Hf

The antenna with fractal part

TABLE I
EXPLANATION OF PARAMETERS
Parameters
W
L
WeI
Wc2
Xci
Xc2
LL
Ld
Lfl
Lf2
Hf

-5

-10

Dimension(mm)
48
21
1
2
1.5
23.5
11.2
3
1.9
1.9
5

;; -15

-S11

of proposed antenna

---' -6dB curve

-20
-2
Qi.5----------1.5----2------2.5----
Frequency

Figure 10.

(GHz)

Simulated reflection coefficients

-5
-10

-15
-20

--Xcl=2mm

U)

-25

Xcl=4mm
270

Xcl=6mm
--- -6dB curve

-30

-3Qi.5

Figure 7.

-10
-15
00 -20
"0
-25

U; -30
-35

Figure 11.

1.5

Frequency

(GHz)

Simulated radiation patterns at O.925GHz for XZ plane

2.5

811 relative to the length variation of Xci

Xc2=10mm

Xc2=20mrn

270

Xc3=30mrn
--- -6dB curve

Figure 12.

Simulated radiation patterns at O.925GHz for YZ plane

-40

-45
-5 B
.5-------7-------
1.5------
2-------2.5------
Frequency

Figure 8.

(GHz)

811 relative to the length variation of Xc2

able for internal mobile phone antenna applications has been


proposed. A parametric study of the antenna dimensions is
described,which permits the design of the antenna according
to size,bandwidth,and radiation requirements for application

IV. CONCLUSION
A small-size PIFA covers GSM (O.89-0.96GHz), DCS
(1.71-1.88GHz) and WLAN (2.445-2.455GHz) bands suit-

s.The antenna is easily fabricated at low cost. The antenna


exhibits good impedance matching performance-reflection co
efficients less than -6dB at GSM frequency, less than -6dB in

1470

'"

120

150

210

60

._,.\:.::""'T""./

_'"

"

.'_

30

300

270

270

Simulated radiation patterns at 0.925GHz for XY plane

"of"; ;

_, .

240

Figure 13.

,:..

Figure 18.

Simulated radiation patterns at 2.45GHz for YZ plane

Figure 19.

Simulated radiation patterns at 2.45GHz for XY plane

::t ; ,>'"

270

Figure 14.

Simulated radiation patterns at 1.795GHz for XZ plane

the GSM and DCS bands, less than -10 dB at the WLAN
band. Good radiation characteristics for frequencies over the
three operating bands have also been observed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work is supported by the National Natural Sci


ence Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271118) and Open
Research Program of State Key Laboratory of Millimeter
Figure 15.

Simulated radiation patterns at 1.795GHz for YZ plane


90

"o

R EFERENCES
40

::: k .;

270

Figure 16.

Simulated radiation patterns at 1.795GHz for XY plane


90

Figure 17.

Waves(Grant No. K201328).

Simulated radiation patterns at 2.45GHz for XZ plane

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