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Process plants designed and constructed to the ASME B31.

3 code also
rely on the standardization of the components used for piping systems
and the method of process plant fabrication and construction.
There are numerous standards, many of which are interrelated, and they
must be referred and adhered to by design engineers and manufacturers
in the process industry. These standards cover the following:
. Material chemical composition, mechanical requirements, heat treatment,
. Dimensions general dimensions and tolerances.
. Fabrication codes welding, threading.
Standards covering the preceding were drawn up by the following major
engineering bodies:
. American Petroleum Institute (API).
. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
. American Water Works Association (AWWA).
. American Welding Society (AWS).
. Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS).
. National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE).
. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Periodically, these standards are updated to bring them in line with the
latest industry practices. Most of the standards have been in circulation
for a number of years, and the changes are rarely dramatic; however,
such changes must be incorporated into the design. It is essential that the
latest revision is the final reference point.
Other countries publish comprehensive standards containing data on
material, dimensions of components, and construction procedures;
however, for the purpose of this book, the standards mentioned
previously are referenced.
American standards are not superior to other national standards, but
they are the ones most commonly used in the process industry. They are
based on a long track record with a very low failure rate, so there is a
high degree of confidence in these publications. Always refer to the latest
edition of the relevant standards, and if necessary, make sure your
company s library holds the most current version.
The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a listing of the most-used
specifications current at the time of writing (July 2004). Please refer to
the latest revision in the event of any of the specifications becoming
API Spec 5B. Specification for Threading, Gauging and Thread Inspection of
Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe Threads, 14th edition, 1996.
API Spec 5L. Specification for Line Pipe, 42nd edition, 2000.
API Spec 6A. Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment,
18th edition, 2002.
API Bull 6AF. Bulletin on Capabilities of API Flanges under Combinations of
Load, 2nd edition, 1995.
API TR 6AF1. Temperature Derating of API Flanges under Combination of
Loading, 2nd edition, 1998.
API TR 6AF2. Bulletin on Capabilities of API Integral Flanges under
Combination of Loading, 2nd edition, 1999.
API Spec 6D. Specification for Pipeline Valves, 22nd edition, 2002.
API Spec 6FA. Specification for Fire Test Valves, 3rd edition, 1999.