Anda di halaman 1dari 44

Model System Pengaturan

Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT

Komponen Sistem Kontrol


System atau proses (harus dikendalikan)
Actuator (mengubah sinyal kontrol untuk sinyal

daya)

Sensors (menyediakan pengukuran keluaran sistem)


Input Referensi (menggambarkan output yang

diinginkan)

Kesalahan deteksi (membentuk kesalahan

Kontroller (beroperasi pada kesalahan kontrol untuk

kontrol)

membentuk sinyal kontrol, Kadang-kadang disebut


kompensator)

Karakteristik Sistem Umpan balik

Perhatikan sistem kontrol kecepatan berikut


gangguan
Momen puntir

system loop terbuka Td


wr
referensi
kecepatan

+
_

Amp

Motor

Ka

Km

Tm

Kl

Sensor kecepatan
Lajur umpan balik

Beban

Ks

wo

Karakteristik System Loop terbuka


Gangguan
momen puntir

system loop terbuka Td


u

Amp

Motor

Ka

Km

Tm

+
+

Beban

wo

Kl

w o K l (Tm Td )
K a K m K l u K l Td
Keakuratan dari sistem loop terbuka tergantung pada kalibrasi gain
dan pengetahuan gangguan sebelumnya (pilih kontrol u untuk
memberikan diinginkan wo).
Masalah:
nonlinear atau berbagai gain waktu
Berbagai gangguan yang tidak diketahui

Karakteristik Loop Tertutup


Perhatikan kes dengan umpan balik
system loop terbuka
wr
Kecepatan rujukan

+
_

Amp

Motor

Ka

Km

Tm

Gangguan
momen puntir

Td

+
+

Beban

Kl

Sensor kecepatan
Feedback Path

Ks

w o K l (Tm Td )
K a K m K l (w r K sw o ) K l Td
or
Ka Km Kl
Kl
w o
wr
Td
1 Ka Km Kl K s
1 Ka Km Kl K s

wo

Karakteristik Loop tertutup


jika Ka sangat besar sehingga seperti ,
1 K aK mKlK s K aK mKlK s

kemudian,

1
1
w o
wr
Td
Ks
KaKmKs
rad/s

volts

Ks adalah gain sensor dalam satuan volts per rad/s.


Hubungan input/output tidak terlalu sensitive terhadap
gangguan atau perubahan dalam gain sistem

Karakteristik Loop tertutup


Sistem salah
Kesalahan kontrol adalah
e (w r K sw o )

Ka Km Kl K s
Kl K s
w r
1
Td
1 Ka Km Kl K s
1 Ka Km Kl K s
1
Kl K s

wr
Td
1 Ka Km Kl K s
1 Ka Km Kl K s

lagi, jika gain loop, Ka Km Kl Ks besar, kemudian


kesalahannya kecil.

Catatan: Definisi Gain


Gain depan:
Gain umpan balik:

Ka Km Kl
Ks

Gain loop:

Ka Km Kl Ks

Gain loop tertutup :

gain depan
1 + gain loop

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Why
1) Easy to discuss the full possible types of the control systemsin terms of the
systems mathematical characteristics.
2) The basis analyzing or designing the control systems.
For example, we design a temperature Control system :
Disturbance

Input r(t)

e(t)=
r(t)-b(t)

Controller

desired output ()
temperature
Feedback signalb(t)

uk

ua c

Actuator

Control
signal

Output T(t)

Process

Actuating
signal

temperature
measurement
Fig. 2.1

The key designing the controller how produce uk.

actual
output
temperature

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Different characteristic of the process different uk:
T(t)

T2
T1

uk
uk11 uk12
uk21

uk 11
For T1
uk 12
uk 21
For T1
uk 22

2.1.2 What is
Mathematical models of the control systems the mathematical
relationships between the systems variables.
2.1.3 How get
1) theoretical approaches 2) experimental approaches
3) discrimination learning

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.1.4 types
1) Differential equations
2) Transfer function
3) Block diagramsignal flow graph
4) State variables(modern control theory)
2.2 Input-output description of the physical systems differential
equations
The input-output descriptiondescription of the mathematical
relationship between the output variable and the input variable of the
physical systems.
2.2.1 Examples

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.1 : A passive circuit

ur

define: input ur
we have

i
C

uc

output uc

di
du
uc ur i C c
dt
dt

d 2uc
duc
LC 2 RC
uc ur
dt
dt

Ri L

L
d 2uc
duc
make : RC T 1
T 2 T1T2 2 T1
uc ur
R
dt
dt

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.2 : A mechanism

Define: input F output y. We have:


F

dy
d2y
F ky f
m 2
dt
d t

d2y
dy
m 2 f
ky F
dt
dt

m
y
f

If we make :
we have :

f
T1,
k

m
T2
f

d2y

dy
1
T1T2
T1
y F
2
dt
k
dt

Compare with example 2.1: ucy; urF analogous systems

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.3 : An operational amplifier (Op-amp) circuit
R2

R3
C

i2
ur

R1 i 1
R1

R4

i3

Input ur

output uc

1
(i3 i2 )dt R4 (i3 i2 )......(1)

C
u
i2 i1 r ...........................................(2)
R1
uc
1
i3
(uc R2i2 ).....................................(3)
R3
uc R3i3

R2 R3

du
dur
R

R
c
2
3
(2)(3); (2)(1); (3)(1) R C
uc R (
R4 )C
ur
4
R

R
1
dt
dt
2 3

make : R4C T ;
we have : T

R2 R3
k;
R1

R2 R3
(
R4 )C
R2 R3

duc
dur
uc k (
ur )
dt
dt

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.4 : A DC motor
La

Ra

ua

( J1, f 1)

w1

ia
M

( J2, f 2)

w2

( J3, f 3)

w3

Input ua output 1
dia
La
Raia Ea ua ....(1)
dt
M Cmia .........................( 2)
Ea Cew1.........................(3)
dw1
M M J
f w1.....(4)
dt

Mf

i1
i2

(4)(2)(1) and (3)(1):


La J
La f
Ra J
R f
w1 (

) w1 ( a 1)w1
CeCm
CeCm CeCm
CeCm

1
L
R
ua a M a M
Ce
CeCm
CeCm

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


J
J
J J1 22 2 32 ......equivalent moment of inertia
i1 i1 i2
f
f
here : f f1 22 2 32 ......equivalent friction coefficie nt
i1 i1 i2
Mf
M
..........................equivalent torque
i1i2
( can be derived from : w1 i1w2 i1i2w3 )
Make: Te La ............electric - magnetic time - constant
Ra
Ra J
Tm
.......mechanical - electric time - constant
CeCm
Tf

Ra f
....... friction - electric time - constant
CeCm

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


The differential equation description of the DC motor is:

TeTm w1 (TeT f Tm ) w1 (T f 1)w1

1
1

ua (TeTm M Tm M )
Ce
J
Assume the motor idle: Mf = 0, and neglect the friction: f = 0,
we have:

d 2w

dw
1
TeTm
Tm
w
ua
2
dt
Ce
dt

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.5 :

A DC-Motor control system

R2

+
ur R1

R3

DC
mot or

R3

ua

w l oad

uk

R1

t r i gger
Uf

r ect i f i er
M

t echomet er

Input urOutput ; neglect the friction:

R2
uk
(ur u f ) k1(ur u f )........................................(1)
R1
u f w.....................(2)
d 2w

ua k2uk ......................(3)

dw
1
1
TeTm
Tm
w
ua (TeTm M Tm M )......(4)
2
dt
Ce
J
dt

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2134we have

d 2w

dw
1
Tm
1
TeTm 2 Tm
(1 k1k2 C )w k1k2 ur
(Te M M )
e
dt
Ce
J
dt
2.2.2 steps to obtain the input-output description (differential
equation) of control systems

1) Determine the output and input variables of the control systems.


2) Write the differential equations of each systems components in
terms of the physical laws of the components.
* necessary assumption and neglect.
* proper approximation.

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


3) dispel the intermediate(across) variables to get the input-output
description which only contains the output and input variables.

4) Formalize the input-output equation to be the standard form:


Input variable on the right of the input-output equation .
Output variable on the left of the input-output equation.
Writing polynomial according to the falling-power order.
2.2.3 General form of the input-output equation of the linear
control systemsA nth-order differential equation:
Suppose:

input r output y

y ( n ) a1 y ( n 1) a2 y ( n 2) an 1 y (1) an y
b0r ( m) b1r ( m 1) b2r ( m 2) bm 1r (1) bm r.........n m

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.3 Linearization of the nonlinear components
2.3.1 what is nonlinearity
The output is not linearly vary with the linear variation of the
systems (or components) input nonlinear systems (or
components).
2.3.2 How do the linearization
Suppose: y = f(r)
The Taylor series expansion about the operating point r0 is:
f ( r ) f ( r0 ) f

(1)

f ( 2) ( r0 )
f (3) ( r0 )
2
( r0 )( r r0 )
( r r0 )
( r r0 )3
2!
3!

f ( r0 ) f (1) ( r0 )( r r0 )

make : y f ( r ) f ( r0 ) and : r r r0

wehave : y f ' ( r0 )r ............linearizat ion equation

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Examples:

Example 2.6 :

Elasticity equation

suppose: k 12.65; 1.1;

F ( x ) kx

operating point x0 0.25

F ' ( x) kx 1 F ' ( x0 ) 12.65 1.1 0.250.1 12.11

we have :
that is :

F ( x ) F ( x0 ) 12.11( x x0 )
F 12.11x..............linearizat ion equation

Example 2.7 : Fluxograph equation

Q( p) k p
Q Flux;

p pressure difference

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


because : Q ' ( p )
thus : Q

k
2 p

k
p...........linearizat ion equation
2 p0

2.4 Transfer function


Another form of the input-output(external) description of control
systems, different from the differential equations.
2.4.1 definition
Transfer function: The ratio of the Laplace transform of the
output variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable,with
all initial condition assumed to be zero and for the linear systems,
that is:

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


C ( s)
G( s)
R( s )
C(s) Laplace transform of the output variable
R(s) Laplace transform of the input variable
G(s) transfer function
Notes:
* Only for the linear and stationary(constant parameter) systems.
* Zero initial conditions.
* Dependent on the configuration and the coefficients of the
systems, independent on the input and output variables.

2.4.2 How to obtain the transfer function of a system


1) If the impulse response g(t) is known

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


G( s) Lg (t )

We have:

Because:
G( s)

Then:

C ( s)
, if r(t ) (t ) R( s) 1
R( s )

G( s) C( s) Lg (t )

Example 2.8 :

g (t ) 5 3e

2t

5
3
2( s 5)
G( s)

s s 2 s ( s 2)

2) If the output response c(t) and the input r(t) are known

We have:

Lc(t )
G( s)
Lr (t )

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.9:

Then:

1
r (t ) 1(t ) R(s) ........Unit step function
s
1
1
3
c(t ) 1 e 3t C ( s )

s s 3 s( s 3)
.........Unit step response

C ( s) 3 s( s 3)
3
G( s)

R( s )
1s
s3

3) If the input-output differential equation is known


Assume: zero initial conditions;
Make: Laplace transform of the differential equation;
Deduce: G(s)=C(s)/R(s).

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.10:

2 c ( t ) 3 c ( t ) 4c ( t ) 5 r ( t ) 6r ( t )

2 s 2C ( s ) 3sC( s ) 4C ( s ) 5sR( s ) 6 R( s )

C(s)
5s 6
G(s)
2
R(s) 2 s 3s 4
4) For a circuit
* Transform a circuit into a operator circuit.
* Deduce the C(s)/R(s) in terms of the circuits theory.

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.11: For a electric circuit:
R1
ur

R2
C1

R1
ur ( s)

uc

C2

R2

1/ C1s

1/ C2s

1
1
1
// ( R2
)
sC1
sC2
sC2
U c ( s)
U r ( s)
1
1
1
R1
// ( R2
)
R2
sC1
sC2
sC2

1
2

U r ( s)

T1T2 s (T1 T2 T12 ) s 1


U ( s)
1
G( s) c

U r ( s ) T1T2 s 2 (T1 T2 T12 ) s 1


here : T1 R1C1;

T2 R2C2;

T12 R1C2

uc( s)

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.12: For a op-amp circuit
R2

ur R1
R1

R2

uc

ur R1
R1

1/ Cs

uc

1
R2
U c ( s)
sC R2Cs 1
G( s)

U r ( s)
R1
R1Cs
1
k (1 )..................PI-Controller
s
here : k R2 ; R2C...... Integral t ime consta nt
R1

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


5) For a control system
Write the differential equations of the control system, and Assume
zero initial conditions;
Make Laplace transformation, transform the differential equations
into the relevant algebraic equations;
Deduce: G(s)=C(s)/R(s).
Example 2.13 the DC-Motor control system in Example 2.5
R2

+
ur R1

R3

DC
mot or

R3

ua

w l oad

uk

R1

t r i gger
Uf

r ect i f i er
M

t echomet er

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


In Example 2.5, we have written down the differential equations
as:
R2
uk
(ur u f ) k1(ur u f )..................................(1)
R1
u f w....................(2)
ua k2uk ...................(3)
d 2w

dw
1
T
TeTm 2 Tm
w
ua m (Te M M )......(4)
dt
Ce
J
dt
Make Laplace transformation, we have:
U k ( s ) k1[U r ( s ) U f ( s )]...................................................(1)
U f ( s ) ( s )...............(2)

U a ( s ) k2U k ( s )..............(3)

1
TeTm s Tm
(TeTm s Tm s 1)( s )
U a ( s)
M ( s )......(4)
Ce
J
2

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


(2)(1)(3)(4), we have:

1
1
TeTm s Tm
[TeTm s Tm s (1 k1k2 )]( s) k1k2 U r ( s)
M ( s)
Ce
Ce
J
k1k2 1
( s )
Ce
G( s)

U r ( s ) T T s 2 T s (1 k k 1 )
e m
m
1 2
Ce
2

La
here : Te
...........electric magnetic time - constant
Ra

Ra J
Tm
......mechanical electric time - constant
CeCm

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5 Transfer function of the typical elements of linear systems
A linear system can be regarded as the composing of several
typical elements, which are:
2.5.1 Proportioning element
Relationship between the input and output variables:

c(t ) kr(t )
C ( s)
G( s)
k
Transfer function:
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s)

C( s)
k

r( t )

Examples:

C( t )

amplifier, gear train,


tachometer

1
t

Fungsi Transfer

Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5.2 Integrating element
Relationship between the input and output variables:
t

1
c(t )
r (t )dt..........TI : integral time constant

TI
0

C ( s)
1
G( s)

R( s ) TI s

Transfer function:

Block diagram representation and unit step response:


R( s)

1
TI s

r( t )

1
t

C( s)

Examples:

C( t )

TI

Integrating circuit, integrating


motor, integrating wheel
t

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5.3

Differentiating element

Relationship between the input and output variables:

dr (t )
c(t ) TD
dt
C ( s)
Transfer function:
G( s)
TD s
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:

R( s)

TDs

r( t )

C( s)

Examples:

C( t )

differentiating amplifier, differential


valve, differential condenser

TD
t

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5.4 Inertial element
Relationship between the input and output variables:

dc(t )
T
c(t ) kr(t )
dt
C ( s)
k
Transfer function:
G( s)

R( s) Ts 1
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s)

k
Ts 1

r( t )

1
t

C( s)

Examples:

C( t )

inertia wheel, inertial load (such as


temperature system)

k
T

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5.5 Oscillating element
Relationship between the input and output variables:

2
d
c(t )
2

dt

dc(t )
2T
c(t ) kr(t )
dt

0 1

C ( s)
k
2 2
Transfer function: G( s)
R( s) T s 2Ts 1
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s)
r( t )

C( s)

T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

C( t )

Examples:

oscillator, oscillating table,


oscillating circuit

1
t

0 1

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.5.6

Delay element

Relationship between the input and output variables:

c(t ) kr(t )
C ( s)
Transfer function:
G( s)
kes
R( s )
Block diagram representation and unit step response:
R( s)

C( s)

ke s

Examples:

gap effect of gear mechanism,


threshold voltage of transistors

C( t )

r( t )

1
t

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


2.6

block diagram models (dynamic)


Portray the control systems by the block diagram models more
intuitively than the transfer function or differential equation models.
2.6.1 Block diagram representation of the control systems
Si gnal
( var i abl e)

X( s)

Component
( devi ce)

G( s)

X3( s)
Adder ( compar i son)
E( s) =x1( s) +x3( s) - x2( s)

X1( s)

E( s)

Examples:

X2( s)

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.14
For the DC motor in Example 2.4
In Example 2.4, we have written down the differential equations as:
dia
La
Raia Ea ua ....(1) M Cmia .........................( 2)
dt
dw
Ea Cew .........................(3) M M J
f w .....( 4)
dt
Make Laplace transformation, we have:
U a ( s ) Ea ( s )
La sIa ( s ) Ra I a ( s ) Ea ( s ) U a ( s ) I a ( s )
.............(5)
La s Ra
M ( s ) Cm I a ( s )......................................................................................(6)
Ea ( s ) Ce( s ).......................................................................................(7)
1
M ( s ) M ( s ) J s( s ) f ( s ) ( s )
[ M ( s ) M ( s )]......(8)
Js f

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Draw block diagram in terms of the equations (5)(8):
M (s )
Ua( s)

1
La s Ra

I a( s)

Cm

Ea( s)

M( s)

(s )

1
Js f

Ce
M (s )

Consider the Motor as a whole:

Ua( s)

Ce

TeTm s 2 (Tm TeT f ) s T f 1

1
(TeTm s Tm )
J
TeTm s 2 (Tm TeT f ) s T f 1

(s )

Chapter 2 mathematical models of systems


Example 2.15

The water level control system in Fig 1.8:


1

Ce

k1 TeTm s2 Tm s 1
Desi r ed
wat er l evel
I nput hi
e

ampl i f i er

ua

Mot or

k2 e
s

Gear i ng

Feedback si gnal hf

Tm
(Te s 1)
J

M ( s)
2
TeTm s Tm s 1

k3
T1s 1

k4
T2 s 1

Act ual
wat er l evel
Q Wat er Out put h
Val ve
cont ai ner

Fl oat

End