Basic steps in ANOVA or Analysis of Variance using a software -MINITAB . And its of great help in statistic class.

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Basic steps in ANOVA or Analysis of Variance using a software -MINITAB . And its of great help in statistic class.

© All Rights Reserved

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To determine whether the differences between some of the means are statistically

significant, compare the p-value to your significance level to assess the null hypothesis.

The null hypothesis is that the group means are all equal. Usually, a significance level

(denoted as or alpha) of 0.05 works well. A significance level of 0.05 indicates a 5%

risk of concluding that a difference exists when there is no actual difference.

statistically significant

If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level, you reject the null

hypothesis and conclude that not all of the group means are equal. You should

use your specialized knowledge to determine whether the difference is practically

significant.

P-value > : The differences between the means are not statistically

significant

If the p-value is larger than the significance level, there is not enough evidence to

reject the null hypothesis that the group means are all equal. You should make

sure that your test has enough power to detect a difference that is practically

significant. For more information, go to Increase the power of a hypothesis test.

Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

Adj SS

Adj MS

Paint

281.697917

93.8993056

Error

20

312.068333

15.6034167

Total

23

593.766250

F-Value

6.02

P-Value

0.0043

In these results, the null hypothesis states that the mean hardness values of 4 different

paints are equal. Because the p-value is 0.0043, which is less than the significance level

of 0.05, you can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that some of the paints have

different means.

Return to top

Use the interval plot to display the mean and confidence interval for each group.

The interval plots show the following:

Each interval is a 95% confidence interval for the mean of a group. You can

be 95% confident that a group mean is within the group's confidence

interval.

IMPORTANT

Interpret these intervals carefully because making multiple comparisons increases

the type 1 error rate. That is, when you increase the number of comparisons, you

also increase the probability that at least one comparison will incorrectly conclude

that one of the observed differences is significantly different.

To assess the differences that appear on this plot, use the grouping information

table and other comparisons output (shown in step 3).

In the interval plot, Blend 2 has the lowest mean and Blend 4 has the highest. You

cannot determine from this graph whether any differences are statistically significant.

To determine statistical significance, assess the confidence intervals for the differences

of means.

Return to top

If your one-way ANOVA p-value is less than your significance level, you know that

some of the group means are different, but not which pairs of groups. Use the

grouping information table and tests for differences of means to determine whether

the mean difference between specific pairs of groups are statistically significant

and to estimate by how much they are different.

For more information on comparison methods, go to Using multiple comparisons to

assess differences in means.

Use the grouping information table to quickly determine whether the mean

difference between any pair of groups is statistically significant.

Groups that do not share a letter are significantly different.

Use the confidence intervals to determine likely ranges for the differences and to

determine whether the differences are practically significant. The table displays a

set of confidence intervals for the difference between pairs of means. The

interval plot for differences of means displays the same information.

Confidence intervals that do not contain zero indicate a mean difference that is

statistically significant.

Depending on the comparison method you chose, the table compares different

pairs of groups and displays one of the following types of confidence intervals.

Individual confidence level

The percentage of times that a single confidence interval includes the

true difference between one pair of group means, if you repeat the

study multiple times.

The percentage of times that a set of confidence intervals includes the

true differences for all group comparisons, if you repeat the study

multiple times.

Controlling the simultaneous confidence level is particularly important

when you perform multiple comparisons. If you do not control the

simultaneous confidence level, the chance that at least one confidence

interval does not contain the true difference increases with the number

of comparisons.

For more information about how to interpret the results for Hsu's MCB, go

to What is Hsu's multiple comparisons with the best (MCB)?

Paint

Mean

Blend 4

18.0666667 A

Blend 1

14.7333333 A

Grouping

B

Blend 3

Blend 2

12.9833333 A

8.5666667

B

B

In these results, the table shows that group A contains Blends 1, 3, and 4, and

group B contains Blends 1, 2, and 3. Blends 1 and 3 are in both groups. Differences

between means that share a letter are not statistically significant. Blends 2 and 4

do not share a letter, which indicates that Blend 4 has a significantly higher mean

than Blend 2.

Difference of

Levels

Difference of

Means

SE of

Difference

95% CI

TValue

Adjusted PValue

Blend 2-Blend

1

-6.167

2.281

(-12.553,

0.219)

-2.70

0.0606

Blend 3-Blend

1

-1.750

2.281

(-8.136,

4.636)

-0.77

0.8682

Blend 4-Blend

1

3.333

2.281

(-3.053,

9.719)

1.46

0.4779

Blend 3-Blend

2

4.417

2.281

(-1.969,

10.803)

1.94

0.2450

Blend 4-Blend

2

9.500

2.281

(3.114,

15.886)

4.17

0.0025

Blend 4-Blend

3

5.083

2.281

(-1.303,

11.469)

2.23

0.1495

In these results, the confidence intervals indicate the following:

The confidence interval for the difference between the means of Blend 2

and 4 is 3.114 to 15.886. This range does not include zero, which

indicates that the difference is statistically significant.

The confidence intervals for the remaining pairs of means all include

zero, which indicates that the differences are not statistically significant.

The 95% simultaneous confidence level indicates that you can be 95%

confident that all the confidence intervals contain the true differences.

This result indicates that you can be 98.89% confident that each

individual interval contains the true difference between a specific pair of

group means. The individual confidence levels for each comparison

produce the 95% simultaneous confidence level for all six comparisons.

Return to top

To determine how well the model fits your data, examine the goodness-of-fit

statistics in the model summary table.

S

Use S to assess how well the model describes the response.

S is measured in the units of the response variable and represents the standard

deviation of how far the data values fall from the fitted values. The lower the

value of S, the better the model describes the response. If you compare different

models, the model that has the lowest S value indicates the best fit.

R-sq

R2 is the percentage of variation in the response that is explained by the

model. The higher the R2 value, the better the model fits your data. R2 is always

between 0% and 100%.

A high R2 value does not indicate that the model meets the model assumptions.

You should check the residual plots to verify the assumptions.

R-sq (pred)

Use predicted R2 to determine how well your model predicts the response for new

observations. Models that have larger predicted R2 values have better predictive

ability..

A predicted R2 that is substantially less than R2 may indicate that the model is

over-fit. An over-fit model occurs when you add terms for effects that are not

important in the population, although they may appear important in the sample

data. The model becomes tailored to the sample data and therefore, may not be

useful for making predictions about the population.

Predicted R2 can also be more useful than adjusted R2 for comparing models

because it is calculated with observations that are not included in the model

calculation.

Model Summary

R-sq

3.95011603

47.44%

R-sq(adj)

R-sq(pred)

39.56%

In these results, the factor explains 47.44% of the variation in the response.

S indicates that the standard deviation between the data points and the

fitted values is 3.95011603 units.

Return to top

assumptions of the analysis

Use the residual plots to help you determine whether the model is

adequate and meets the assumptions of the analysis. If the assumptions

are not met, the model may not fit the data well and you should use

caution when you interpret the results.

Use the residuals versus fits plot to verify the assumption that the

residuals are randomly distributed and have constant variance. Ideally,

the points should fall randomly on both sides of 0, with no recognizable

patterns in the points.

The patterns in the following table may indicate that the model does not

meet the model assumptions.

Pattern

24.32%

In this residual versus fits plot, the points appear randomly scattered on the

plot. None of the groups appear to have substantially different variability

and no outliers are apparent.

Use the residuals versus order plot to verify the assumption that the

residuals are independent from one another. Because the plot displays

the observations in the order that they were entered into the worksheet,

patterns in the points may indicate that residuals near each other may

be correlated, and thus, not independent. Ideally, the residuals on the

plot should fall randomly around the center line.

The following patterns may indicate that the model does not meet the

model assumptions.

Pattern

Pattern

In the residual versus order plot, the residuals fall randomly around the

centerline.

Use the normal plot of residuals to verify the assumption that the

residuals are normally distributed. The normal probability plot of the

residuals should approximately follow a straight line.

The patterns in the following table may indicate that the model does not

meet the model assumptions.

Pattern

Changing slope

NOTE

If your one-way ANOVA design meets the guidelines for sample size in

the data considerations topic, the results are not substantially affected

by departures from normality.

straight line. From the residuals versus fits plot, you can see that there are

six observations in each of the four groups. Because this design does not

meet the sample size guidelines, it is important to satisfy the normality

assumption so that the test results are reliable.

Introduction

The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether the

mean of a dependent variable is the same in two or more unrelated,

independent groups of an independent variable. However, it is typically only

used when you have three or more independent, unrelated groups, since

an independent t-test is more commonly used when you have just two groups.

If you have more than one dependent variable, you might need a one-way

MANOVA.

For example, you can use a one-way ANOVA to determine whether weight

loss is best achieved through exercise, diet, or exercise and diet combined

(i.e., your dependent variable would be "weight loss", measured in kilograms,

and your independent variable would be "intervention type", which has three

groups: "exercise", "diet and "exercise and diet"). Alternately, a one-way

ANOVA could be used to understand whether there is a difference in salary

based on education level (i.e., your dependent variable would be "salary" and

your independent variable would be "education level", which has three groups:

"high school", "undergraduate degree" and "graduate degree").

When there is a statistically significant difference between the groups, it is

possible to determine which specific groups were significantly different from

each other using a post hoc test. You need to conduct a post hoc test because

the one-way ANOVA is an omnibus test statistic and cannot tell you which

specific groups were significantly different from each other; it only tells you

that at least two groups were different.

This "quick start" guide shows you how to carry out a one-way ANOVA using

Minitab, as well as how to interpret and report the results from this test.

However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you need to understand

the different assumptions that your data must meet in order for a one-way

ANOVA to give you a valid result. We discuss these assumptions next.

Minitabtop ^

Assumptions

The one-way ANOVA has six assumptions. You cannot test the first three of

these assumptions with Minitab because they relate to your study design and

choice of variables. However, you should check whether your study meets

these three assumptions before moving on. If these assumptions are not met,

there is likely to be a different statistical test that you can use instead.

Assumptions #1, #2 and #3 are explained below:

o Assumption #1: Your dependent variable should be

measured on a continuous level (i.e., it is

an interval or ratio variable). Examples of such dependent

variables include height (measured in feet and inches),

temperature (measured in C), salary (measured in US dollars),

revision time (measured in hours), intelligence (measured

using IQ score), reaction time (measured in milliseconds), test

performance (measured from 0 to 100), sales (measured in

number of transactions per month), and so forth. If you are

unsure whether your dependent variable is continuous (i.e.,

measured at the interval or ratio level), see our Types of

Variable guide.

o Assumption #2: Your independent variable should consist

of two or more categorical, independent (unrelated)

groups. Examples ofcategorical variables include gender

(e.g., two groups: male and female), ethnicity (e.g., three

groups: Caucasian, African American and Hispanic), physical

activity level (e.g., four groups: sedentary, low, moderate and

high), and profession (e.g., five groups: surgeon, doctor, nurse,

dentist, therapist).

o Assumption #3: You should have independence of

observations, which means that there is no relationship

between the observations in each group or between the groups

in each group with no participant being in more than one

group. If you do not have independence of observations, it is

likely you have "related groups", which means you will might

need to use a one-way repeated measures ANOVA instead of

the one-way ANOVA.

Assumptions #4, #5 and #6 relate to the nature of your data and

can be checked using Minitab. You have to check that your data

meets these assumptions because if it does not, the results you get

when running a one-way ANOVA might not be valid. In fact, do not

be surprised if your data violates one or more of these assumptions.

This is not uncommon. However, there are possible solutions to

correct such violations (e.g., transforming your data) such that you

can still use a one-way ANOVA. Assumptions #4, #5 and #6 are

explained below:

o Assumption #4: There should be no significant outliers. An

outlier is simply a single case within your data set that does

not follow the usual pattern (e.g., in a study of 100 students' IQ

scores, where the mean score was 108 with only a small

variation between students, one student had a score of 156,

which is very unusual, and may even put her in the top 1% of

IQ scores globally). The problem with outliers is that they can

have a negative effect on the one-way ANOVA, reducing the

accuracy of your results. Fortunately, when using Minitab to

run a one-way ANOVA on your data, you can easily detect

possible outliers.

o Assumption #5: Your dependent variable should

be approximately normally distributed for each group of

the independent variable. Your data need only

be approximately normal for running a one-way ANOVA

because it is quite "robust" to violations of normality, meaning

that this assumption can be a little violated and still provide

valid results. You can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk

test for normality, which is easily tested for using Minitab.

o Assumption #6: There needs to be homogeneity of

variances. You can test this assumption in Minitab using

Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. Levene's test is

very important when it comes to interpreting the results from a

one-way ANOVA because Minitab is capable of producing

different output depending on whether your data meets or fails

this assumption.

In practice, checking for assumptions #4, #5 and #6 will probably

take up most of your time when carrying out a one-way ANOVA.

However, it is not a difficult task and Minitab provides all the tools

you need to do this.

In the section, Test Procedure in Minitab, we illustrate the Minitab

procedure required to perform a one-way ANOVA assuming that no

assumptions have been violated. First, we set out the example we

use to explain the one-way ANOVA procedure in Minitab.

Minitabtop ^

Example

An online retailer wants to get the best from its employees, as well

as improve their working experience. Currently, employees in the

retailers order fulfilment centre are not provided with any kind of

entertainment whilst they work (e.g., no background music,

television, etc.). However, the retailer wants to know whether

providing music, which a few employees have requested, would lead

to greater productivity, and if so, by how much.

Therefore, the researcher recruited a random sample of 60

employees. This sample of 60 participants was randomly split into

three independent groups with 20 participants in each group: (a) a

"control group" that did not listen to music; (b) a "treatment group"

who listened to music, but had no choice of what they listened to;

and (c) a second treatment group who listened to music and had a

choice of what they listened to.

The experiment lasted for one month. At the end of the experiment,

the "productivity" of the three groups was measured in terms of the

"average number of packages processed per hour". Therefore, the

dependent variable was "productivity" (measured in terms of the

average number of packages processed per hour during the one

month experiment), whilst the independent variable was "treatment

type", where there were three independent groups: "No music"

(control group), "Music - No choice" (treatment group A) and "Music choice" (treatment group B).

A one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether there was a

statistically significant difference in productivity between the three

independent groups.

Note: The example and data used for this guide are fictitious. We

have just created them for the purposes of this guide.

Minitabtop ^

Setup in Minitab

In Minitab, under column

we entered the the values of the

dependent variable, which we named Productivity , as

follows:

. Then, under column

we entered the name

of the independent variable , Music , as follows:

. The three

groups of the independent variable, Music , were: (a) "No music" for

the control group; (b) "Music - No choice" for the treatment group

who listened to music, but had no choice of what they listened to;

and (c) "Music - Choice" for the treatment group who listened to

music and had a choice of what they listened to, as shown below:

Minitabtop ^

In this section, we show you how to analyse your data using a oneway ANOVA in Minitab when the six assumptions in the previous

section,Assumptions, have not been violated. The procedure

changed from Minitab 16 to Minitab 17. Therefore, we present the

procedure for both below:

Minitab 16

Click Stat > ANOVA > One-Way... on the top menu, as shown below:

Variance dialogue box:

and the independent variable, Music , into the Factor: box. To do this, you first

need to click into the Response: box for the dependent variable to appear in

the main left-hand box (e.g., C1 Productivity ). This will activate the

button (it is usually faded:

button or simply double-click on C1 Productivity . You now need to do the

same for C2 Music , but this time into the Factor: box. You will end up with

the dialogue box shown below:

Click the

shown below.

A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine if productivity in a packing facility was

different for groups with different physical activity levels. Participants were classified

into three groups: No music (n = 20), Music - No choice (n = 20) and Music - Choice

(n = 20). There was a statistically significant difference between groups as determined

by a one-way ANOVA, F(2, 57) = 6.08, p = .004.

Introduction

The two-way ANOVA compares the effect of two categorical

independent variables (called between-subjects factors) on a

continuous dependent variable. In this sense, it is an extension of

establish if there is an interaction between the two independent

variables on the dependent variable. An interaction signifies that the

effect of one of the two independent variables on the dependent

variable is dependent on the other independent variable.

For example, you could use a two-way ANOVA to understand

whether there is an interaction between physical activity level and

gender on stress level (i.e., your dependent variable would be

"stress score", measured on a continuous scale, and your

independent variables would be "physical activity level", which has

three groups "low", "moderate" and "high" and "gender", which

has two groups: "males" and "females"). Alternately, you could use a

two-way ANOVA to understand whether there is an interaction

between physical activity level and gender on blood cholesterol

concentration in children (i.e., your dependent variable would be

"blood cholesterol concentration", measured on a continuous scale

in mmol/L, and your independent variables would be "physical

activity level", which has three groups "low", "moderate" and

"high" and "gender", which has two groups: "males" and

"females").

If you have a statistically significant interaction between your two

independent variables on the dependent variable, it is possible to

run "simple main effects" to determine the effect of one

independent variable at each level of the other independent variable

on the dependent variable (e.g., perhaps students with a PhD in the

biological sciences had a higher mean salary than students with an

undergraduate degree in psychology). We come back to "simple

main effects" later.

In this "quick start" guide, we show you how to carry out a two-way

ANOVA using Minitab, as well as interpret and report the results from

this test. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you

need to understand the different assumptions that your data must

discuss these assumptions next.

Minitabtop ^

Assumptions

The two-way ANOVA has six assumptions. You cannot test the first

three of these assumptions with Minitab because they relate to your

study design and choice of variables. However, you should check

whether your study meets these three assumptions before moving

on. If these assumptions are not met, there is likely to be a different

statistical test that you can use instead. Assumptions #1, #2 and

#3 are explained below:

o Assumption #1: Your dependent variable should be

measured at the continuous level. Examples of

such continuous variablesinclude height (measured in feet

and inches), temperature (measured in C), salary (measured

in US dollars), revision time (measured in hours), intelligence

(measured using IQ score), reaction time (measured in

milliseconds), test performance (measured from 0 to 100),

sales (measured in number of transactions per month), and so

forth. If you are unsure whether your dependent variable is

continuous (i.e., measured at the interval or ratio level), see

our Types of Variable guide.

o Assumption #2: Your two independent variables should

each consist of two or more categorical, independent

(unrelated) groups. Examples of categorical

variables include gender (e.g., 2 groups: male and female),

ethnicity (e.g., 3 groups: Caucasian, African American and

Hispanic), physical activity level (e.g., 4 groups: sedentary,

low, moderate and high), and profession (e.g., 5 groups:

surgeon, doctor, nurse, dentist, therapist).

observations, which means that there is no relationship

between the observations in each group or between the groups

themselves. For example, there must be different participants

in each group with no participant being in more than one

group. If you do not have independence of observations, it is

likely you have "related groups", which means you will need to

use a two-way repeated measures ANOVA instead of the twoway ANOVA.

Assumptions #4, #5 and #6 relate to the nature of your data and

can be checked using Minitab. You have to check that your data

meets these assumptions because if it does not, the results you get

when running a two-way ANOVA might not be valid. In fact, do not

be surprised if your data violates one or more of these assumptions.

This is not uncommon. However, there are possible solutions to

correct such violations (e.g., transforming your data) such that you

can still use a two-way ANOVA. Assumptions #4, #5 and #6 are

explained below:

o Assumption #4: There should be no significant outliers. An

outlier is simply a single case within your data set that does

not follow the usual pattern (e.g., in a study of 100 students' IQ

scores, where the mean score was 108 with only a small

variation between students, one student had a score of 156,

which is very unusual, and may even put her in the top 1% of

IQ scores globally). The problem with outliers is that they can

have a negative effect on the two-way ANOVA, reducing the

accuracy of your results. Fortunately, when using Minitab to

run a two-way ANOVA on your data, you can easily detect

possible outliers.

o Assumption #5: Your dependent variable should

be approximately normally distributed for each

combination of the groups of the two independent

variables. Your data need only be approximately normal for

violations of normality, meaning that this assumption can be a

little violated and still provide valid results. You can test for

normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, which is

easily tested for using Minitab.

o Assumption #6: There needs to be homogeneity of

variances for each combination of the groups of the two

independent variables. You can test this assumption in

Minitab using Levene's test for homogeneity of variances.

In practice, checking for assumptions #4, #5 and #6 will probably

take up most of your time when carrying out a two-way ANOVA.

However, it is not a difficult task, and Minitab provides all the tools

you need to do this.

In the section, Test Procedure in Minitab, we illustrate the Minitab

procedure required to perform a two-way ANOVA assuming that no

assumptions have been violated. First, we set out the example we

use to explain the two-way ANOVA procedure in Minitab.

Minitabtop ^

Example

A researcher was interested in whether an individual's interest in

politics was influenced by their level of education and gender.

Therefore, the dependent variable was "interest in politics", and the

two independent variables were "gender" and "level of education".

In particular, the researcher wanted to know whether there was an

interaction between education level and gender. Put another way,

was the effect of level of education on interest in politics different

for males and females?

To answer this question, a random sample of 60 participants were

recruited to take part in the study 30 males and 30 females

(i.e., 10 participants in each group). Each participant in the study

completed a questionnaire that scored their interest in politics on a

scale of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a greater interest in

politics.

Participants' interest in politics was recorded in the variable, Interest

in Politics , their gender in the variable, Gender , and their level of

education in the variable, Educational Level . In variable terms, the

researcher wanted to know if there was an interaction

between Gender and Educational Level on Interest in Politics .

Minitabtop ^

Setup in Minitab

In Minitab, we set up the three variables in columns

,

and

. Therefore, under column

we entered the name

of the dependent variable, Interest in Politics , as follows:

.

Then, under column

independent variable,

Gender , as follows:

. Next, under

column

we entered the name of the second independent

variable, Educational Level , as follows:

. Finally, we

entered: (a) the scores on the dependent variable, interest in

politics, for each participant scores into the Interest in Politics column;

(b) the gender of each participant "Male" or "Female" into

the Gender column; and (c) the educational level of each participant

"School", "College" or "University" into the Educational

Level column. This is illustrated below:

Note: You can also enter variables in numeric form. For example, in

cells under the Gender column, you could enter "1" instead of "Male"

and "2" instead of "Female" (i.e., assuming that you decided to code

"Male" as "1" and "Female" as "2").

Minitabtop ^

In this section, we show you how to analyse your data using a twoway ANOVA in Minitab when the six assumptions in the previous

section,Assumptions, have not been violated. The procedure

changed from Minitab 16 to Minitab 17. Therefore, we present the

procedure for both below:

Minitab 16

Click Stat > ANOVA > Two-Way... on the top menu, as shown below:

Variance dialogue box:

Note: The dependent variable will already be present in the main left-hand

box (e.g., C1 Interest in Politics ).

the Response: box, as shown below:

Note: To transfer the dependent variable into the Response: box, simply

double click on it in the main left-hand box (e.g., C1 Interest in Politics ).

Alternately, you can click on the dependent variable once, which will activate

the

the

button. Your cursor should automatically be in

the Response: box when you open the Two-Way Analysis of

Variance dialogue box for the first time, but if not, you will first have to put

your cursor into the Response: box before you transfer the dependent

variable.

Enter the first of the two independent variables, Gender , into the Row

factor: box, and the second independent variable, Educational Level , into

the Column factor: box.

Note 1: To transfer the independent variables, you first need to click into the

relevant boxes either the Row factor: box or the Column factor: box for

your independent variables to appear in the main left-hand box

(i.e., C2 Gender and C3 Educational Level) (N.B., you will notice that there

may be other variables in this main left-hand box in addition to your two

independent variables, but you can just ignore these). You can now either

select the variable you want to transfer (e.g., C2 Gender in the main lefthand box into the Row factor: box) by double-clicking on it or using

the

declaring statistical significance at the p < .05 level. If you want to change

the value of the confidence interval, simply enter the new value into

the Confidence level: box (e.g., a value of 99.0 would equate to declaring

statistical significance at the p < .01 level), highlighted in red below:

Click the

shown below.

A two-way ANOVA was run on a sample of 60 participants to examine the effect of gender and

education level on interest in politics. There was a significant interaction between the effects of

gender and education level on interest in politics, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .014. Simple main effects

analysis showed that males were significantly more interested in politics than females when

educated to university level (p = .002), but there were no differences between gender when

educated to school (p = .465) or college level (p = .793).

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